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EDITED BY 
'H.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, Litt.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, Litt.I). 



AUSONIUS 
II 



y 



^y 



AUSONIUS 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

HUGH G. EVELYN WHITE, M.A. 

SOMKTIME SCHOLAR OF WAbHAM C'lLLEOE, OXKUKL" 



IN TWO VOLUMES 
II 



AVITH THE EUCHARISTICUS OF 
PAULINUS PELL^TTS 





LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

iMCM.XXI 



PR 

Czzi 
1/^ 



CONTENTS 



PACK 

BOOK XVIII. — THE EPISTLES 3 

BOOK XIX. — EPIGRAMS OF AUSONIUS ON VARIOUS 

MATTERS 155 

BOOK XX. — THE THANKSGIVING OF ACSOMUS OF BOR- 
DEAUX, THE VASATE, FOR HIS CONSULSHIP, 

ADDRESSED TO THE EMPEROR GRATIAN .... 219 

APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 271 

THE EVCHARISTICl'S OF PAULINUS PELL.^':US 29.3 

INDEX 353 



AUSONIUS 

OPUSCULA 



D. MAGNI AUSONII 

OPUSCULA 

LIBER XVIII 
EPISTULARUM 

I. — Symmachus AUSONIO 

Merum mihi gaudium eruditionis tuae scripta tri- 
buerunt, quae Capuae locatus accepi. erat quippe in 
his oblita Tulliano melle festivitas et sermonis mei 
non tarn vera^ quam blaflda laudatio. quid igitur 
magis mirer, sententiae incertus addubito, ornamenta 
oris an pectoris tui. quippe ita facundia antistas ce- 
teris, ut sit formido rescribere ; ita benigne nostra 
conprobas, ut libeat non tacere. si plura de te prae- 
dicem, videbor niutuuni scabere et magis imitator tui 
esse adloquii quam probator. simul quod ipse nihil 
ostentandi gratia facis, verendum est genuina in te 
bona tamquam adfectata laudare. unum hoc tamen 
a nobis indubitata veritate cognosce, neminem esse 
niortalium quern prae te diligam ; sic vadatuni me 
lionorabili amore tenuisti. 

2 



AUSONIUS 

BOOK XVIII 
THE EPISTLES 

I. — Symmachus to AUSONIUS 

Your learned pages, which I received while stay- 
ing at Capua, brought me sheer delight. For there 
was in them a certain gaiety overlaid with honey 
from Tully's hive, and some eulogy on my discourse 
flattering rather than deserved. And so I am at a 
loss to decide which to admire the more — the graces 
of your diction or of your disposition. Indeed you 
so far surpass all others in eloquence that I fear to 
write in reply ; you so generously approve my essays 
that I am glad not to keep silence. If I say more 
in your praise, I shall seem to be ''scratching your 
back" and to be copying more than complimenting 
your address to me. Moreover, since you do nothing 
consciously for the sake of display, I must beware 
of praising your natural good qualities as though 
they were studied. Tliis one thing, however, I must 
tell you as an absolute fact — that there is no man 
alive whom I love more than you, so deeply pledged 
in honest affection have vou always held me. 



B 2 



AUSONIUS 

Set in eo mihi verecundus niniio plus videre. quod 
libclli tui arguis proditorem. nam facilius est av- 
dentes favillas ore compiimere quam luculenti operis 
servare secretum. cum semel a te profectum car- 
men est; ius omne posuisti : oratio publicata res 
libera est. an vereris aemuli venena lectoris, ne 
libellus tuns admorsu duri dentis uratiir? tibi uni 
ad hoc locorum nihil gratia praestitit aut dempsit 
invidia. ingratis scaevo cuique proboque laudabihs 
es. proinde cassas dehinc seclude tbrmidines et in- 
dulge stilo, ut saepe pi'odaris. certe aliquod didas- 
calicum seu protrepticum nostro quoque nomini 
carmen adiudica. fac periculum silentii mei, quod 
etsi tibi exhibere opto, tamen spondere non audeo. 
novi ego, quae sit prurigo emuttiendi operis, quod 
probaris. nam quodam pacto societatem laudis ad- 
fectat, qui aliena bene dicta primus enuntiat. ea 
{)ropter in comoediis summatim quidem gloriam 
scriptores tulerunt, Roscio tamen atque Ambivio 
ceterisque actoribus fama non defuit. 

Ergo tali negotio expende otium tuum et novis 
voluminibus ieiunia nostra sustenta. quod si iac- 
tantiae fugax garrulum indicem pertimescis, praesta 
etiam tu silentium mihi, ut tiito simulem nostra 
esse, quae scripseris. vale. 



' Q. Rosciu.s Gallus, a freedman of Lanuvium, was raised 
to equestriiin rank bj* Sulla and defended by Cicero in a 
speech still extant. His fame as a comic actor made hi< 



THE EPISTLES 

But in this 1 think you are excessively modest, 
that you complain of me for playing traitor to your 
book. For it is easier to hold hot coals in one's 
mouth than to keep the secret of a brilliant work. 
Once you have let a poem out of your hands, you 
have i-enounced all your rights : a speech delivered 
is common property. Or do you fear the venom of 
some jealous reader, and that your book may smart 
from the snap of his rude fangs ? You are the one 
man who u[) to now has owed nothing to partiality, 
lost nothing through jealousy. Involuntarily every- 
one, perverse or honest, finds you admirable. There- 
fore banish henceforth your groundless fears, and let 
your pen run on so that you may often be betrayed. 
At any rate assign some didactic or hortatory' poem 
to my name also. Run the risk of my keeping 
silence ; and though I desire to give you proof of 
it, yet I dare not guarantee it. Well I know how I 
itch to give voice to your work when you are so 
popular. For somehow he secures a partnership in 
the glory who first pronounces another's neat phrases. 
That is why in comedy authors have won but slight 
renown, while Roscius, Ambivius,^ and the other 
players have had no lack of fame. 

So spend your leisure in such occupation and re- 
lieve my famine with fresh books. But if in your 
flight from vainglory you dread a chattering in- 
former, do you also guarantee me your silence, that 
I may safely pretend that what you have written is 
mine ! Farewell. 

name proverbial (rjy. Horace, Epist.ii. i. 82). Ambivius was 
intimately associated with Terence, in most of whose plays he 
acted. 



AUSONIUS 

II. AUSONIUS SyM MACHO 

MoDo intellego, quam mellea res sit oratio ; quani 
delinifica et quam suada facundia. persuasisti mihi, 
quod epistulae meae aput Capuam tibi redditae con- 
cinnatio inhumana non esset ; set hoc non diutius, 
quam dum epistulam tuam legi, quae me blanditiis 
iuhiantem tuis velut suco nectaris delibuta perducit. 
ubi enim chartulam pono et me ipsum interrogo, 
turn absinthium meum resipit et circumlita melle 
tuo pocula depi'ehendo. si vero, id quod saepe facio, 
ad epistulam tuam redii^ rursus inhcior : et rursum 
ille suavissimus, ille floi'idus tui sermonis adflatus 
deposita lectione vanescit et testimonii pondus pro- 
hibet inesse dulcedini. hoc me velut aerius bratteae 
fucus aut picta nebula non longius. quam dum vi- 
detur, oblectat chamaeleontis bestiolae vice, quae de 
subiectis sumit colorem. alind sentio ex epistula 
tua^ aliud ex conscientia mea. et tu me audes fa- 
cundissimorum hominum laude dignari ? tu, inquam, 
mihi ista, qui te ultra emendationem omnium pro- 
tulisti ? quisquamne ita nitet, ut conparatus tibi 
non sordeat ? quis ita Aesopi venustatem, quis so- 
phisticas Isocratis conc-lusiones, quis ad enthyme- 
mata Demosthenis aut opulentiam Tullianam aut 
proprietatem nostri Maronis accedat ? quis ita ad- 
fectet singula, ut tu imples omnia ? quid enim aliud 

' A mode of .ulministerinp; bitter medioine. '•;). Lucretius. 

6 



THE EPISTLES 



II. — AusoNius TO Symmachus 

Now 1 understand how honey-sweet is the power 
of speech, how enchanting and j)ersuasive a thing is 
eloquence I You have made me believe that my 
letter delivered to you at Capua was not a barbarous 
compilation ; but this only for so long as I am actu- 
ally reading your letter, which is so spread, as it 
were, with the syrop of your nectar as to over- 
persuade me Avhile I hang agape over its allure- 
ments. For as soon as I lay down your page and 
question myself, back comes the taste of my own 
wormwood, and I realize that the cup is smeared 
round with your honey. ^ If indeed — as I often do — 
I return to your letter, I am enticed again: and then 
again that most soothing, that most fragrant per- 
fume of your words dies away when I have done 
reading, and denies that sweetness carries weight 
as evidence. Like the Haunting glitter of tinsel or 
a tinted cloud, it delights me only for so long as I 
see it — like that little creature the chameleon, which 
takes its colour from whatever is beneath it. Your 
letter makes me feel one thing, my own conscience 
another. And do you venture to count me worthy 
of praise belonging to the most eloquent ? Do you, 
I say, speak so of me — you who soar above all writers 
in faultlessness ? What author is there so brilliant, 
l>ut he appears unpolished by comparison with you ? 
Who like you can approach the charm of Aesop, the 
logical deductions of Isocrates, the arguments of 
Demosthenes, the richness of Tully, or the felicity 
of our own Maro ? Wlio can aspire to such success 
in any one of these, as you fully attain in them 
all ? For what else are vou but the concentrated 



ALISON I us 

es, quam ex omni boiiarum artium iageniu collecta 
perfectio ? 

Haec, doniine mi fill Syiumache, noa vereor. ne 
in te blandius dicta videantur esse quani verius. et 
expertus cs fidem meani mentis atqiie dictorum, 
dum in comitatu degimus ambo aevo dispari, ubi tu 
veteris militiae praemia tiro mei'uisti, ego tirocinium 
iam veteranus exercui. in comitatu tibi verus fui, 
nedum me peregre existimes conposita fabulari. in 
comitatu, inquam, qui frontes hominum aperit, men- 
tes tegit, ibi me et parentem et amicum et, si quid 
utroque carius est, cariorem fuisse sensisti. set abe- 
amus ab his : ne ista haec conmemoratio ad illam 
Sosiae formidinem videatur accedere. 

lilud, quod paene praeterii, qua adfectatione ad- 
didisti, ut ad te didascalicum aliquod opusculum aut 
sermonem protrepticum mitterem ? ego te docebo 
docendus adhuc, si essem id aetatis, ut discerem ? 
aut ego te vegetum atque alacrem commonebo ? 
eadem opera et Musas hortabor, ut canant, et maria, 
ut effluant, et auras, ut vigeant, et ignes, ut caleant, 
admonebo : et, si quid invitis quoque nobis natura 
fit, superHuus instigator agitabo. sat est unius er- 
roris quod aliquid meorum me paenitente vulgatum 
est, quod bona fortuna in manus amicorum incidit. 
nam si contra id evenisset, nee tu mihi persuaderes 
placere me posse. 



cp. Cic. Pro Planco, vi. 16 : tabella quae frontes aperit 

linum, mentos togit. 



hominum 
8 



thp: p:pistles 

essence of e\ery great mind in the ie;ilni of the 
liberal arts ? 

My lord, my son Symniachus, I do not fear that 
you may think I speak thus of you more smoothly 
than truly. Indeed, you have proved how truthful 
I am both in thought and word while the two of us, 
so ill-matched in years, lived at court, Avhere you, a 
recruit, eai'ned a veteran's pay, while I, already a 
veteran, went through my recruit's training. At 
court I was truthful with you : much less when I 
am away from it should you think I tell stories. At 
court, I repeat, which bares the face and veils the 
heart ^ — there you felt that I was a father and a 
friend and, if anything can be dearer than either, 
then something dearer still. But let us leave this 
mattei', lest such a reminder seem too like the fear 
felt by Sosias.^ 

Now for that matter which I almost passed over. 
What mock humility of j-ours is this, that you add a 
request for me to send you some didactic Avork or 
hortatory discourse ? Shall I teach you Avhen I my- 
self need teaching ^ were I of an age to learn? Shall 
I counsel you, whose mind is so alert and vigorous .^ 
As well exhort the Muses to sing and advise the 
waves to flow, the breezes to blow freely, fire to give 
heat, and where anything occurs naturally, whether 
we will or no, to urge it forward with superfluous 
zeal ! Enough this one mistake that a work of mine 
has, to my regret, become public property : though 
by good fortune it has fallen into the hands of 
friends. For had it been otherwise, not even you 
would convince me that I can give satisfaction. 

^ Terence, Aiidria 43 f., nam istaec comniemoratio Quasi 
exprobratio est intnemori benefici. 

^ Horace. Episf. i. xvii. .S, rlisce docendus adhnc 

9 



AUSONIUS 

Haec ad litteras tuas responsa sint : cetera, quae 
noscere aves, conpendi faciam ; sic quoque iam longa 
est epistula. lulianum tamen familiarein domus 
vestrae, si quid de nobis percontandum arbitraris, 
adlego; simul admoneo, ut, cum causam adventus 
eius agnoveris, iuves studium, quod ex parte fovi,sti. 
vale. 

III.— SVMMACHIJS AUSONIO 

Etsi plerumque vera est aput parentes praedi- 
catio filiorum, nescio quo tamen pacto detrimentum 
meriti sui patiatur, dum personarum spectare gratiam 
iudicatur. quaero igitur incertus animi. quae mihi 
nunc potissimuni super viro honorabili Thalassio 
genero tuo verba sumenda sint. si parce decora 
morum eius adtingam, liventi similis existimabor : 
si iuste persequar, ero proxiinus blandienti. imitabor 
igitur Sallustiani testimonii castigationem. habes 
virum dignum te et per te familia consular!^ quem 
fortuna honoris parti maiorem beneficiis suis rep- 
perit, emendatio animi et sanctitas potioril)u^ iam 
paravit. vale. 



THE EPISTLES 

Let that be my answer to your letter : with the 
other matters which you desire to know, I will make 
short work : even so this letter is already long. How- 
ever, I depute Julian, an intimate of your household, 
to answer any questions you care to ask concerning 
me : at the same time I urge that, when you learn 
his reason for coming, you aid him in a purpose 
which to some extent you have already favoured. 
Farewell. 



in. — SyMiMachus to Ausoniu.s 

Although praise bestowed upon their children is 
generally accepted as gospel by parents, yet it is 
somehow discounted when it is considered to have 
an eye to the favour of the great. I am at a stand, 
therefore, and ask what words I shall choose especi- 
ally at this time in S})eaking of that worshipful man, 
Thalassius, your son-in-law. If I touch sparingly 
upon the graces of his character, I shall be thought 
to show signs of jealousy : if I duly enlarge upon 
them, I shall be next door to a flatterer. I will 
therefore copy Sallust ^ in his rigid mode of giving 
evidence. You have as son-in-law a man woi-thy of 
you, and, through you, of a consular family — one 
whom Fortune in her bestowal of distinctions has 
found too great to need her benefits, whom a fault- 
less nature and stainless character have already 
furnished with higher gifts. Farewell. 

' Jugurtha, ix. 3: habes virum te dignnm et avo f?uo 
.Masinissa. 



AUSONIUS 



IV^ -Au.soNius Axio Paulo UnEroni Sal. 

Tanoem eluctati retiuacula blanda morarimi 

Burdigalae molles liquinuis inlecebras. 
Santonicaiiique itrbem viciuo accessimus agro : 

(|uod tibi si gratuin est, optime Paule, proba. 
cornipedes rapiant inposta petorrita mulae ; 5 

vel cisio triiiigi^, si placet, insilias, 
vel celerern mannum vel riiptum terga veraeduni 

conscendas, propere dum modo iain venias ; 
instantis revocant quia iios sollemnia Paschae 

libera nee nobis ^ est mora desidiae. 10 

})erfer in excursu vel teriuga niilia epodon 

vel falsas lites, quas schola vestra serit. 
nobisciun invenies nullas, quia liquimus istic 

nugaruni veteres cum sale relliquias."^ 

V. — AusoNius Paulo 

OsTREA nobilium cenis sumptuque nepotuni 

cognita divei'soque maris deprensa profundo, 

aut refugis nudata vadis aut scrupea subter 

antra et muriceis scopulorum mersa lacunis, 

quae viridis niuscus, quae decolor alga recondil. "i 

quae testis concreta suis ceu saxa cohaerent, 

quae mutata loco, pingui mox consita limo, 

nutrit secretus conclusae uliginis umor, 

enumerare iubes, vetus o milii Paule sodalis, 

adsuefacte meis ioculari carmine nugis. 10 

' vobis, G. 

^ .Z'adds : Vale valere si voles me vel vola. 

* The word is said to be a Celtic compound : petor = four, 
rif — whppl. ' A convPVRnce with tvrn wheels. 



THE EPISTLES 

IV. — Ausoxius TO Axius Paulus tmk RuiiruinciAN, 
Greeting 

At last, having struggled free from delay's seduc- 
tive toils, I have left Bordeaux's soft enticements 
and on a neighbouring farm dwell nigh the town 
of Saintes : if this pleases you, friend Paulus, give 
me proof of it. Let horn-hoofed mules whirl hither 
a harnessed four-wheeled car,^ or, if you please, 
jump in a three-horse gig,'- or mount a cob, or else 
a back-broken hack, if only you come quickly ; for 
approaching Easter's rites summon me back, nor 
am I free to linger idly here. Bring over on your 
jaunt thrice a thousand lyrics or the feigned cases '^ 
which your pupils weave. With me you will find 
none, for I have left yonder the old remnants of my 
trifles together with my wit. 

v.- AuSONlUS TO Paum's 

Of o^fsters famed through the lavish feasts ot 
high-born prodigals, whether dredged from the 
depths of various seas or left bare by ebbing shal- 
lows, or sheltered beneath rugged caves and in 
jagged clefts amid the rocks, those which green 
moss, which stained seaweed hides, whose welded 
shells are firm-shut as the stones, which when re- 
moved* from their home and planted in rich ooze 
are fattened by the inward moisture of the packed 
slime ; — of these you bid me tell all the kinds, Paulus, 
my old comrade, made used to my trifling by sportive 

■* sc. the declamations (in the form of imaginary lawsuits) 
composed as exercises in tlie rhetoi-ical schools. 

* i.e. transplanted to specially prepared beds for fattening: 
<-p. Pliny, N.H. xxxii. 6. 

13 



AUSONIUS 

adgrediar ; quainvis curam non ista senileni 
sollicitent frugique viro dignanda putentur. 
nam mihi non Saliare epulum, non aura dapalis, 
qualem Penelopae nebulonum mensa procorum 
Alcinoique habuit nitidae cutis uncta inventus.^ 15 
enumerabo tamen famam testesque secutus 
pro studiis hominum semper diversa probantum. 

Set mihi prae cunctis lectissima, quae Medulorum 
educat Oceanus^ quae Burdigalensia nomen 
usque ad Caesai'eas tulit admiratio mensas, 20 

non laudata minus, nostri quam gloria vini. 
haec inter cunctas ])almam meruere priorem, 
omnibus ex longo cedentibus : ista et opimi 
visceris et nivei duleique tenerrima suco 
miscent aequoi'eum tenui sale tincta saporem. 25 

proxima sint quamvis, sunt longe pi'oxima multo 
ex intervallo, quae Massiliensia, portum 
quae Narbo ad Veneris nutrit ; cultuque carentia 
Hellespontiaci quae protegit aequor Abydi ; 
vel quae Baianis pendent Huitantia palis ; 30 

Santonico quae tecta salo ; quae nota Genonis ; 
aut Eborae mixtus pelago quae protegit amnis, 
ut multo iaceant algarum obducta recessu : 
aspera quae testis et dulcia, farris opimi. 

Sunt et Aremorici qui laudent ostrea jionti, 35 

et quae Pictonici legit accola litoris, et quae 
mira Caledoniis nonnunquam detegit aestus. 

1 cp. Horace, Epiet. i. ii. 28 f. 

^ The Salii, priests of Mars, were famous for their banquets. 

* cp. Horace, Epi^f. i. ii. 28 f. : sponsi Penelopae nebu 

lones Ah^inoique In cute curandn plus aequrt operata inventus. 

14 



THE EPISTLES 

verse. I will approach the taskj albeit the theme 
stir not an old man's zest nor be thought fit for the 
notice of a frugal man. For I have no Salian fare,^ 
no repasts of savour such as had the banquets ot 
Penelope's wastrel suitors or of the sleek and scented 
youth about Alcinoiis.^ Yet will I tell o'er the tale^ 
following report and testimony according to the tastes 
of men ever diverse in judgment. 

1^ Howbeit, for me the choicest above all are those 
bred by the Ocean of the Meduli,'^ which, named 
after Bordeaux, high esteem hath raised even to 
Caesar's board, no less renowned than are our famous 
wines. These amongst all have won the pride of 
place, the rest lagging far behind : these be of sub- 
stance both full fat and snowy white, and with their 
sweet juice most delicately mingle some flavour ot 
the sea touched with a fine taste of salt. Next, 
though next at distance of long interval, are the 
oysters of Marseilles, which Narbo feeds near Venus' 
haven ; ^ and those which, untended, the Hellespon- 
tine wave shelters at Abydos; or those which cling 
afloat to the piles of Baiae ; those washed by the 
Santonic surge ; those known to the Genoni ; or 
those harboured by Ebora's ^ stream where it joins 
the sea, so that they lie covered with a deep bed of 
weed : rough of shell are these, and sweet and rich 
of meat. 

2^ There are, too, such as praise the oysters of the 
Armoric deep, and those which shoremen gather on 
Pictonic coasts, and which the tide sometimes leaves 
bare for the wondering Caledonian.'^ Add those 

^ The people of Medoc. * Port Vendres. 

^ Ebora (or Libertas lulia), on the Guadalquivir. 
^ cp. Mo,sella. 68 ff. The reference is no doubt to Ihe 
pearl-oj'sters of Britain, on which see Tacitus, Agric. xii. 

15 



AUSONIUS 

acceduiit, quae fania recens Bj^zantia subter 

litora et insnna generata Propontidis acta 

promoti celebrata ducis de nomine laudat. +0 

Haec tibi non vates, non histoiious neque toto 
orbe vagus conviva loquor. set tradita niultis, 
ut solitum, quotiens dextrae invitatio niensae 
sollicitat lenem comi sermone Lyaeum. 
haec non per valgum inihi cognita percjue popinas 4 5 
aut parasitorum collegia Plautinorum, 
set festos quia saepe dies partim ipse nieoruni 
excolui inque vicem conviva vocatus adivi, 
natalis si forte fait sollemnis amico 
coniugiove dapes aut sacra repotia patruni, ■')() 

audivi memiiiique bonos landare frequentes. 

^'I. — I.wriA'no AD Paui I M 

Si qua tides I'alsis umquani est adhibenda poetis 

nee plasma semper adlinunt^ 
Paule, Camenarum celeberrime Castaliaruni 

alumne quondam, nunc jiater, 
aut avus, aut proavis antiquior, ut fuit olini D 

Tartesiorum regulus : 
intemerata tibi maneant promissa, memento. 

Phoebus iubet varum loqui : 

' An officer of Tlieodosius I. who defeated the (iruthungi 
on the Danube in 3S6, served against Maxinms in 388, and 
was consul in 389. He was assassinated c. 391 a.d. 

'■^ The meaning is : I have gained my knowledge partlj" at 
feasts given l)y myself and pavtl}' at those to which I have 
been invited. 

i6 



THE EPISTLES 

which, reared below ByzaDtium's shores and the 
vexed beaches of Propontis, late-born renown now 
honours with distinction after the name of Promotus 
the general.^ 

^1 These I tell thee, no bard, no historian, nor yet a 
world-wandering gourmand, but things I have heard 
from many, as wont is, whenever a challenge from 
a table on the right provokes gentle Lyaeus with 
friendly converse. These are known to me not from 
common company nor from taverns, nor from the 
guilds of Plautine parasites, but because I myself 
have often celebrated festal days, sometimes with 
gatherings of my friends," or going in turn to ban- 
quets as a bidden guest, when perchance a friend 
observed a birthday or a marriage feast, or a 
carouse^ sanctioned l)y our fathers' custom : there 
I have heard many a worthy man praise these, and 
I remember them. 



VI. — An Invit.'vtion to Paui.us 

If any trust is ever to be placed in the feigned 
words of poets, and if they scrawl not ever fiction, 
Paulu.s — once the most famous child of the Castalian 
Camenae, now tlieir father or grandfather or yet 
more ancient than a great-grandfather, as was of old 
the kinglet of Tartessus ^—remember to keep your 
promises inviolate. Phoebus bids us speak truth : 

^ Bepoti'i were drinking bouts held on the day after any 
festival. 

* sc. Argantonius, king of Tartcssus, ^ho reigned eighty, 
and lived one hundred and twenty years (Hdt. i. 163 : cp. 
Cicero, de S€7t. 69). But Silius Itat. (iii. 397) makes him live 
three hundred years, and observes: "rex proavis fuit 
liumani ditissimus aevi.'" 

17 



AUSONIUS 

etsi Pieriab patiUir lirare sorores, 

numquam ipse torquet avAa«a. 10 

te quoque ne pigeat consponsi foederis : et iam 

citus veni remo aut rota, 
aequoris undosi qua multiplicata recursu 

Garunina pontum provocat, 
aut iterataruni qua glarea trita viarum 15 

fert militarem ad Blaviam. 
iios etenim primis sanctum post Pascha diebus 

avemus agrum visere. 
Nam populi coetus et compita sordida rixis 

fastidientes cernimus 20 

angustas fervere vias et eongrege volgo 

nomen plateas perdere. 
turbida congestis referitur vocibus echo : 

" Tene, feri, due, da, cave ! " 
sus lutulenta fugit, rabidus canis impete saevo 25 

et impares plaustro boves. 
nee prodest penetrale domus et operta subire : 

per tecta clamores meant, 
liaec et quae possunt placidos offendere mores, 

cogunt relinqui moenia, 30 

dulcia secreti repetantur ut otia ruris, 

nugis amoena seriis ; 
tempora disponas ubi tu tua iusque tuum sit, 

ut nil agas vel quod voles, 
ad quae si properas, tota cum merce tuarum 35 

veni Camenarum citus : 
dactylicos, elegos, choriambum carmen, epodos, 

socci et coturni musicam 

^ cp. Ordo Urh. Nob. xx. 15, where however Ausonius 
contradicts this reflexion on the "broadways"' of Bordeaux. 

- Horace, Epist. it. ii. 7") : Iiac rahiosa fugit eanis, hao 
hitiilenta riiit sus. 



THE EPISTLES 

altliough he suffers the Pierian sisters to swerve 
from the line, he himself never twists a furrow. 
You also must not regret your plighted bond ; come 
quickly now by river or by road, either where Ga- 
ronne, swelled with the flood-tide of the billowy 
deep, challenges the main, or whei'e the beaten 
gravel of the relaid road leads to the garrison of 
Blaye. For in the first days after holy Easter I 
long to visit my estate. 

1^ For I am weary at the sight of throngs of people, 
the vulgar l)rawls at the cross-roads, the narrow lanes 
a-swarm, and the broadways belying their name ^ for 
the rabble herded there. Confused Echo resounds 
with a babel of cries: "Hold!" — "Strike!" — -"Lead!" 
— " Give ! " — " Look out ! " Here is a mucky sow in 
flight, there a mad dog in fell career,^ there oxen 
too weak for the waggon. No use to steal into the 
inner chamber and the recesses of your home : the 
cries penetrate through the house. ^ These, and what 
else can shock the orderly, force me to leave the 
walled city and seek again the sweet peace of the 
retired country and the delights of trifling seriously ; 
and there you may arrange your own hours and have 
the right to do nothing or else what you will. If 
you haste after these joys, come quickly with all the 
wares of your Camenae :* dactyls, elegiacs, choriam- 
bics, lyrics, comedy and tragedy — pack them all in 



° Lucr. de Rerum Nat. i. 354 : inter saepta meant voces et 
clausa domorum Transvolitant. 

* Horace, Od. iv. xii. 21 : ad quae si properas gaudia cum 
lua velox merce veni. 

J9 



AUSONIUS 

carpentis impoue tuis : )iam tota supellex 

vatum pioruni chartea est. -HJ 

nobiscum invenies kut' evavrta, si libet uti 
lion Poena ^ sed Gvaeca fide. 

VII. — Hkscriptum P.^i'LO Suo 

Versus meos utili et conscio sibi pudore celatos 
carmine tuo et sermone praemissis duui putas elici, 
repi'essisti. nam qui ipse facundus et musicus editi- 
onis alienae prolectat audaciam, consilio, quo suadet, 
exterret. tegat oportet auditoi* doctrinam suam, qui 
volet ad dicendum sollicitare trepidantem, nee eme- 
rita adversum tirunculos arma concutiat vetei-ana 
calliditas. sensit hoc Venus de pulchritudinis palnia 
diu ambiguo ampliatu iudicio. pudenter enini ut 
apud patrem velata certaverat nee deterrebat aemu- 
las ornatus aequalis ; at postquani in pastoi'is ex- 
amen deducta est lis dearum, qualis emerserat mari 
aut cum Marte convenerat^ et consternavit arbitrum 
et contendentium certanien oppressit. ergo nisi De- 
lirus tuus in re tenui non tenuitcr laboratus opuscula 
mea, quae promi studueras, retardasset, iam duduni 
ego ut jialmes audacior in hibernas adhuc auras im- 
probum germen egissem, periculum iudicii gravis 

^ T (poema, Al : penna, rji. princ): irpoiKa. Feiper (a,iter 
Weil.). 



' Plaut. Asin. 199 : cetera quae volumus uti, Graeca nier- 
camur fide — i.e. for ca.sh down. The meaning is : I will 
repay you, not witli vague (Punic) promises, l)ut poem for 
poem. 



THE EPISTLES 

your carriage, for the devout poet's baggage is all 
paper. With me you will find a qiiid pro quo if you 
please to trade on Greek,' not Punic, terms. 



VII. — A Kki*i.\ lo Ills Friend Paulus 

As for my verses, which a salutary and self-con- 
scious sense of shame had sent into hiding, while you 
thought you were enticing them forth by sending 
forward your own poetry and prose, you have di*iven 
them back. For when one who is himself eloquent 
and a poet tries to lure an author to venture on publi- 
cation, he frightens the other out of the purpose which 
he advocates. A listener ought to conceal his own 
skill if he wishes to induce a nervous orator to speak, 
and a practised veteran should not brandish in the 
face of mere recruits weapons he has wielded through 
a full term of service. Venus understood this in the 
matter of the prize for beauty so long withheld for 
lack of a decisive verdict. For it was modestly 
arrayed, when in the presence of her father, that she 
had contended, and her similar adornment did not 
discourage her rivals ; but when the suit of the god- 
desses was brought down for a shepherd's decision, 
she appeared as when she had risen from the sea 
or had met with Mars, both overwhelming the judge 
and crushing her competitors* rivalry. And so, had 
not your Crazi/ Man, slight in theme though not in 
finish,^ checked my poor little works which you were 
eager to have brought out to light, I should long- 
since, like a too venturesome shoot, have put forth 
an impudent bud in the still wintry air, only to run 

- cp. Virgil, Oeorgics, iv. H. 



AUSONIUS 

inconsulta festinatione subiturus. denique pisonem^ 
quem tollenonem existimo proprie a philologis ap- 
pellatum, adhibere, ut iubebas, recenti versuuiu 
tuoriim lectione non ausus, ea quae tibi iam cursim 
fuerant recitata, transinisi. etenim hoc poposcisti 
atque id ego maluij tu ut tua culpa ad eundem 
lapidem bis ofFenderes, ego auteni, quaecumque 
fortuna esset, semel erubescereni. 

Vide, mi Paule, quani inej)tum laccssieris in verbis 
rudem, in eloquendo hiulcuni^ a pvopositis discre- 
pantenij in versibus concinnationis expertem^ in ca- 
villando nee natura venustum nee arte conditum, 
diluti salis^ fellis ignavi, nee de niimo planipedem 
nee de comoediis histrionem. ac nisi liaec a nobis 
missa ipse lecturus esses, etiam de pronuntiatione 
rideres. nunc coinmodiore fato sunt, quod, licet 
apud nos genuina, aput te erunt adoptiva. 

Vinum ^ cuni biiugo parabo plaustru 
primo tempore Santonos vehendum, 
ovum tu quoque - passeris marini, 
quod nunc promus ait procul relictum 
in fundo patriae Bigerritanae, 



^ Ho T : viium. Pciper and other MSS. 
^ So if : coqiie, Scaliger, Feiper. 

^ A beam working on a pivot, bj- which a cage full of 
men was raised to the height of the enemy's walls in a siege. 
Ausonius suggests that to send his complete collection 
would be like emploj'ing such an engine— like our "heavy 
artillery." 



THE EPISTLES 

the risk of heavy censure for my ill-advised haste. 
In short, to bring into play, as you bade me, the 
" swipe " ^ — which, I fancy, is correctly termed by 
scholars a " swing-beam ' — I did not dare after lately 
reading your verses ; but I send you those pieces 
which have already been hurriedly recited to you. 
For indeed this you demand and I prefer ; so that 
you, through your own fault, may stumble twice 
over the same stone, while I, whate'er befall, may 
blush but once. 

See, my dear Paulus, what a sorry poet you have 
provoked ! — in wording harsh, in utterance halting, 
wandering from his points, in versifying without ele- 
gance, in satire without natural grace or spice of 
art, watery in wit, sluggish in spleen, no true per- 
former in mime,2 no actor in comedy. And were 
not you yourself to read these pieces I send, you 
would laugh at my delivery also. As it is, theirs is 
a more kindly destiny, because though begotten by 
me they will be adopted by you. 

So soon as I shall get wine carried to Saintes by 
two-horse cart, do you also get your cup of ostrich- 
shell which your steward says was left on your fami 
far away in your native Bigorre,^ 



- In miine neither slipper (as in comedy) nor buskin (as 
in tragedy) was worn. 

^ In the Di^pt. des Hautes Pyr^n^es. The meaning of 
the verses is (apparently) that Ausonius is to get in a cart- 
load of wine, while Paulus is to come with a large cup 
made from an ostrich's ("sea sparrow's") shell to help 
to drink it up. 



23 



AUSONIUS 

\'lll.— AY20iM02 UAYAiil 

'EA,\a6iKi}s /u,eTo^ov fxova-ijs Latiaeque fainenaf 
'A^Lov Auo-ovios serinone adludo bilingui. 

Musae, quid tacinms .' tl Kd'alatv i(j> kkiriiiii' atVuis 
ludinius d<f>puSir]aiv iv r^ixan yqpd(jKovTf.<i ; 
iavTOVtKots Ka/XTTOicnv, ottol Kpios a^evov earTLi; 'J 

erramus gelidorpo/xepot koX frigdopoetae, 
flicpiSwr T€vipoTrXoKu.fxwv ^epuTroi'res inertcs. 
TrdvTa 8' e;^€i Trayerds T€ pedum Kat KpovcrfW<s 666vt<.ov, 
OaXiTixiprj quia nulla cftoKov ^to^ooSet -^ioprj, 
et duplicant frigus \pvxp(>- cax'mina yu.?;ridoJvres. 10 

dp^d/Acvos 8 apa /at^vI veo) lavop re calendai? 
primitias Paulo iiostrae ■7r€p.\!ji»fjLf.v uot8^?. 

Mi'/z/xocriVi/s Kpi]oep.voK6fj.ov —oXt'cantica nKva, 
(vvea verbosae Kpivvo(rr(.(^avoL re puellae, 
evd dye jxoi iroX^'risa ctt;^, cr/covpciSea /xoXttt^i', 1 5 

frontibus u/xcrcpats Trrepiyov pi'aeferte triumphuui — 
u/aSs ytip KaXeo) crKutos AtovutrorroiJ/riys — 
ITavAci) €(f)apfJiO(T(TaiTe /xeiJ.Ly/x€vo(3dp/3apov ioSrjV. 
ov yap p,oi ^ep,ts ecrriv in hac regione jUvovti 

A^LOV ab nostris eTrioei'tu tiie KaixyvaL<;- -0 

K€tvos €/Aoi TravTwi' fxtToxo'i, qui seria nostra, 
qui ioca TravToSaTTT^ novit tractare trakaicrTpij. 
KoX vvv sepositus /Aora;^u» evX rare Kpejihvov 
dcTTa^i'Aco €vt ^(dipiii habet OvfiaXyea AeVvfjr 
oure <f>i\ois kTdpoi<i nee niensae aecouiniodus ulli. 25 
otia ^eX^tvdois aeger o-vfifie/xtfieTaL Movaais- 

' No attempt can liere be made to repiotiuce this macaronie 
verse. 

'^ "Alios is of course used in a dtmblr sense, as proper uuiiie 
and epithet. 

24 



THE EPISTLES 

VTII.— AusoNius To Paulus ^ 

To Axius. worthy - participant in Hellenic poesy 
and Roman song, I, Ausonius, send playful greeting 
in a medley of the two tongues. 

2 Muses, what do we ? Wherefore with empty- 
hopes do I sport idly, heedless of growing older day 
by day ? O'er the Santonic plains, where fi'ost ac- 
cords chill welcome, I wander shivering with cold, 
a frigid bard indeed, a servant unemplo3'ed of the 
soft-tressed Pierides. Cold feet and chattering of 
teeth are each man's lot, because no hearth gives 
warmth in this snowy country, and men redouble 
all the cold with meditating their frigid verse. Yet 
even so, at the beginning of the new month and on 
the first of Januarv let me send to Paulus the first- 
fruits of my song. 

^2 Ye songful children of Mnemosyne with tresses 
coiffed, nine wordy maids with locks begarlanded, 
come now with chant ridiculous and macaronic -^ lay, 
wear winged triumph on your brows — for 'tis on you 
I call, a clumsy bottle-bard — compose for Paulus 
some mixed barbarian strain I For I may not, albeit 
tarrying in these parts, leave worthy Axius lacking 
my poesy. He shareth all with me, and knoweth 
all sorts of tricks for wrestling with my serious and 
my jesting verse. And now retired in the lonely 
country of Crebennus he hath his heart-vexing 
dwelling in a grapeless land, remote alike from his 
dear friends and from all dinner-tables. There, sick 
at heart, he chides the heart-soothing Muses for his 
loneliness. 

•' — Lat. .■iciirrili!', fi'oiri Hcarra, a daudy, fop, macaroni or 
l>uffooii. 



AUSONIUS 

lam satis^ o ^tAe IlaCAe, ttovov air ^ir^LprjSrj^iv 
£v T€ foro) causais re koI ingratatcri Ka^e'Spais, 
prjTopiKois AovSoTcrt, kol IttXcto oi'Scv oveiap- 
aW ^Sr) Ktivos fxkv uttus iuvenalios iS^jws 30 

CKKc^uTai yu,€/\eojv, rpofxiprj Se TrdpeaTi. senectus 
Kttt minus in sumptum 8a7ravas levis area ministrat. 
ou yap t)(€i OTTaAaftvos air/p KouatcrTo')Sea lucrov, 
KAetviKos ovTt yepntv )(pv(Te-)]v ipyd^€T ajxoijiyjv. 
aequaninius quod si fueris et Travra vel au-civ 35 

malueris, \i]6r] ttovov eaatruL rj^k Trtvii]^. 
Keh'o Se TrayKaAAto-Toi', ut omnibus undique Musis 
crl'V <3!)iaA7jque oii'wque, irewi' avvoTrdovL Moucrwv, 
Ovfxov aKi])(efxivov solacia blanda reqriras. 
hie erit et fructus A7;/x,r;Te'pos dyXaoKapirov, 40 

€v6a ct'es OaXepoi, TroXv^^avhea pocula cvOa, 
Kipvav €L K€ 6eXoi<; veKrap ovlvoio jSovoio. 
anibo igitur nostrae irapaOeX^ofx^v otia vitae, 

dum res et aetas et sororum 

i'r;/xaTa 7rop<f}vp€a TrXiKrjTai. 45 

IX.— AY20NI02 nAYAfil 

PoilMaiwv uTTttTos dpeTaAoyo) rjoe TroirjTfj, 
Aicrovios UavXto' cnrevSe cfiiXovs ISeav. 

X 

Aequoream liqui te propter, amice, Garumnani. 

te propter campos incolo Santonicos ; 
congressus igitur nostros pete, si tibi cura. 

quae mihi, conspectu iam potiere meo. 

^ = Lat. quaestwiux, since official payments were made by 
tlie (juaestor. 

26 



THE EPISTLES 

-'^ Enough experience have I had of toil ere now, 
friend Paulus, both as a pleader in the courts and 
in the thankless professorial chair at Schools of 
Rhetoric, and got therefrom no profit. But now 
has all that youthful energy oozed from these limbs, 
trembling old age is nigh, and my strong-box grown 
light furnishes means for outlay less readily. For 
the helpless draws no salary from the Exchequer,^ 
and the bed-ridden dotard earns no golden fees. 
Yet if only thou Avilt i)e of unruffled mind and 
rather see good in everything, thy toil and po\ ert}" 
will find oblivion. But this is the very best of all, 
from all the Muses everywhere — not without bowl 
and wine, comrade of the true Muses — to seek sooth- 
ing consolation for a troubled heart. Here shalt thou 
find the fruit of Demeter, rich in crops, here fat 
swine, here capacious goblets if thou wouldst mix 
the nectar of good wine. So shall we twain cheer 
the blank hours of our life, so long as means and 
age allow and the Three Sisters spin their purple 
thread." 

IX. — AusoNius TO Paui.us 

AusoNius, consul of the Romans, to Paulus, poet 
and declaimer : ^ haste to see thy friends. 

X 

For thee 1 left the flood of the Garonne, for thee 
I dwell amid the plains of Saintes ; our meeting, 
therefore, be thy aim ! If thou art eager as 1, full 
soon wilt thou enjoy the sight of me. But make 

- cp. Horace, Od. ii. iii. 15 f. : dum resetaetas et sororum 
Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

■* Primarily one who vaunts his good i|ualities, and so by 
transitions a declaimer, a rhetorician. 

27 



AUSONIUS 

sed tantiuii ad})ropfra, quantum pote corpore et aevo; 

ut salvum videam, sat cito te video. 6 

si post infaustas vigor integratus habenas 

et rediit menibris iam sua iiiobilitas, 
si riguain laetis recolis Pipleida Musis, 

iam vates et nun flagrifer Automedoii. 10 

pelle soporiferi senium nubem(pie veterni 

atque alacri mediam carpe vigore viani. 
sed cisium aut pigrum cautus conscende veraedum : 

non tibi sit raedae, non amor acris equi. 
cantheris moneo male nota petorrita vites, 1 5 

ne celeres mulas ipse Metiscus agas. 
sic tibi sint Musae faciles, meditatio prompta 

et memor, et liquidi mel fluat eloquii : 
sic, qui venalis tarn longa aetate Crebennuh 

non habet emptorem, sit tibi pro pretio. 20 

Attamen ut citius venias leviusque vehare, 

historiam, mimos, earmina linque domi. 
grande onus in musis : tot saecula condita cliartis. 

quae sua vix tolerant tempora, nostra gravant. 
nobiscum invenies eTrt'wv 7roXvfxop(f)iu ttXtjOvv, '2o 

ypufJiixaTLKMV T€ TrXoKus KoX XoyoZaiiaXirfv, 
haKTvXov Yjpwoi' Kut doL^OTToXiov )^opiafxfSov, 

tTVv @aXir]<; kc6/xw crvpfX-UTa T€p\}/L\6pr)<;, 

(XCOTaSlKOV T« KLVatSoV, ioil'lKOV aiJ.(fiOTdp(JiOiV, 

pvOj-Lwy TlLvSapLKwv ivvo/xov iveTrirjv. 30 

' A fountain in Pieria, sacred to the Muses 
- Tile cliaiioLecr of Acliilles : cp. Virgil, Atu. li. 476 f. 
•' This is usually described as a four-wheeled ear, hut it 
was evidently somewhat dangerous. 



THE EPISTLES 

such haste as thy strength and yeai's permit ; so that 
I see thee safe, I see thee soon enough. If after 
that unlucky drive thy powers are restored, and if 
thy limbs have now regained their wonted pliancy, 
if to the Muses' joy thou dost again frequent well- 
watered Pimpla,! a bard once more and no scorching 
Automedon,2 banish the clouds of eld which haunt 
a drowsy greybeard, briskly devour the intervening 
road. But be heedful, mounting some chaise or slow 
j)Ost-horse : let no dog-cart ^ tempt thee, no high- 
mettled steed. I counsel thee avoid four-wheeled 
cars ■* with their notorious geldings, drive no swift 
mules thyself to play Metiscus.'' So be the Muses 
gracious to thee, thy conception ready, thy memory 
sound, and free thy flow of melting honey : so may 
Crebennus, so long for sale without a purchaser, be 
thine for a reward. 

-1 But that thou mayest come more quickly, travel- 
ling the lighter, leave histories, mimes, and h'rics all 
at home. Muses make heavy baggage : those books 
stored with so manj' centuries, which scarce endure 
their own ages, are crushed by ours. With me thou 
wilt find a motley throng of epics, grammarians' 
subtilties and niceties of speech, the heroic dactyl 
and the lyrist's choriambus, Thaleia's comedj' beside 
Terpsichore's tragic train, Sotades' ^ wanton verse, 
the Ionic of both kinds,' the ordered sweetness of 

■• See note on E^yist. iv. .'>. This too was a swift and 
dangerous conveyance. 

* The charioteer of Turnus struck down by .Juturna : see 
Virgil, Aen. xii. 469 f. 

* Sotades of Crete, notorious for his wanton poems and for 
Sotadic verse, which could be read backwards way. 

^ i.e. Ionic a maiore and a minore. But since Sotades 
wi'ote in Ionic, another meaning was probaVtly intended. 

29 



AUSONIUS 

uXiiroBrjV (TKii^ovTo. xai ow o"/ca^ovTa Tpi/xtrpoi', 

OKTO) ®ovKv8i8ov, cvvea 'HpoSorov. 
p-qropLKwv Oa'qixa, (to(^mv ipiKV^ia cfivXa, 

irdvTa jxdX oacr' e^eXeis, Kai Trkeoi', €i k£ di\oi<;. 
Hoc tibi de nostris dcnraaTiKoi' offero libris. 35 

vale ; valere si voles me, iam veni. 



XI. — AusoNius Tetradio Sal. 

O QUI vetustos uberi facundia 

sales opimas, Tetradi, 
cavesque, ne sit tristis et dulci careiis 

amara eoncinnatio ; 
qui felle cai'men atque melle temperans ') 

torpere musas non sinis 
pariterque fucas, quaeque gustu ignava sunt, 

et quae sapore tristia ; 
nides camenas qui Suessae praevenis 

aevoque cedis, non stilo : 1 

cur me pvopinquum Santonorum moenibus 

declinas, ut Lucas boves 
olini resumpto praeferoces proelio 

fugit iuventus Romula.'' 
non ut tigris te, non leonis impetu, 15 

amore sed caro expeto. 
videre alumni gestio vultus mei 

et indole optata frui. 
invitus olitn devoravi absentiae 

necessilatem pristinae, 20 

quondam docendi munere adstrictum gravi 

Iculisma cum te absconderet, 

' The scazon was an iambic trimeter M'ith a spondee or 
trochee in the sixth foot, causing the verse to limp or drag. 

3° 



THE EPISTLES 

Pindaric rhythms, the shambling scazon ^ and the 
unlimping trimeter, eight books of Thucydides, nine 
of Herodotus, a goodly show of orators, and the 
philosophers in glorious tribes — all that thou wouldst, 
and still more shouldst thou wish. 

2^ This word of greeting I send thee from my 
books. Farewell ; if thou wouldst have me fare well, 
fare hither now. 

XI. — AusoNius TO Tetradius,^ Greeting 

O THOU, who with copious eloquence enrichest our 
ancient stores of wit, Teti-adius, and takest heed 
that thy tart compositions be not gloomy and bereft 
of sweetness ; who, blending gall and honey in thy 
verse, sufFerest not thy Muses to grow dull, and 
flavourest alike what is insipid to the taste and what 
bitter to the palate; thou who outstrip'st the un- 
polished Muses of Suessa,^ yielding in age to them 
but not in style ; why dost thou shun me, neighbour 
to the walls of Saintes, as of old the Roman youth 
fled from the Lucanian oxen"* who renewed the battle 
with exceeding fury? Not like a tiger, not with 
lion's spring, but in fond love I seek thee out. I 
3'earn to see my pupil's countenance and to enjoy 
the longed-for fruits of his mind. Reluctant hitlierto 
I have gulped down the necessity which parted us 
in bygone days when Iculisma^ kept thee hidden, 
once fettered with the heavy chains of teaching, 

* Otherwise unknown. 

^ Now Sessa, in Campania ; the birthplace of Lucilius the 
satirist. 

* " Lucanian Oxen " was the name given by the Romans 
to elephants as first seen in Lucania in the army of Pj'rrhus. 

° Now Angouleme. 

31 



AUSONIUS 

et iiividebam devio ac solo loco 

opus camenarum tegi. 
at nunc — frequentes atque clavos nee ])rocul 25 

cum floreas inter viros 
tibique nostras ventus auras deferat 

auresque sei*nio verberet — 
cur me supino pectoris fastu tumens 

spernis poetam consulenij ?iO 

tuique amantem teque iiiirantein ac tua 

desiderantem carmina 
oblitus alto neglegis fastidio ? 

plectendus exemplo tuo, 
ni stabilis aevo pectoris nostri fides 35 

quamquam recusantes amet. 
Vale, valere si voles me, pervola 

cum serinio et musis tuis. 

XII. — -AusoNius Probo Praefecto Praetorio S. 

Oblata per antiquarios mora scio promissi mei 
gratiam expectatione consumptam, Probe, vir op- 
time ; in secundis tamen habeo non fefellisse. apo- 
logos Titiani et Nepotis chronica quasi alios apologos 
(nam et ipsa instar sunt fabularum) ad nobilitatem 
tuam misi, gaudens atque etiam glorians fore ali- 
quid, quod ad institutionem tuorum sedulitatis meae 
studio conferatur. 

Libello tamen apologorum autetuli paucos epodos, 
studio in te observantiae meae impudentissimo, 

' Sextu-s Petrouius Probus, born c. .3.3i» a.d. , was proconsul 
of Africa in 358, consul witli Graliau in 371. Ammianus 
Marcellinus (xxvii. ii. 1), referring to liis first appointment 
as praetorian prefect, in 368, speaks of his immense wealtli 
but equivocal character as a friend. He died r. 398 a.d. 

* Probably Julius Titianus, tutor of Maximinus, who was 
raised to the consulate {cp. Gratiariim Act. vii.). 

32 



THE EPISTLES 

and I would grudge that in so remote and lonely a 
spot the Muses' handiwork was concealed. But now 
— seeing thou flourishest amid throngs of famous 
men and not far hence, where the wind wafts to 
thee my renown and talk of me rings in thine ears — 
why, puffing out thy chest with proud disdain, dost 
thou scorn me, a poet-consul, and to one who loves 
thee, admires thee, longs to enjoy thy verse, for- 
getfully show neglect and proud contempt? Thou 
shouldst be punished after thine own example, did 
not the loyalty of my heai-t, unmoved by time, love 
even the reluctant. 

^' Farewell. If thou wilt my welfare, whirl here 
forthwith with writing-case and all thy Muses. 



XII. — AusoNius TO Probus,^ Praetorian 
Prefect, Greeting 

After the delay caused by the copyists, I know 
that the pleasure caused by my promise has been 
outworn by hope deferred, most noble Probus ; yet 
I count it good fortune that I have not broken my 
word. 1'he Fables of Titianus^ and the Chronicles 
of Nepos 3- — as though they were further fables ; for 
they, too, are like fairy tales — I now send your ex- 
cellency, glad, nay exultant, that there will be some- 
thing which my devotion and pains can contribute 
towards your children's education. 

To the little book of Fables, however, I have, in 
the zeal of my respect for you, taken the extreme 
liberty of prefixing a few verses — few at least as I 

^ The friend and contemporary of Cicero and Catullus 
(celebrated by the latter, i. 5). He died during the princi- 
pate of Augustus : his Chronicles are not extant. 

33 

vol.. II. D 



AUSONIUS 

paucos quidem, ut ego loquax iudico ; verum tu, 
cum legeris, etiam niniiuni multos putabis. adiuro 
benevolentiain tuain, verecundiae meae testem, eos 
inihi subita persuasione fluxisse. nam qiiis hos diu 
cogitai-et? quod sane ipsi per se probabunt. fors 
fuat, ut si mihi vita suppetet, aliquid rerum tuarum 
quamvis incultus expoliam : quod tu etsi lectum non 
probes, scriptum boni consules. cumque ego imi- 
tatus sim vesaniam Choerili, tu ignoscas magnani- 
mitate Alexandri. 

Hi igitur, ut Plautus ait, interim erunt antelogium 
fabularum, garruli et deceptores. qui compositi 
ad honorificentiae obsequium, ad auriuni convicium 
concurrerunt. vale et me dilige. 

Perge, o libel le, Sirmium 

et die ero meo ac tuo 

have atque salve j)lurimum. 

quis iste sit nobis erus, 

nescis, libelle ? an, cum scias, 5 

libenter audis, quod iuvat ? 

posseni absolute dicere, 

sed dulcius eircumloquar 

diuque fando perfruar. 

hunc dico, qui lingua potens 10 

minorem Atridam praeterit 

orando pauca et musica ; 

qui grandines Clixei 

et mel fluentem Nestora 

concinnat ore Tulli ; 15 

qui solus exceptis tribus 



* A poet who sang the praises of Alexander in bad verse 
and was rewarded in good coin : cp. Horace, Epist. ii. i. 232 f., 
Ars Pott. 357. 

34 



THE EPISTLES 

judge^ Avilo am a man of words; though you, when 
you have read them, Mill think them all too many. 
I solemnly assure 3'our good-natured self, who can 
vouch for my honour, that I gave vent to them on a 
sudden impulse. For who would need to ponder 
long over these .'' This, indeed, the verses them- 
selves will confirm. It may be that, if I live long 
enough, I will fashion out some work on your career, 
rude craftsman though I am : even should you not 
be satisfied with the reading of it, you will take the 
writing in good part. And since I have copied 
Choerilus in his madness, you must pardon me with 
the generosity of Alexander.' 

These verses then (to use Plautus' word -) will serve 
meanwhile as " Foreword " to the Fables, wordy and 
treacherous though they are. Though put together 
to convey my dutiful compliments to you, they liave 
I'ushed oft" with one accord to oftend your ears. 

Farewell, and give me 3'our good regard. 

Go forth, little book, to Sirmium, and to thy lord 
and mine bid hearty health and greeting. Thou 
knowest not, little book, who is that our lord ? Or 
though thou knowest, dost thou love to hear what 
delights thee ? I might tell thee outright, but for 
more pleasure I will talk in mazes and with speech 
drawn out get full enjoyment. Him I mean who, 
full eloquent, outstrips Atreus' younger son ^ in 
pleading with few but melodious words ; who com- 
bines Ulysses' hail and Nestor's honeyed flow with 
Tully's utterance ; who is the all-highest save the 

^ See Plautus, Menaechmus, Prol. 13 : hoc arguniento ante- 
logium fuit. 

^ cp. Homer, Iliad, iii. 214, 2-22 ; i. 248 f. and Pro//." xxi. 
21 ff. 

35 
D 2 



AUSONIUS 

eris erorum primus est 

praetorioque maximus. 

dico hunc senati praesulem, 

praefectum eundeni et consulem 20 

(nam consul aeternum cluet 

collega Augusti consulis), 

columen curulis Romulae 

primum in secundis fascibus ; 

nam primus e cunctis erit 25 

consul, secundus princi}M. 

Generi hie superstes aureo 
satorque prolis aureae 
convincit Ascraeum senem, 
non esse saeclum ferreum, 30 

qui viiicit aevi iniuriam 
stirpis novator Anniae 
paribusque comit infulis 
Aniciorum stemmata. 

Probum loquor : scis optirae, 35 

quern nemo fando dixerit, 
qui non prius laudaverit. 
perge, o libelle, et utere 
felicitate intermina. 

Quin et require, si sinet 40 

tenore fari obnoxio : 
"Age vera proles Roniuli, 
effare causam nominis. 
utrumne mores hoe tui 
nomen dedere, an nomen hoc 45 

secuta morum regula? 
an ille venturi sciens 
nmndi supremus arbiter, 
qualem creavit moribus, 
iussit vocari nomine ? '' 50 



36 



THE EPISTLES 

three Lords of Lords,^ and supreme in the Prae- 
torium. Hmi I mean, the Senate's chief, prefect 
likewise and consul (for as consul he has endless 
fame as colleague of an Emperor-consul), prop of 
the Roman curule chair — first, though his authority 
is second in degree ; for first of all citizens shall he 
be as consul, but second to the Prince. 

^" He, the survivor of the Golden Race, begetter 
of a golden progeny, refutes the sage of Ascra,^ 
showing this is no Iron Age, since, conquering Time's 
ravages, he renews the line of the Annii and has 
equal right to deck with fillets the Anician family- 
tree.^ 

^^ Of Probus speak I : thou knowest him full well 
— whom none ever named in speech without first 
praising him.* Go forth, my little book, there to 
enjoy boundless good fortune. 

'^^ And ask withal, if he will suff'er thee to address 
him in humble tones: ''Prithee, true son of Romulus, 
declare the reason of thy name. Was it thy conduct 
earned thee this name, or to this name hath thy rule 
of conduct conformed ? Or of his fore-knowledge 
did the supreme Disposer of the world bid thee be 
called by a name expressive of the nature with which 
he created thee ? " 

^ i.e. Valentinian, Valciis, and (iratian. 

^ sc. Hesiod : see W. and D. 176. 

' Sttmmala could oiil}' be decorated with wreaths by 
actual members of the fauiily : Probus was such by mar- 
riage with Anicia Fultoiiia Proba. 

* i.e. they are compelled to call hiui " />ro/yK»'''=" upright": 
see U. 43 flF. 

37 



AUSONIUS 

Nomen datum pracconiis 
vitaeque testimonio. 
libelle felix, quern sinu 
vir tantus evolvet suo 

nee occupari tempora 55 

grato queretur otio, 
quein melleae vocis modis 
leni aut susurro impertiet, 
cui nigellae luminum 

vacare dignabunt corae, 60 

queni mente et aiire consciis, 
quibusdam omissis^ perleget : 

Quaecumque fortuna est tibi, 
perge, o libelle, et utere 
felicitate iutermina. 65 

die me valere et vivere, 
die vivere ex voto pio, 
Sanctis precantem vocibus, 
ut, quern curulis proxima 
collegio nati dedit, 70 

hunc rursus Augustus prior 
suis perennet fascibus. 
subnecte et illud leniter : 
" Apologos en misit tibi 
ab usque Rheni limite 75 

Ausonius, nomen Italum, 
praeceptor Augusti tui, 
Aesopiam trimetriam, 
quam vertit exili stilo 
pedestre concinnans opus 80 

fandi Titianus artifex ; 
ut hinc avi ac patris decus, 
mixto i-esurgens sanguine, 
probiano itemque Anicio, 



38 



THE EPISTLES 

^1 The name was given in his praise and for a 
token of his life. Ah, happy little book, that such 
a man will unroll thee on his knee and not complain 
that thou takest up the hours of his welcome leisure ; 
that he will vouchsafe thee the tones of his honeyed 
voice or his soft whispers ; that for thee the dear 
dark pupils of his eyes will deign to find leisure ; 
that with mind and ear in unison he will read thee 
through, some pages skipped. 

63 Whate'er thy fortune, go forth, little book, and 
enjoy thy boundless happiness. Say that I fare 
well and live, say that I live as I devoutly asked, 
praying with hallowed words that, as the last consul- 
ship made him colleague of the son, so again Au- 
gustus the sirei will renown him with partnership 
in his own honours. This also gently add : " Lo, 
from the very borders of the Rhine Ausonius, Italian 
of name,2 tutor of thy belov'd Augustus, sends thee 
these Fables, by Aesop writ in trimeters, but ren- 
dered in simple style and adapted into prose by Ti- 
tianus, artist in words ; that hereby he who is his 
father's and grandfather's pride, sprung from the 
mingled strains of the Probi and Anicii — as of old 

^ sc. Valentinian I. 

^ ^M.^omM.s= Italian, as in Aen. vii. 547. 

39 



AUSONIUS 

ut quondam in Albae moenibus 85 

su])remus Aenea satus 

Silvios lulis miscuil:^ 

sic iste, qui natus tui, 

flos flosculorum Romuli, 

nutricis inter lemmata 90 

lallique somniferos modos 

suescat peritus fabulis 

simul et iocari et discere." 

His adde votum, quod pio 
concepimus rei deo : 95 

" Ut genitor Augustus dedit 
collegio nati Probum, 
sic Gratianus hunc novum 
stirpi futurae copulet." 
rata sunt futura, quae loquor : ] 00 

sic merita factorum iubent. 

Set iam ut loquatur lulius, 
fandi inodum invita accipe, 
volucripes dimetria, 
haveque dicto die vale. 105 

XIII.— Ad Uksulum Grammaticum Trevirorum cui 
Strenas Kalendis Ianuariis ab Impkratore non 
datas reddi fe( it 

Primus iueundi foret^ hie tibi fructus honoris 
Augustae faustum munus habere manus : 

proximus ex longo gradus est quaestoris amici 
curam pro strenis excubuisse tuis. 

' So MSS. (Z): fuat, Toll: fuit, Avantius, Feiper. 

' Silvias, eon of Aeneas by Lavinia, and half-brother and 
successor of lulus [cp. Virgil, Atn. vi. 760 fif. ). 
* sc. Julius Titianus, the translator of the Fablts. 

40 



THE EPISTLES 

in Alba town the last scion of Aeneas' stock united 
the lines of Silvius^ and lulus — so he who is thy off- 
spring, flower of the flowerlets of Rome, amid nurse's 
tales and drowsy strains of lullaby, may become versed 
in fables, growing used to play and learn at the same 
time." 

^^ Thereto add tliis prayer which 1, though sinful, 
have addressed to the all-loving God : " Even as 
Augustus the sire hath made Probus colleague to 
his son, so may Gratian link this new Probus with 
his offspring which shall be." Fulfilled hereafter 
shall be the words I speak : the worth of Probus' 
deeds demands it so. 

'"- But now, that Julius ^ may speak, though all 
unwilling make an end of words, swift - footed 
dimeter, and having said "hail," say now "fare- 
well ! " 



XIII. — To Ursulu.s, a Grammari.'\n of Treves, to 
whom he had caused to be paid the bounty ^ 
which had not been given to him by the 
Emperor on the First of January 

Fullest enjoyment of a sweet distinction for thee 
were this — to have an auspicious gift from Imperial 
hands : next — though far inferior in degree — that thy 
quaestor-friend took tireless pains to gain thy New 

* Sty-enae were New Year's presents given for the sake of 
good omen, and such were regularly distributed by the 
Emperors : see Suetonius, A iig. 57, Tib. 34. 

41 



AUSONIUS 

ergo interceptos regale nomisma Philippos 5 

accipe tot numero^ quot duo Geryones ; 
quot terni biiuges demptoque triente Camenae 

quotque super terram sidera zodiaci ; 
quot commissa viris Romana Albanaque fata 

quotque doces horis quotque domi resides ; 10 

ostia quot pi'o parte aperit stridentia circus 

excepto, medium quod patet ad stadium ; 
quot pedibus gradiuntur apes et versus Homeri 

quotque horis pelagus profluit aut refluit ; 
protulit in scaenam quot dramata fabellarum^ 15 

Arcadiae medio qui iacet in gremio, 
vel quot iuncturas geometrica forma favorum 

conserit extremis omnibus et mediis ; 
quot telios primus numerus solusque probatur ; 

quot par atque impar partibus aequiperat, 20 

bis ternos et ter binos qui conserit unus, 

qui solus totidem congeminatus habet, 
quot faciunt iuncti subterque supraque locati ; 

qui numerant Hyadas Pleiadasque simul. 



^ cp. Horace Epid. ii. i. 234 : rettulit acceptos, regale 
nomisma, Philippos. 

* sc. the Horatii and Curiatii, who fought for Rome and 
Alba respectively in the time of Tullus Hostilius : see Livy, 
i. 24. 

^ The teaching profession, therefore, enjoyed a six-hour 
day. 

* The circus having twelve gates in all, a single half of it 
contained seven : one of these (the gate looking along the 
spina) has to be omitted from the count. 

42 



THE EPISTLES 

Year's bounty. Therefore of royal coinage, of Phi- 
lippes d'or^ waylaid by me receive as many as two 
Geryons ; as three pair of horses, or as the Muses less 
one-third their band, or as those stars of the Zodiac 
that are above the earth ; as many as the heroes to 
whom were committed the destinies of Rome and 
Alba,- or as the hours wherein thou dost teach ^ or 
wherein thou dost rest at home ; as many as the jarring 
gates which open on one half of the circus, except- 
ing that which looks along the axis of the course ; "* 
as many as the feet whereon bees and Homer's verses 
move, or as the hours of the tide's flow and ebb ; 
as many as the dramatic plots put on the stage by 
him who rests in the midst of Arcadia's bosom,^ or 
as the angles which the geometric figure of the 
honey-cell forms by the meeting of its extreme and 
intervening sides ; "^ as many as that which is ap- 
proved the one and only perfect number ; ' as that 
which consists equally of odd and even numbers, 
which alone unites in itself twice three and thrice 
two — the only number which, if doubled, contains 
as many units as the numbers ^ above it and below 
when added contain, and as the joint total of the 
Hyades and Pleiades.^ 

^ Terence, who is said to have died at Stymphalus in 
Arcadia. 

** In ])lan the hexagonal honeycomb appears to have two 
perpendicular (or " middle ") sides and two pair of con- 
verging (or "extreme") sides which connect the "middle" 

sides at top and bottom, thus : | | . 

\/ 

' fsc. six, as the first compound of odd and even factor 
(2 X 3, or 1 -I- 2 -I- 3). 

^ sc. 5 and 7. 

' The Hyades are five, the Pleiades seven in number. 

43 



AUSONIUS 

[Tot numero auratos pro strenis accipe nummos ^] 25 

Ursule coUega nobilis Harmonio, 
Harmonic, quem Claranus, quern Scaurus et Asper, 

quern sibi conferret Varro priorque Crates 
quique sacri lacerum collegit corpus Homeri 

quique notas spuriis versibus adposuit : 30 

Cecropiae commune decus Latiaeque camenae, 

solus qui Cliium miscet et Ammineum. 

XIV. — AusoNius Theoni 

AusoNius, cuius ferulam nunc sceptra verentur, 
paganum Medulis iubeo salvere Theonem. 

Quid geris extremis positus telluris in oris, 
cultor harenarum vates, cui litus arandum 
oceani finem iuxta solemque cadentem, 5 

vilis harundineis cohibet quem pergula tectis 
et tinguit piceo lacrimosa colonica fumo ? 
quid rerum Musaeque gerunt et cantor Apollo — 
Musae non Helicone satae nee fonte caballi, 
set quae facundo de pectore Clementini 10 

inspirant vacuos aliena mente poetas ? 
iure quidem : nam quis malit sua carmina dici, 
qui te securo possit proscindere risu ? 
^ Suppl. Translator. 

^ See Martial, Ep. x. xxi. 1 f. 

- See notes on Praef. i. 20. 

' Crates of M alius in Cilicia, founder of the Pergamene 
school of critics, and rival of Aristarchus. 

■* Zenodotus, to wliom is here attributed tlie work with 
which Pisistratus is traditionalh- credited. On this subject see 
Pausanias, vii. xxvi. 6, and Monro, Ody>>!'fy, XIII. -XXIV. 
pp. 403 f . 

44 



THE EPISTLES 

25 So many sovereigns take as thy New Year's 
gift, Ursulas, famed as colleague of Harmonius — 
Harmonius, whom Claranus/ whom Scaurus and 
Asper,2 whom Varro would rank as his equal, or 
Crates^ in earlier days, or he who gathered the 
mangled limbs of sacred Homer ; * or who placed 
symbols to mark out spurious verses : ^ Harmonius, 
glory alike of the Attic and the Latin Muse, who 
alone dost mingle wine of Chios and Aminaea/' 

XI V^. — AusoNius TO Theon 

AusoNius, whose rod now overawes a sceptre, sends 
greeting to rustic Theon at Medoc. 

3 What dost thou, dwelling on earth's farthest 
verge, poetic tiller of the sands, who must plough 
the shore next Ocean's border and the setting sun, 
whom a poor hovel, thatched with reeds, confines, 
and a peasant's hut smothers with sooty smoke that 
brings tears to the eyes? What can the Muses be 
doing, and songster Apollo — Muses not sprung from 
Helicon nor from the Horse'sSpring,'' but those which, 
springing from Clementinus' eloquent breast, inspire 
empty-headed bards with borrowed thoughts ? And 
rightly so : for who would rather have verses called 
his when he can safely rend thee with his laughter ? * 

* Aristarchus of Samos, who in his edition of Homer 
employed such critical marks. 

* Aminaea in Picenum was famous for its wine, cp. 
Virgil, Gtorg. ii. 97. 

' i.t. Hippocrene. 

' i.e. Clementinus rightly lets you claim his verses ; for to 
hear you recite them is worth the price, you do it so 
ridiculously : cp. Martial, Ep. i. 38 f. The whole piece is a 
burlesque remonstrance with Theon for not sending any of 
his " trifles " {cp. xv. ad init.) 

45 



AUSONIUS 

liaec quoque ne nostrum possint urgere pudorem, 
tu recita, et vere poterunt tiia dicta videri. 15 

Quam tamen exerces Medulorum in litore vitam ? 
mercatusne agitas leviore noniismate captans^ 
insanis quod mox ])retiis gravis auctio vendat — 
albentis sevi globulos et pinguia cerae 
pondera Naryciamque picem scisf^amque papyruni 20 
fumantesque olidum, paganica luniina, taedas ? 

An niaiora gerens tota regione vagantes 
persequeris fures, qui te postrema tinientes 
ill partem praedamque voceiit ? tu mitis et osor 
sanguinis huniani condonas crimina nummis 25 

erroremque vocas pretiumque inponis abactis 
bubus et in j)artem scelerum de iudice transis ? 

An cum fratre vagos dumeta per avia cervos 
circumdas maculis et niulta indagine pinnae r 
aut spumantis apri cursum clamoribus urges 30 

subsidisque fero ? moneo tamen, usque recuses 
stringere fuhnineo venabula comminus hosti. 
exemplum de fratre time, qui veste reducta 
ostentat foedas pro})e turpia membra lacunas 
perfossasque nates vicino podice nudat. 35 

inde ostentator volitat, mirentur ut ipsum 
Gcdippa Ursiiiusque suus prolesque lovini 
taurinusque ipsum ])riscis lieroibus aequans, 
qualis in Olenio victor Calydonius apro 
aut Erymantheo^ jnibes fuit Attica monstro. 40 

^ So VZ : Cromyoneo, Peij)er. 

^ A conventional epithet {cp. Virgil, Aen. xii. 750), 
Naryx being a city of the Ozolian Locrians. 

'•^ i.e. bunches of feathers tier! on a cord to scare the prey 
and prevent it from escaping through gaps. rp. Virgil, 
Aen. xii. 750. 

* Meleager. '' Theseus. 

46 



THE EPISTLE 

These verses also, lest they may force my blushes, 
do thou recite : and truly they will easily seem thy 
very words. 

^^ Yet what life dost thou pursue on the coasts 
of Medoc ? Art busy trafficking, snapping up for 
a clipped coinage goods presently to be sold in dear 
salerooms at outrageous prices — as balls of sickly 
tallow, greasy lumps of wax, Narjxian ^ pitch, torn 
paper, and rank-smoking torches, your country lights? 

2^ Or art thou busy about greater matters, chasing 
the thieves who roam through all thy neighbour- 
hood, until they fear the worst and invite thee to 
share their spoils ? Dost thou through tenderness 
and hatred of bloodshed compound felonies for cash, 
call them mistakes, levy fines for cattle rieved, and 
leave the part of judge to share the crime ? 

28 ()j. -with thy brother amid impenetrable thickets 
dost thou surround the wandering harts Avith mesh 
and feathers ^ in wide circle ? Or dost thou urge on 
with shouts the foaming boar's career and lay wait 
for the monster ? Yet I warn thee ever to avoid 
wielding thy spear at close quarters with a bolt-like 
foe. Take warning from thy brother, who pulls 
back his clothes displaying ugly scars near his privy 
parts, and bares his breech to show how awkwardly 
'twas pierced. Then to display his wounds he flits 
away to be admired by Gedippa, and his friend Ur- 
sinus, and Jovinus' young hopeful, and Taui'inus who 
ranks him with ancient heroes such as was the Caly- 
donian conqueror ^ of the boar in Olenus, or the Attic 
stripling** victorious o'er the Erymanthian^ monster. 

^ Theseus, however, killed the wild sow of Croniniyon : it 
was Hercules who slew the Erymanthian boar. But the slip 
is due to Ausonius himself, nob to his copyists. Peiper's 
correction is therefore needless. 

47 



AUSONIUS 

Set tu parce feris venatibus et fuge nota 
crimina silvai'um, ne sis Cinyreia proles 
accedasque iteruni Veneri plorandus Adonis, 
sic certe crinem flavus iiiveusque lacertos 
caesariem rutilam per Candida colla refundis, 45 

pectore sic tenero, plana sic iunceus alvo, 
per teretes feminum gyros surasque nitentes 
descendis, talos a vertice pulcher ad imos — 
qualis floricoma quondam populator in Aetna 
virgineas inter choreas Deoida raptam 50 

sustulit emersus Stygiis fornacibus Orcus. 

An, quia venatus ob tanta pericula vitas, 
piscandi traheris studio? nam tota supellex 
Dumnitoni tales solita est ostendere gazas, 
nodosas vestes animantum Nerinorum 55 

et iacula et fundas et, nomina vilica, lina 
colaque et insutos terrenis vermibus hamos. 
his opibus confise tumes ? domus omnis abunda 
litoreis dives spoliis. referuntur ab unda 
corroco, letalis trygon mollesque platessae, 60 

urentes thynni et male tecti spina elacati ^ 
nee duraturi post bina trihoria corvi. 

An te carminibus iuvat incestare canoras 
Mnemosynes natas, aut tris aut octo sorores ? 
et quoniam hue ventum, si vis agnoscere, quid sit 65 

''Tnrnehus : ligari, ligati, or ligatri, MSS.: ligatri, Peiper. 

* cp. 'Horace, Epist. ii. ii. 4. Tlie caricature is clumsy, 
for Theon (cp. xvi. 31), thougli rounded, was not slim. 

^ Probably hooks sewn on a long line (such as are used for 
sea-fishing) and baited with earthworms. 

^ The nature of this fish is doubtful : Vinet identifies it 
with that known at Bordeaux as crtac (sturgeon) ; Corpet 
equates it with tlie Spanish corrujo (a kind of turbot). 

48 



THE EPISTLES 

*^ But do thou give up the chase and shun the 
well-known tragedies of the woods, lest thou be 
as the son of Cinyras and become a second Adonis 
for Venus to mourn. Like him, assuredly, fair-haired 
and snowy-white of arms, thou dost let stream ruddy 
locks over a gleaming neck ; like him soft of breast, 
like him slender as a reed with shapely body, dost 
thou pass lower into smoothly curving hips and 
shining ankles, beauteous from top to toe ^ — even 
such as of old the ravisher in flowery Aetna, who 
from amid maiden throngs carried off Deo's daughter 
— Orcus, arisen from his Stygian furnaces ! 

^2 Or, because thou avoidest the chase by reason 
of such great dangers, does zeal for fishing draw 
thee ? For all the gear at Dumnitonus is wont to 
display such treasures as the knotty wraps of Nereus' 
creatures, casting-nets, drag-nets, lines with rustic 
names, wears, and stitched hooks for earthworms.'^ 
On this outfit dost thou proudly rely ? The whole 
house is rich to overflowing with the spoils of the sea- 
shore. From the waves are brought home sturgeon,^ 
the deadly sting-ray, soft tender plaice, bitter tun- 
nies,'* spindle-fish ^ ill-guarded by their spines, and 
grayling which will not keep above twice three 
hours. 

63 Or dost thou delight to outrage with thy verses 
the songful daughters of Mnemosyne, be they sisters 
three or eight .'' ^ And since we are come to this, if 
thou wouldst learn what is midway between leai'ned 

* ep. Matthew Arnold, Scholar Gipsy: " Tunnies steeped 
in brine." 

^ A species of tunny shaped like a spindle {riAaKarrj). 

^ For three Muses rp. Griphus, 31 : the number eight is 
otherwise unknown and is perhaps dictated by metrical 
necessity. 

49 



AUSONIUS 

inter doctrinam dei'idendasque camenas, 

accipe congestas, mysteria frivola, nugas, 

quas tamen explicitis nequeas deprendere chartis, 

scillite decies nisi cor purgeris aceto 

Anticyi'aeve bibas ^ Samii Lucumonis acumen. 70 

aut adsit interpres tuus, 

aenigmatuni qui cognitor 

fuit meoruni;, cum tibi 

Cadmi nigellas filias, 

Melonis albam paginam 75 

notasque furvae sepiae 

Gnidiosque nodos prodidit. 

nunc adsit et certe, modo 

praesul creatus litteris, 

enucleabit protinus 80 

quod lusitantes scribimus. 

Notos fingo tibi;, poeta, versus, 
quos scis hendecasyllabos vocari, 
set nescis modulis tribus moveri. 
istos conposuit Phalaecus dim, 85 

qui penthemimeren liabent priorem 
et post semipedem duos iambos. 
sunt quos hexametri creant revulsi, 
ut penthemimeres prior locetur, 

1 Peiper : Antichirainque bibas, Z : anticipesque vivum, 
or anticipetque tuum, V. 

* For this mixture see Pliny, X.H. xxvi. viii. 48. 

* i.e. " until \ou drink hellebore at Anticj-ra and become 
as wise as Pythagoras of Samos." Lucumo is probably an 
Etruscan prince. 

^ i.e. the letters (invented by Cadmus) written on papyrus 
from Egypt (Melo = the Nile) with ink taken from the 
cuttle-fish with a reed pen (for Cnidian knots cp. Epi/<t. 
XV. 20). Probably the riddle is a scribe's "conceit.'" An 
analogous piece of wit was affected by Striae scribes, as : 

50 



THE EPISTLES 

verse and verse ridiculous, take this trumped-up 
rubbish, this trifling mystery, though with the sheet 
unrolled thou wilt not be able to comprehend it un- 
less thou dost purge thy wits ten times over with 
vinegar seasoned with squills,^ or at Anticyra drink 
in the sagacity of the Samian nabob. ^ 

"1 Or let thy interpreter come to thy aid, he who 
read my riddles and revealed to thee the secret of 
" Cadmus' little darky-girls, Melo's white page, the 
marks of the swart cuttlefish, and the knots of 
Cnidos."' ^ Let him now come to thy help, and cer- 
tainly once appointed literary dictator, he will worry 
out forthwith what I write playfully. 

^^ I am making up verses, Master Poet, well 
known to thee, and which thou knowest are called 
hendecasyllables, though thou knowest not that they 
move to three measures. Those were composed by 
Phalaecus"* of old, in which a penthemimeris is fol- 
lowed by a half-foot after two iambi. Others are so 
formed from a mutilated hexameter that the pen- 
themimeris is placed first, and then, what left after 

" Lord, let not be withheld the reward of the five twins who 
have laboured, and the two who have exerted themselves and 
sowed seed in the field of animals with the feathers of birds," 
{i.e. the five ^mirs of fingers and the two hands which have 
written on parchment with quills). See VV^right, Cat. of Syr. 
MSS. in the B.M., p. 107. 

* A lyrist of uncertain date Ausonius i-epresents him as 
early, but some moderns regard him as an Alexandrine. 
Ausonius means that there are three varieties of hendeca- 
syllables : — 

(1) ^^-^-^-- 

(2) .^__^^__ 

E 2 



AUSONIUS 

turn quod bucolice tome relinquit. 90 

sunt et quos generat puella Sappho : 

quos primus regit hippius secundus^ 

ut cludat choriaml)on antibacchus. 

set iam non poteris, Theon, doceri, 

nee fas est mihi regio magistro 95 

plebeian! numeros docere pulpam. 

Verimi protinus ede, quod requiro. 
nil quaero, nisi quod libris tenetur 
et quod non opicae tegunt papyri, 
quas si solveris, o poeta^ nugas^, 100 

totam trado tibi simul Vacunam, 
nee iam post metues ubique dictum : 
" Hie est ille Theon poeta falsus, 
bonorum mala carminum Laverna." 



X.V. AUSONIUS ThEONI cum EI TRIGINTA OsTREA 

GKANDFA QUIDEM SET TAM PAUCA MISISSET 

ExPECTAVERAM, ut rescHberes ad ea, quae dudum 
ioculariter luseram de cessatione tua valde impia et 
mea efflagitatione, cuius rei munus reciprocum quo- 
niam in me colendo fastidisti, inventa inter tineas 
epistula vetere, quam de ostreis et musculis adfec- 
tata obscuritate eondideram, quae adulescens temere 
fuderam, iam senior retractavi. set in eundem modum 
instaurata est satirica et ridicula concinnatio, saltem 
ut nunc respondeas novissimae cantilenae, qui illam 
noviciam silentio condemnasti. 

' Vacuna is the goddess of leisure: i.e. Theon shall be 
immune from further bantering. 

^ Patroness of gain, good or bad, and so the goddess of 
thieves. 

52 



THE EPISTLES 

the bucolic caesura. There are also those which 
the girl Sappho brought forthj where first reigns 
a second hippius^ leaving an antibacchius to cap a 
choriambus. 

^* But thou wilt no longer be able to learn, Theon, 
and 'tis not lawful for me, a royal schoolmaster, to 
teach prosody to common clay. 

^' But forthwith produce what I demand. I ask 
for naught but what thy notebooks hold and 
unsoiled sheets contain. If thou. Sir Poet, wilt 
pay me this trifle, all Vacuna i do I cede to thee 
outright, and no more hereafter shalt thou dread the 
universal cry : " This is that feigned poet, Theon, 
the bad Laverna^ of good poetry." 



XV. — AusoNius TO Theon, who had sent him thirty 
Oysters : he complains that though large 
they are so few 

I have been looking for a reply from you to the 
letter I wrote some time ago dealing {)layfully with 
your positively unnatural neglect of me and my own 
urgent demands ; and since you have disdained to 
do me the courtesy of sending a favour in return, 
having found an old letter, half worm-eaten, which 
I once composed in a style of deliberate obscurity 
on oysters and mussels, now tliat I am older I have 
revised that careless effusion of my youth. But 
though recast, this composition still retains the 
same satirical and burlesque character, that now at 
least you may send an answer to my ditty in its 
newest guise, though by your silence you condemned 
it when new born. 

53 



AUSONIUS 

Ostrea Baianis certantia, quae Medulorum 
dulcibus in stagnis reflui maris aestus opimat, 
accepi, dilecte Theon, numerabile munus. 
verum quot fuerint, subiecta monosticha signant : 

Quot tei' luctatus cum pollice computat index : 5 
Geryones quot erant^ decies si multiplicentur ; 
ter quot erant Phi-ygii numerata decennia belli, 
aut iter ut solidi mensis tenet ignicomus Sol ; 
cornibus a primis quot habet vaga Cynthia noctes ; 
singula percurrit Titan quot signa diebus 10 

quotque annis sublimis agit sua saecula Phaenon ; 
quot numero annorum Vestalis virgo ministrat 
Dardaniusque nepos regno quot protulit annos ; 
Priamidae quot erant, si bis deni retrahantur, 
bisque viros numeres, qui fata Amphrysia servant; 15 
quot genuit fetus Albana sub ilicibus sus 
et quot sunt asses, ubi nonaginta trientes, 
vel quot habet iunctos Vasatica raeda caballos. 

Quod si figuras fabulis adumbratas 
numerumque doctis involutum ambagibus 20 
ignorat alto mens obesa viscere, 
numerare saltim more vulgi ut noveris, 
in se retortas explicabo summulas. 

Ter denas puto quinquiesve senas, 

vel bis quinque, dehine decern decemque, 25 

vel senas quater et bis adde ternas ; 

septenis quater adde et unum et unum, 27 

^ i.e. XXX. 

^ i.e. in which the sun passes from one Sign of the Zodiac 
to another. 

^ A Vestal spent ten years in learning her duties, another 
ten in performing them, and a final ten in instructing novices. 

* Priam. 

54 



THE EPISTLES 

Oysters rivalling those of Baiae, which the surge 
of the ebbing sea fattens in the lush marshes of 
Medoc, I have received, dear Theon — a gift not 
beyond reckoning. But what was their number, the 
following single lines declare. 

^ As many were they as the forefinger thrice 
crossed with the thumb ^ reckons up ; as many as 
there were Geiyons, if ten times multiplied ; thrice 
as many as the decades told over in the Phrygian 
(Trojan) War, or as the journeys made by the flame- 
tressed Sun in a full month ; as the nights which 
wandering Cynthia enjoys after she first shows her 
horns ; as the days wherein Titan traverses each 
sevei'al Sign ; ^ as the years in which Phaenon (Sa- 
turn) accomplishes his circuit aloft ; as the tale of 
years in which a Vestal maid does service,^ and as 
those o'er which the scion of Dardanus* prolonged 
his reign ; as many as Priam's sons if twice ten are 
deducted, or, if you count them twice, as they who 
keep the Amphrysian Oracles , '" as the young lit- 
tered beneath the oaks by the Alban sow,® and as the 
unit when there are ninety thirds — or as many hacks 
as are harnessed to a car at Bazas. 

1^ But if the figure shadowed forth in story, and 
the number wrapped up in this learned rigmarole 
baffles a mind smothered deep in fat — that you 
may know how to count in the common way at least, 
I will unfold the sum reduced to its factors. 

2* Thrice ten, methinks, or five times six, or two 
times five plus ten and ten, or four times six with 
twice three added ; to seven times four add one and 

^ The Sibj'lline Oracles, kept by fifteen commissioners (see 
note on Oripktis, 86 f.). Amphrysian is here a purely con- 
ventional epithet. 

" See Virgil, Aen. iii. 390 f. 

55 



AUSONIUS 

aut tev quattuor adde bis novenis ; 29 

due binas decies semelque denas ; 28 

octonas quater, hinc duae recedant ; 30 

binas ter decies, semel quaternas. 
et sex adde novem vel octo septem, 
aut septem geminis bis octo iunge, 
aut — ne sim tibi pluribus molestus, 
triginta numero fuere cunctae. 35 

lunctus liinicolis musculus ostreis 
primo conposuit fercula prandio, 
gratus deliciis nobiliuni cibus 
et suiiiptu modicus paiiperibus focis. 
nou hie navifrago quaeritur aequore, 40 

ut crescat pretium grande periculis ; 
set primore vado post refugum mare 
algoso legitur litore concolor. 
nam testae duplicis conditui* in specu, 
quae ferventis aquae lota vaporibus 45 

carnem lacteoli visceris indicat. 

Set damnosa nimis panditur area, 
fac campum replices, Musa, papyrium 
nee iani fissipedis per calami vias 
grassetur Gnidiae sulcus harundinis, 50 

pingens aridulae subdita ])aginae 
Cadmi filiolis atricoloribus. 
aut cunctis pariter versibus oblinat 
furvam lacticolor sphongia sepiam. 

Parcamus vitio Dumnitonae domus, 55 

ne sit charta mihi carior ostreis. 

XVI. — AusoNius Theonm 

AusoNius salve caro mihi dico Theoni, 

versibus expediens, quod volo quodve queror. 

56 



THE EPISTLES 

one, or to thrice four add nine twice over ; take ten 
times two and one time ten, four times eight with 
two subtracted, two thirteen times plus a single four. 
Add also six to nine and eight to seven, or with twin 
sevens twice join eight, or — not to bother you with 
more — thirty in number were they all. 

^'' The mussel not without mud-haunting oysters, 
makes up a course for early luncheon — a food delight- 
ful to the taste of lords and cheap enough for poor 
folks' kitchens. 'Tis not sought on the ship-wrecking 
deep so that the price grows great to match the 
danger, but is picked up in the nearest shallows 
after the sea's ebb, matching m colour the weed- 
itrewn shore. For it is hidden in the cavern of 
a double shell which, warmed by the steam of 
boiling water, reveals the milk-white substance 
within. 

*^ But too careless of cost this broad sheet is 
spreading out. See that thou abridge, my Muse, thy 
acreage of paper, and no longer let the turrow of the 
Cnidian reed proceed along the paths of the cloven- 
footed pen painting the surface of my poor parched 
page with Cadmus' dark-hued little daughters. Or 
from all the lines alike let a milk-white sponge blot 
out the dusky sepia. 

^^ Let us spare the shortcomings of the folk at 
Dumnitonus, lest paper cost me more than the value 
of the oysters. 



XVI. — AusoNius TO Theon 

I, AusoNius, send greeting to my dear Theon, here 
setting out in verse my wishes and complaints. 

57 



AUSONIUS 

Tertia fissipedes renovavit Luna iiivencas, 

ut fugitas nostram, dulcis amice, domuni. 
nonaginta dies sine te, carissime, traxi ; 5 

hue adde aestivos : hoc mihi paene duplum est. 
vis novies denos dicam deciesque novenos 

isse dies ? anni portio quarta abiit. 
sexaginta horas super et duo niiUa centum 

te sine consumpsi, quo sine et hora gravis. 10 

milia bis nongenta iubet demensio legum 

adnumerata reos per tot obire dies, 
iam potui Romam pedes ire pedesque reverti, 

ex quo te dirimunt miha pauca mihi. 
scirpea Dumnitoni tanti est habitatio vati ? 15 

Pauliacos tanti non mihi villa foret. 
an quia per tabulam dicto pangente notatam 

debita summa mihi est^ ne repetamus, abes ? 
bis septem rutilos regale nomisma Philippos, 

nee tanti fuerint, perdere malo, Theon, 20 

implicitum quam te nostris interne medullis 

defore tarn longi temporis in spatio. 
ergo aut praedictos iam nunc rescribe Darios 

et redime, ut mora sit libera desidiae, 
aut alios a me totidem dabo, dum modo cari 25 

conspicer ora viri. pauperis usque licet. 
Puppe citus propera sinuosaque lintea veli 

pande : Medullini te feret aura ^ noti 

^ So Souclay : ora, Peiptr. 

^ Some late authors represent the chariot of the moon as 
drawn by oxen. 

* Roman law required the defendant to travel (if necessary) 
twenty miles per day in order to appear in Court at the 

58 



THE EPISTLES 

3 Thrice hath Luna renewed her cloven-footed 
heifers,! since thou, sweet friend, dost avoid my 
house. Ninety days without thee have I dragged 
out, my dearest comrade ; add further, summer days: 
this makes them nearly twice as long for me. Wouldst 
have me say that nine times ten days or ten times 
nine are gone ? A fourth part of the year is passed 
away. Sixty hours and two thousand and a hundred 
beside without thee have I spent — without whom 
even an hour hangs heavy. Miles twice nine hundred 
the laws' appointment bids men accused traverse to 
full reckoning in so many days." By this time could 
I have gone afoot to Rome, and afoot returned, since 
the time when a few miles have parted thee from me. 
Has a thatched cot at Dumnitonus such charms for a 
bard.^ My villa Pauliacos^ would not weigh so with 
me. Or because by bond drawn up hard and fast 
money is owed to me, dost thou keep from me lest I 
claim it back ? Those twice seven gleaming Philippes 
d\)r of royal mintage,* Theon, I had rather lose — they 
Avould not be worth so much — than that thou, who 
art so closely twined about my heart, shouldst desert 
me over this long stretch of time. So either send 
back now forthwith the aforesaid lotiis and buy back 
thy freedom slothfuUy to linger, or I will freely give 
as many more besides, provided I behold the face of 
one so dear, however poor he be.^ 

-^ Haste hither, sped by boat, and spread the 
bellying canvas of thy sail : the breath of the south 
wind from Medoc will waft thee reclining beneath 

stated time ; otherwise the case went against him by default 
{Digest ii. xi. 1). 

^ Possibly Pauliac on the (raronne. 

* See note on Epist. xiii. 5. 

^ Presumably, "however often I have to pay this sum." 

59 



AUSONIUS 

expositum subter paradas lectoque iacentem, 

corporis ut tanti non moveatiir onus. 30 

unus Dumnitoni te litore perferet aestus 

Condatem ad portum, si modo deproperes 
inque vicem veil, quotiens tua fiamina cessant, 

remipedem iubeas protinus ire ratem. 
invenies praesto subiuncta petorrita mulis : 35 

villa Lucani- mox potieris -aco. 
rescisso disces conponere nomine versum : 

Lucili vatis sic imitator eris. 

XVII. — <AusoNius Thkoni> 
AusoNius consul vatem resaluto Theonem. 

Aurea mala, Theon, set plumbea carmina mittis ; 

unius massae quis putet has species ? 
anum nomen utrisque, set est discrimen utrisque : 

poma ut mala voces, carmina verte mala. 5 

Vale beatis nomen a divis Theon, 
metoche set ista saepe currentem indicat. 

XVIII. — AusoNius Hesperio S. D. 

QuAi.is Picenae populator turdus olivae 

chines opimat cereas 
vel qui lucentes rapuit de vitibus uvas, 

pendetque nexus retibus. 

According to d'Anville this port, no longer existing, was 
at Condat near Libourne in the Dordogne. 

* Identified with Lugaignac in the canton of Brannes. 
Ennius is more famous for his split nouns, as in "saxo 
cere- coniminuit -brum." 

' i.e. "alter your verse — even if it means calling your 

6o 



THE EPISTLES 

an awning and stretched upon a couch, that the bulk 
of so great a body be not shaken. One tide will 
bear thee from the shore of Dumnitonus right to the 
harbour of Condate,^ if only thou makest good haste, 
and in place of sail, whene'er thy favouring breezes 
die away, biddest the bark speed straight on pro- 
pelled with oars. Thou shalt find ready a four- 
wheeled car with team of mules : soon wilt thou 
gain the Lucani- villa -acus.^ Thou shalt learn to 
make verse with such split nouns : thus shalt thou 
be a copier of the bard Lucilius. 

XVII. — AusoNius TO Theon 

I, AusoNius the Consul, return greeting to Theon 
the Bard. 

2 Apples of gold thou sendest, Theon, but verse 
of lead ; who would think these species were of the 
same substance ? Both have one name, but both 
have differences : to call your apples quinces, alter 
your quinsied verse. ^ 

^ Farewell, Theon, whose name is from the blessed 
gods, but often as a participle it means one running.^ 

XVni -— AusoNius TO Hesperius sends Greeting 

Even as the thrush who, ravaging the olives ot 
Picenum,^ fattens his waxen haunches,^ or who has 
torn the gleaming clusters from the vines and now 
hangs entangled in the nets which in the evening 

apples by another name." But the play on 7nala . . . mala 
cannot adequately be reproduced. 

* Theon might be either deu>v or Otuv. 

* cp. Martial, Epigr. ix. Iv. 1 : Si mihi Picena turdus 
palleret oliva. 

* id. Xiii. V. 1 : Cerea quae patulo lucet ficedula lumbo. 

6i 



AUSONIUS 

quae vespertinis fluitant nebulosa sub horis 5 

vel mane tenta roscido : 
tales hibernis ad te de saepibus, ipsos 

capi volentes^ misimus 
bis denos ; tot enim crepero sub lucis eoae 

praeceps volatus intulit. 10 

tuni, quas vicinae suggessit praeda lacunae, 

anites maritas iunximus, 
remipedes, lato populantes caerula rostro 

et crure rubras Punico, 
iricolor vario pinxit quas pluma colore, 15 

colluni columbis aemulas. 
Defrudata meae non sunt haec fercula mensae : 

vescente te fruimur magis. 

Vale bene, ut valeam. 



XIX. — AusoNius AD Patrem de Suscepto Filio 

Credideram nil posse meis adfectibus addi, 

quo, venerande pater, diligerere magis. 
accessit (grates superis medioque nepoti, 

bina dedit nostris qui iuga nominibus) 4 

accessit titulus, tua quo reverentia crescat, 9 

quo doceam natum, quid sit amare patrem. 10 

ipse nepos te fecit avum : milii iilius idem 5 

et tibi ego : hoc nato nos sunms ambo patres. 
nee iam sola mihi pietas mea suadet amorem : 

nomine te gemini iam genitoris amo. 8 

quippe tibi aequatus videor, quia parvulus isto 11 

nomine honoratum me quoque nobilitat : 



^ It was customary for a father to take up isnscipere) a 
newborn son as a sign that he acknowledged it and would 

62 



THE EPISTLES 

hour float loose like clouds^ or in the morn are taut 
with dew — sucli are the birds I send thee from our 
wintry hedges, themselves glad to be caught, twice 
ten in all ; for so many in the twilight of early dawn 
flew headlong into the net. Thereto I add full-grown 
ducks which a raid on the neighbouring meres sup- 
plies, web-footed birds whose broad beaks ravage the 
blue waters, with legs of crimson-red and plumage 
rich as the rainbow dight with various colours, with 
necks that rival doves. 

1^ I have not cheated my own table to send these 
dainties : that thou shouldst eat them causes me 
more enjoyment. 

^^ Fare thee well, that so I may fare well. 

XIX. — AusoNius TO HIS Father on the 
Acknowledgment ^ of his Son 

I HAD believed that nought could be added to the 
sum of my affection whereby, mine honoured father, 
my love might be increased. Added (thanks to the 
gods above and to thy grandson, their instrument, who 
has laid upon our names a two-fold yoke), added is 
a title whereby my reverence for thee is increased, 
whereby I may teach my son what 'tis to love a 
father. This grandson himself hath made thee a 
grandfather : to me he too is son, and to thee am 1 : 
his birth makes us both fathers. No longer doth 
natural affection alone inspire me w^ith love for thee : 
as doubly a father I love thee now. For I seem 
made thy peer, because a little boy ennobles me too 
with the distinction of that name ; not because our 

rear it. For the circumstances in which this fulsome piece 
was written see Introduction, p. xv. 

63 



AUSONIUS 

non aetas quia nostra eadem : nam subparis aevi 

sura tibi ego et possum fratris habere vicenij 
nee tantum nostris spatium interponitur annis, 15 

quanta solent alios tempoi'a dividere. 
vidi ego natales fratrum distare tot annis, 

quot nostros : aevum nomina non onerant. 
pulchra iuventa tibi senium sic iungit, ut aevum 

quod prius est maneat, quod modo ut incipiat. 20 
et placuisse reor geminis aetatibus, ut se 

non festinato tempore utraque daret, 
leniter haec flueret, liaec non properata veniret, 

maturam frugem flore manente ferens. 
annos me nescire tuos, pater optime, testor 25 

totque putare tuos, quot reor esse meos. 
nesciat hos natus, numeret properantior heres, 

testamenta magis quam pia vota fovens 
exemploque docens pravo iuvenescere natos, 

ut nolint patres se quoque habere senes. 30 

verum ego primaevo genitus genitore fatebor 

subparis haec aevi tempora grata mihi. 
debeo quod natus, suadet pia cura nepotis 

addendum patri^ quo veneremur avum. 
tu quoque, mi genitor, geminata vocabula gaude, 35 

nati primaevi nomine factus avus. 
exiguum, quod avus : faveant pia numina divura 

deque nepote suo fiat avus proavus. 
largius et poterunt producere fata senectam : 

set rata vota reor, quae moderata, magis. 40 



64 



THE EPISTLES 

age is the same, since I somewhat approach thee 
in age and can pass as thy brother, nor does so 
great a span divide our years as the seasons which 
part others. I have seen brothers whose birth- 
days were separated by as many years as ours : 
names add no weight to years. Fair youth so blends 
with old age in thee, that thy earlier time of life 
lingers, while thy present but begins. And, me- 
thinks, these two ages have agreed each to present 
itself without hurrying on their seasons, this gently 
gliding onwards, that approaching without haste, 
bringing ripe fruit while yet the flower remains. I 
vow, my dearest father, that 1 know not thy years, 
and account thine as many as I deem my own. Let 
no son know these, let the too hasty heir reckon 
them up, his heart set more on inheritance than 
loving wishes, teaching his sons to grow tip after 
such bad pattern as to hope they too have no long- 
lived father. But 1, born when my sire was in his 
earliest youth, will avow that I delight that our 
times of life are so nearly matched. What I owe 
as a son, my dear love for thy grandson moves me, 
his father, to increase, the more to honour thee as 
a grandsire. Thou too, my sire, I'ejoice in thy doubled 
title now that thy son in early youth hath made thee 
grandfather. A small thing 'tis to be a grandfather : 
may the kind powers be propitious, and by his own 
grandson may the grandfather be made great-grand- 
father. Even further the Fates will have power to 
prolong thine age : but those prayers, methinks, are 
rather answered which are moderate. 



65 



AUSONIUS 

XX. — Pater ao Filium cum tempoiubus tvhannicis 
IPSE Treveris remansisset et Tjlius ad Patriam 

PROFECTUS ESSET. HoC INCOHATUM NEQUE IN- 
PLETUM SIC DE LiTURARIlS SCRIPTUM 



Debeo et hanc nostris, fill dulcissime, curis 
historiam : quamquam titiilo non digna sereno 
anxia niaestarum fuerit querinionia rerum. 

lam super egelidae stagnautia terga Mosellae 
protulerat te, nate, ratis maestique parentis 5 

oscula et amplexus discreverat invidiis amnis. 
solus ego et quamvis coetu celebratus amico 
solus eram profugaeque dabam pia vota carinae 
solus adhuc te, nate, videns ; celerisque remuici 
culpabam properos ad verso flumine cursus. 10 

quis fuit ille dies ? non annus longior ille est^ 
Attica quern docti collegit cura Metonis. 
desertus vacuis solisque exerceor oris, 
nunc ego pubentes salicum deverbero frondes, 
gi-amineos nunc frango toros viridesque per ulvas 15 
iubrica substratis vestigia libro lapillis. 
sic lux prima abiit, sic altera meta diei, 
sic geminas alterna rotat vertigo tenebras, 
sic alias : totusque mihi sic annus abibit, 
restituant donee tua me tibi fata parentem. 20 

hac ego condicione licet vel morte paciscar, 
dum decores suj)renia patris tu^ nate^ superstes. 

^ i.e. Ausonius to Hesperiiis. 

- i.e. in .383 a.u. when Maxinius seized the Empire of the 
West : see IiUroduction, jjp. xi f. , xx. 

* On the importance of this editorial note see Introduction, 
p. xxxvi. 

66 



THE EPISTLES 
XX. — The Father to his Son,^ when in the days of 

USURPATION 2 HE HIMSELF REMAINED AT TrKVES 
AND HIS Son SET OUT FOR HIS NATIVE PLACE. 

This Poem, begun but never finished, has been 

COPIED as it stands FROM THE ROUC.II DRAFT -^ 



This narrative also I owe to my cares for thee, 
my dearest son ; although this troubled plaint for 
my gloomy fortunes scarce deserves so mild a term. 

^ Already o'er the sluggish surface of chill Moselle 
the bark had borne thee forward, O my son, and 
from the kisses and embraces of thy weeping sire 
the envious stream had parted thee. Alone ! though 
compassed with a throng of friends, I was alone and 
offered yearning prayers for that fleeting craft; alone, 
though still I saw you, my child, and grudged the 
hasty speed of the swift oarage plying against the 
stream. What day was that .'' No longer is that 
year which Attic Meton ^ worked out with such 
patient skill. Forlorn I pace the empty, lonely 
shores. Now I strike down the sprouting willow- 
shoots, now I crush beds of turf and o'er green 
sedge I poise my slippery footsteps on the pebbles 
strewn beneath. So the first day passed away, so 
the second reached its bourne, so the two nights 
which wheeled revolving after each, so others : and 
the whole year for me w'ill so pass by until thy 
destiny gives back me, thy sire, to thee. With this 
condition I may bargain even for death, that thou, 
my son, payest thy father the last tributes, surviving 
him. 

* Meton of Athens (flor. c. 432 B.C.) discovered the Lunar 
Cycle in which 235 hinar months = 19 solar years. By 
annus Aus. seems to mean the C^^cle, not the Lunar Year. 

67 
F 2 



AUSONIUS 

XXI. — Genethliacos ad AusoNiuM Nepotem 
Ausonius Avus Aiisonio Kepoti 

Carmina prima tibi cum iam puerilibus annis 
traderet adsidui permulcens cura magistri 
inbiieretque novas aures sensusque sequaces, 
ut respondendas docili quoque murmure voces 
emendata rudi perferret lingua palato, 5 

addidimus nil triste senes, ne cura monendi 
laederet aut dulces gustus vitiaret amaris. 
at modo, cum motu vigeas iam puberis aevi 
fortiaque a teneris possis secernere et ipse 
admonitor morumque tibi fandique videri, 10 

accipe non praecepta equidem, set vota precaniis 
et gratantis avi festum ad sollemne nepotis. 

adnuit; ut reducem fatorum ab fine senectam 
sospes agam festumque diem dubitataque cernam 
sidera, deposito prope conclamatus in aevo. 15 

hoc, mellite nepos, duplicato faenore partum 
natali accedente tuo, munusque salutis 
plenius hoc nostrae, quod iam tibi puberis aevi 
crescit honos iuvenemque senex iam cerno nepotem. 
Sexta tibi haec primo remeat trieteris ab anno, 20 
Septembres notis referens natalibus idus. 



^ i.e. as pieces of repetition. 

* i.e. the boy repeats the words of the poem after his tutor, 
so that his faults of pronunciation may be corrected. 

68 



THE EPISTLES 

XXI. — A Birthday Letter to his Grandson 

AusoKius 

Amonius the Grandfather to Ausonius his Grandson 

Whh.e thy persistent master with coaxing pains 
was committing to thee, still of boyish years, thy 
earliest poems,' and was training thy prentice ear 
and the faculties it guides, so that thy tongue, cor- 
rected of the unskilled palate's faults, might produce 
the words to be repeated with an obedient murmur,^ 
I, an old man, added naught severe lest anxious 
admonition might gall, or mar the sweet first-taste 
with bitterness. But now, when thou dost feel the 
stir and pulse of youth, and canst distinguish between 
the manly and the feeble and show thyself thine 
own councillor in behaviour as in speech, accept, not 
indeed precepts, but prayers of thy grandfather who 
entreats while rejoicing at the high festival of his 
grandson's birthday. ...... 

(I thank Heaven which) has consented that, re- 
covered, I may spend my old age brought back from 
the Fates' borderland,^ and behold this happy day 
and the stars I scarce hoped to see, I who was well- 
nigh mourned as one dead. This, my sweet grand- 
son, is a gift doubly profitable, in that thy birthday 
now occurs, and the prize of my own safety is by 
this the richer that the glory of thy ripening age 
now waxes, and that I, now old, behold my grandson 
attain to youth. 

20 Now comes round for thee the sixth period of 
thi-ee years since thou wert born, bringing back the 

•^ Apparently Ausonius had just recovered from some 
serious illness of which he had well-nigh died. 

69 



AUSONIUS 

Idus alma dies, geniis quoque culta deorum. 
Sextiles Hecate Latonia vindicat idus, 
Mercurius Maias, superorum adiunctus honori. 
Octobres olim genitus Maro dedicat idus : 25 

Idus saepe colas bis senis mensibus omnes, 
Ausonii quicumque mei celebraveris idus. 
Vale nepos dulcissime. 



XXII. — Liber Protrehticus ad Nei'otem 
Ausonius Hesperio Filio 

LiBELLUM, quern ad nepotulum meum, sororis tuae 
filium, instai' protreptici luseram, venturus ipse prae- 
misi legendum. hoc enim malui quam ipse I'ecitare, 
esset ut tibi censura liberior, quae duabus causis 
impediri solet : quod aures nostras audita velocius 
quam lecta praetereunt et quod sinceritas iudicandi 
praesentia recitantis oneratur. nunc tibi utrumque 
integrum est, quia et legenti libera mora est et 
iudicaturo non obstat nostri verecundia. 

Set heus tu, fili dulcissime, habeo quod admo- 
neam. si qua tibi in his versiculis videbuntur (nam 
vereor, ut multa sint) fucatius concinnata quam ve- 
rius et plus coloris quam suci habere, ipse sciens 



^ LI. 23 fF. are in imitation of Martial xii. Ixvii. : — 
Maiae Mercnrium creastis Idus; 
Augustis redit Idibus Diana ; 



70 



THE EPISTLES 

Ides of September. The Ides is an auspicious day, ob- 
served too by the genii of gods. In Sextilis Hecate, 
Leto's daughter, claims the Ides ; in May, Mercury, 
who was raised to the ranks of the gods. October's 
Ides are hallowed by the birth of Maro long ago. 

^t" Oft mayest thou observe each Ides of all the 
twice six months, whoso shalt celebrate the Ides of 
my Ausonius.'^ 

^^ Farewell my sweetest grandson. 

XXII. — A Book of Exhortation to his Grandson 

Aimonius to his Son Hesperius 

Being about to come myself, I send on ahead a 
booklet which I have amused myself by writing 
in the form of an exhortation to my little grandson, 
your sister's son. For this I j)refer to reciting it 
myself, in order that you may feel less restraint in 
your criticism — a faculty which is usually hampered 
by two circumstances : first that what is heard passes 
over our ears more quickly than what is read ; and 
second the presence of the reciter handicaps the 
frankness of the critic. As it is, you have nothing 
to fear on either score, because both as you read you 
are free to linger, and as you come to criticize your 
feelings for me do not stand in your way. 

But look you, my dearest son, I have a caution 
to add. If any passages in these verses shall appear 
to you (and I fear that there are many such) to be 
composed with more brilliance than truth, and have 
more colour than vigour, know that I deliberately 

Octobres Maro consecravit Idus. 
Idas saepe colas et has et illas, 
Qui magni celebras Maronis Idus. 

71 



AUSONIUS 

fluere permisi, venustula ut esserit magis, quam 
forticula, instar virginuni, 

qiias matres student 
demissis umeris esse, vincto pectore, ut graciles 
sient. 

nosti cetera. 

Superest igitur^ ut dicas : quid rnoraris iudicatio- 
nem meam de eo, quod ipse pronuntias esse men- 
dosum ? dicam scilicet nie huiusmodi versibus foris 
erubescere^ set intra nos minus verecundari ; namque 
ego haec annis ilHus magis quam meis scripsi aut 
fortasse et meis: 8ts TratSe? ol yepovrcs. ad summam 
valeat austeritas tua : mihi cum infante [ratio est]. 

Vale, fili dulcissime. ^ 

Ad Ncpotem Ausonium 

Sunt etiam musis sua ludicra : mixta camenis 

otia sunt, mellite nepos ; nee semper acerbi 

exercet pueros vox imperiosa magistri, 

set requie studiique vices rata tempora servant. 

et satis est puero niemori legisse libenter, 5 

et cessare licet. Graio scliola nomine dicta est, 

iusta laboriferis tribuantur ut otia musis. 

quo magis alternum certus succedere ludum 

disce Hbens : longum delinitura laborem 

intervalla damus. studium puerile fatiscit, 10 

laeta nisi austeris varientur, festa profestis. 

disce libens, tetrici nee praeceptoris habenas 

* Terence, Enn. 313. 
72 



THE EPISTLES 

allow them to run on smoothly^ so that these little / 
bits may be attractive rather than forceful, like those 
marriageable daughters — 

" whom their mothers seek to make 
Low-shouldered and tight-laced, to seem more trim " ^ 

— you know the rest. 

It only remains, then, for you to say : " Why do 
you wait for my criticism on what you yourself pro- 
claim to be a faulty piece of work ? " My answer, 
of course, will be that I blush for verses of this sort 
in public, but am less ashamed of them when be- 
tween you and me ; for I write them to suit his 
years rather than my own — or perhaps to suit mine 
also : old men are twice children ! In short, good- 
bye to your strictures : I have to do with a child. 

Farewell, my darling son. 

To Ausonius my Grandson 

The Muses also have their own sports : hours of 
ease find place among the Camenae, my honey- 
sweet grandson ; nor does the sour schoolmaster's 
domineering voice always harass boys, but spells of 
rest and study keep each their appointed times. 
As for an attentive boy to have read his lessons 
willingly is enough, so to rest is lawful. "School" 
has been called by that Greek name, that the labo- 
rious Muses may be allowed due share of leisure. 
Wherefore the more, assured that play follows work 
in turn, learn willingly : to beguile the weariness of 
long toil we grant spells of leisure. Boyish zeal 
flags unless serious work is interspersed with merri- 
ment, and workaday with holiday. Learn readily, 
and loathe not, my grandson, the control of your 

73 



AUSONIUS 

detestere, nepos. numquam horrida forma magistri. 

ille licet tristis senio nee voce serenus 

aspera coiitractae minitetur iurgia frontiSj 15 

numquam inmanis erit, placida suetudine vultus 

qui 1 semel inbuerit. rugas nutricis amabit, 

qui refugit matrem. pappos aviasque trementes 

anteferunt patribus seri, nova cura, nepotes. 

sic neque Peliaden terrebat Chiron Achillem 20 

Thessalico permixtus equo nee pinifer Atlans 

Amphitryoniadem puerum, set blandus uterque 

mitibus adloquiis teneros mulcebat aluninos. 

tu quoque ne metuas, quamvis schola verbei*e multo 

increpet et truculenta senex gerat ora magister : 25 

degeneres aninios timor arguit. at tibi consta 

intrepidus, nee te clamor plagaeque sonantes, 

nee matutinis agitet formido sub horis. 

quod sceptrum vibrat ferulae, quod multa supellex 

virgea, quod fallax scuticam pi'aetexit aluta, 30 

(piod fervent. trepido subsellia vestra tumultu, 

pompa loci et vani fucatur scaena timoris. 

haec dim genitorque tuus genetrixque secuti 

securam placido mihi permulsere senectam. 

tu senium, quodcumque superlabentibus annis 35 

fata dabunt, qui nomen avi geris, indole prima, 

prime nepos, vel re vel spe mihi porge fruendum. 

mnic ego te puerum, mox in iuvenalibus annis 

iamque virum cernam, si fors ita iusserit ; aut si 

1 MSS.: cui, Peiper. 
74 



THE EPISTLES 

grim teacher. A master's looks need never cause a 
shudder. Though he be grim with age and, ungentle 
of voice, threaten harsh outbursts with frowning 
brows, never will he seem savage to one who has 
tutored his face to habitual calm. A child will love 
its nurse's wrinkles, who shrinks from its mother ; 
grandchildren when they come at last, a new anxiety, 
prefer doddering grandsires and granddams to their 
parents. So Thessalian Chiron did not affright Achilles, 
Peleus' son, though he was quite half a horse, nor 
pine-bearing Atlas scare Amphitryo's youthful son, 
but both coaxingly used to soothe their 3-oung pupils 
with gentle words. You also be not afraid, though 
the school resound with many a stroke and the old 
master wear a lowering face : " fear proves a spirit 
degenerate." ^ But to yourself be true, mocking at 
fear, and let no outcry, nor sound of stripes, nor 
dread, make you quake as the morning hours come 
on. That he brandishes the cane for sceptre, that he 
has a full outfit of birches, that he has a tawse 
artfully hidden in innocent washleather, that scared 
confusion sets your benches abuzz, is but the outward 
show of the place and painted scenery to cause idle 
fears. Your father and mother went through all 
this in their day, and have lived to soothe my peace- 
ful and serene old age. To that old age, for what- 
ever space the Fates shall grant in the still coming 
years, do you, who bear j'our grandfather's name, 
my first-born grandson, with your first-born powers, 
afford the joy that springs from achievement or 
from promise. Now I see you a boy, soon shall I 
see you in years of youth, and by and by a man, if 
Chance so bid ; or if this be grudged, yet will I 

^ Virgil, Aen. iv. \X 

75 



AUSONIUS 

invidia est, sperabo tamen, nee vota fatiscent, 40 

lit patris utque mei non inmemor ardua semper 
praemia musarum cupias facundiis et olini 
liac gradiare via, qua nos praecessinius et cui 
proconsul genitor, praefectus avunculus instant. 

Perlege, quodcumque est memorabile. prima 
monebo. 45 

conditor Iliados et amabilis orsa Menandri 
evolvenda tibi : tu flexu et acumine vocis 
innumeros numeros doctis accentibus effer 
adfectusque inpone legens. distinctio sensum 
auget et ignavis dant intervalla vigorem. 50 

Ecquando ista meae contingent dona senectae ? 
quando oblita mihi tot carmina totque per aevum 
conexa liistoriae, soccos aulaeaque regum 
et melicos lyricosque modos profando novabis 
obductosque seni facies puerascere sensus ? 55 

te praeeunte, nepos, modulata poemata Flacci 
altisonumqu^ iterum fas est didicisse Maronem. 
tu quoque, qui Latium lecto sermone, Terenti, 
comis et adstricto percurris pulpita socco, 



1 Tliessalius (the father) was proconsul of Africa (378- 
379 A.D.) ; Hesperius (the uncle) prefect of Ital^', Illyricum 
and Africa (377-380). 

^ i.e. the loose measures of Comedy : cp. the epitaph of 
Plautus np. Auhis (Jellius, i. 24 : — 

Scena est descrta. Uein Risus, Ludu', .locusrjue 
Et nuineri innumeri sinud oiniies collacruinarunt. 

•" For the general sense of this passage compare the obser- 
vation of the Comte de Tressan on the Abbe Le >Sage (quoted 
in Sir Walter Scott's Life of Le Sage) : " He possessed the 

76 



THE EPISTLES 

hope — nor shall my prayers grow weary — that, not 
unmindful of your father and myself, you may ever 
strive to win through eloquence the hard-won prizes 
of the Muses, and some day tread this path wherein 
I have gone before and your father, the proconsul, 
and your uncle the prefect ^ now press on. 

^^ Read thoroughly whatever is worth remember- 
ing: I will give you some first hints. You must open 
the pages of the Iliad's creator, study the works 
of lovable Menander : with modulation and with 
stress of voice bring out "measureless measures " ^ 
with a scholar's accent, and infuse expression as you 
read. Punctuation enforces the meaning, and pauses 
give strength even to dull passages.^ 

^1 Ah, when shall these gifts reward mine old age? 
When shall those many poems by me forgot, those 
many links in the chain of history through the ages, 
those comedies, royal tragedies, and strains melic 
and lyric * by thine ^ utterance be recalled ? When 
wilt thou make an old man's clouded faculties grow 
youthful .'' With thee for guide, my grandson, once 
more may I dare to learn Flaccus' rhythmic sti'ains 
and Maro's sonorous lines. Do thou, too, Terence, 
who with thy choice speech ^ adornest Latium, and 
with well-fitting sock^ trippest o'er our stage, compel 



uncommon art of that variation of tone and of employing 
those brief pauses, which, without being actual declamation, 
impress on the hearers the sentiments and beauties of the 
author." 

■* i.e. adapted for the flute or the lyre. 

^ The style being here elevated, a change to the second 
person singular may be permitted. 

* cp. Cicero quoted in Suetonius, Life of Terence : tu quo- 
qiie qui solus lecto sermone, Terenti. . . . 

^ cp. Milton, L'Alle(/ro : " If Jonson's learned sock be on." 

77 



AUSONIUS 

ad nova vix inemorem diverbia coge senectam. 60 

iani facimis, Catilina, timin Lcpidiqiie tuniultum, 

ab Lepido et Catulo iain res et tempora Romae 

orsus bis senos seriem coiiecto })er annos. 

iaiii lego eivili mixtura mavorte duellum, 

niovit quod socio Sertorius exul Hibero. 65 

Nee rudis haec avus admoneOj set mille docendo 
ingenia expertus. multos lactantibus aiinis 
ipse alui gremioque fovens et niurmura solveus 
eripui tenerum blandis nutricibus aevum. 
mox pueros niolli monitu et forniidine leni 70 

pellexi, lit mites peterent per acerba profectus, 
carpturi duleem fructum radicis amarae. 
idem vesticipes motu iam puberis aevi 
ad mores artesque bonas fandique vigorem 
produxi, quamquam imperium eervice negarent 75 
ferre nee insertis praeberent ora lupatis. 
ardiia teniperies, dura experientia, rarus 
eventuSj longo rerum spectatus ab usu, 
ut regat indocilem mitis censura iuventam. 
quae tolerata mihi, donee iam aerumna iuvaret 80 
leniretque usu bona eonsuetudo laborem, 
donee ad Augustae pia munera diseiplinae 
accirer varioque accingerer auctus lionore, 
aurea cum parere mihi pulatia iussum. 
absistat Nemesis, ferat et fortuna iocantem : 85 



^ «■(■. 78 IJ.C. Aiisonius liere adapts a fragment from 
Sallust's Histories (frag. 1). 

78 



THE EPISTLES 

my scarce-remembering age to new delight in tliy 
dialogues. Now, Catiline, thy monstrous plot, now 
Lepidus' sedition, now from the year of Le})idus 
and Catulus ^ the fortunes and vicissitudes of Rome 
do I commence and trace their sequence through 
twice six years. Now read I of that war, not free 
from civil strife," which banished Sertorius stiri'ed 
up with the aid of his Iberian allies. 

^^ And not without skill do I, thy grandfather, 
counsel thee thus, but from the experience gained 
in training a thousand minds. Many from their in- 
fant years have I myself brought up, and, cherishing 
them in ray bosom and hushing their complaints, 
have stolen their tender years from their fond nurses. 
Presently, as boys, with mild warnings and gentle 
threats I lured them to seek through sourness for 
ripe success and pluck sweet fruit sprung from a 
bitter root. I, too, when they assumed manhood's 
garb and reached their vigorous prime, led them on 
towards good living and sound learning and forceful 
speaking, even though they refused to bear the yoke 
of command upon their necks and submitted not 
their mouths to the jagged bits thrust upon them. 
Hard the control, rough the experience, scanty the 
result when viewed after long practice, to govern 
headstrong youth with mild correction I These toils 
did I endure until— when now my pains were be- 
coming pleasant and kindly Custom was lightening 
my toil through use — until, invoked to the sacred 
task of an Emjieror's instruction, I am exalted and 
compassed about with honours manifold, what time 
the golden Palace was bidden to obey me. Let 
Nemesis hold aloof, and may Fortune bear with my 

* Sertorius was joined by a number of Marian refugees, 
particularly by Perpenna who assassinated him in 72 ii.c. 

79 



AUSONIUS 

praesedi imperio, dum praetextatus in ostro 

et sceptro et solio praefert sibi iura magistri 

maioresque putat nostros Augustus honores. 

quos mox sublimi maturus protulit auctu, 

quaestox* ut Augustis, patri natoque, crearer, 90 

ut praefecturani duplicem sellamque curulem, 

ut trabeani pictamque togam, mea praeniia, consul 

induerem fastisque meis praelatus haberer. 

His ego quaesivi meritum quam grande nepoti 
consul avus lumenque tuae praeluceo vitae. 95 

quamvis et patrio iamdudum nomine clarus, 
posses ornatus, posses oneratus haberi ; 
accessit tamen ex nobis honor inclitus. hunc tu 
effice, ne sit onus, per te ut conixus in altum 
conscendas speresque tuos te consule fasces. 100 

XXIII. — AusoNius PoNTio Paulino filio cum ii.le 

MISISSET PoEMATIUM VERSIBUS PI.URIMIS UE Re- 
GIBUS EX TrANQUILLO COLLECTIS 

CoNDiDERAT iam Solis equos Tartesia Calpe 
stridebatque freto Titan iam segnis Hibero : 

' Gratian. - See Introduction, p. xi. 

^ i.e. he was exalted aljove his colleague, in that the year 
was designated "Consule Ausonio." 

* The characteristic play on ornatus . . . oneratus cannot 
well be reproduced. 

'■' Paulinus, born at Bordeaux (?) in 353 or 354 a.d., had 
been a pupil of Ans(jnius. He practised in the courts and 
quickly rose to high honours, becoming consul in 378. He 

8o 



THE EPISTLES 

light speaking : I held sway o'er the Empire, while 
a schoolboy ^ endowed with jiurple, sceptre, throne, 
submitted himself to a tutor's laws, and Augustus 
held my dignity above his own. That dignity in 
due time, when grown to manhood, he advanced to 
dizzy heights, so that I was created Quaestor by 
the Augusti, father and sou ; so that a two-fold 
prefecture ^ and curule chair were mine ; so that, 
for my reward, as consid was I invested with the 
purple robe and the embroidered toga, and was held 
pre-eminent in the annals of my year.^ 

^* Thus have I gained all possible advantage for 
my grandchild, thy consul-grandfather, and shine 
forth the beacon of thy life. Even though, long 
since distinguished even through thy father's fame, 
thou mightst seem graced, mightst seem laden ; * 
yet from me thou hast gained signal renown besides. 
This render thou no load, but by thine own efforts 
struggle to climb on high and hope for thine own 
insignia, thine own consulate. 

XXIII. — AusoNius TO Pontius Pauunus,^ his Son, 

WHEN THE LATTER HAD SENT HIM A PoEM ON 

THE Kings, of great length and based on 
Tranquillus 

Now had Tartesian Calpe hidden the Sun's coursers 
and Titan, now feeble, plunged hissing" 'neath the 

married a Spanish wife, Therasia (the " Tanaquil " of sub- 
sequent letters) ; but in 389 or 390 retired from the world to 
Barcelona, where he was baptized and ordained priest in 393. 
In 394 he left for Nola, where he dwelt as an ascetic near 
the tomlj of St. Felix. About 409 a.d. he was consecrated 
bishop of Nola, and died in 431 a.d. 

^ C2J. Juvenal Sal. xiv. 279 f. : aed longe Calpe relicta 
Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem. 

8i 

VOL. II. O 



AUSONIUS 

iam succedentes quatiebat Luna iuvencas, 
vinceret ut tenebras radiis velut aemula fratris ; 
iam volucres hominuraque genus superabile curis 5 
mulcebant placidi tranquilla oblivia somni ; 
transierant Idus, medius suprema December 
tempora venturo properabat iungere lano ; 
et nonas decimas ab se Nox longa Kalendas 
iugiter acciri celebranda ad festa iubebat. 10 

Neseis^ puto, quid velim tot versibus dicere. me- 
dius fidius neque ego bene intellego: tamen suspicor. 
iam prima nox erat ante diem nonum decimum kal. 
Ian., cum redditae sunt mihi litterae tuae oppido 
quam litteratae. his longe iucundissimum poema 
subdideras, quod de tribus Suetonii libris, quos ille 
de regibus dedit, in epitomen coegisti tanta ele- 
gantia, solus ut mihi videare adsecutus, quod contra 
rerum naturam est, brevitas ut obsciu'a non esset. 
in his versibus ego ista collegi : 

Europamque Asiamque duo vel maxima terrae 
membra, quibus Libyam dubie Sallustius addit 
Europae adiunctam, possit cum tertia dici, 
regnatas multis, quos tama oblitterat et quos 
barbara Romanae non tradunt nomina linguae — 5 
Illibanum Numidamque Avelim Parthumque Vononem 
et Caranum, Pellalfea dedit qui nomina regum. 



1 i.e. Dec. 14th. 

* For the opening of the letter down to this point cp. 
Seneca, Apocolocynlosis, 2. 

' Tliis work is no longer extant. 

* The first two kings are unknown : for Vouones see Tac. 

82 



THE EPISTLES 

Iberian wave ; now Avas Luna lashing on her advanc- 
ing heifers to vanquish darkness with her beams as 
though vying with her brother ; now birds and 
human kind, so vuhierable by care, were wooing 
peaceful sleep and calm forgetfulness ; the Ides 
were passed, and mid-December was hastening to 
link his last days with approaching Janus ; and long 
Night was bidding the nineteenth day of the Calends ^ 
be summoned forthwith to celebrate the feast. 

You do not know, I expect, what I wish to say 
in all these verses. So help me Heaven ! even I do 
not clearly understand : yet I have a glimmering. 
It was early in the night preceding the nine- 
teenth day of the Calends of Januai-y^ when 
your wonderfully lettered letter was delivered me. 
Together with this you sent an extremely delightful 
poem wherein you have condensed the three books of 
Suetonius, which he devotes to the Kings,^ so grace- 
fully that I regai'd you as having alone achieved 
what is contrary to the ordinary course of things — 
conciseness without obscurity. Amongst these verses 
I have picked out the following : — 

"Europe and Asia, Earth's two greatest mem- 
bers, whereto uncertainly Sallust adds Libya as ap- 
panage of Europe, whereas it might be called a 
third part of the globe, have been ruled by many 
kings whom Fame blots from her page, and whom 
their uncouth names perpetuate not in Roman speech 
— Illibanus, Numidian Avelis, Vonones the Parthian, 
Caranus who founded the dynasty of Pella,* and he 

Aim. ii. 1, 58, 68. Caranus, a Heraclid, was the reputed 
successor of Macedon, son of Deucalion, and ancestor of the 
Macedonian kings. For Nechepsos see .Julius Firmicus, 
Math. viii. 5, and for Sesostris, Herodotus ii. 104 ff. 

83 
o 2 



AUSONIUS 

quique magos docuit mysteria vana Nechepsos 
et (jui regnavit sine nomine moxcjue Sesostris . . . 

Haec tu quam perite et concinne, quam modulate 
et dulciter, ita iiixta naturam Romanorum accentuum 
enuntiasti, ut tamen veris et primigenis vocibus sua 
fastigia non perirent. iam quid de eloquentia dicam? 
liquido adiurare possum nullum tibi ad poeticam fa- 
eundiam Romanae iuventutis aequari : certe ita milii 
videri. si erro, pater sum, fer me et noli exigere 
iudicium obstante pietate. verum ego cum pie dili- 
gam, sincere et severe iudico. adfice me, oro, tali 
munei'e frequenter, quo et oblector et lionoror. ac- 
cessit tibi ad artem poeticam mellea adulatio. quid 
enim aliud agunt : 

Audax Icario qui fecit nomina ponto 

et qui Chalcidicas moderate enavit ad arces, 

nisi ut tu vegetam et sublimem alacritatem tuam 
temeritatem voces, me vero, et consultum et quem 
filius debeat imitari, salutari prudentia praeditum 
dicas ? quod equidem contra est. nam tu summa 
sic adpetis, ut non decidas : senectus mea satis 
habet, si consistat. 

Haec ad te breviter et illico vesperis illius secuto 
mane dictavi ; ita enim tabellarius tuus, ut epistulam 

^ cp. Virgil, Aen. vi. 16. 
84 



THE EPISTLES 

who taught the wizards unavailing mysteries, Ne- 
chepsos, or reigned and left no name, and afterwards 
Sesostris . . ." 

How skilfully and neatly, how harmoniously and 
sweetly have you delivered these names, conforming 
at once to the character of our Roman accent, yet 
not allowing the true and original sounds to lose 
their proper stress ! And then what shall I say of 
your gift for expression ? I can absolutely take my 
oath that for fluency in verse none of our Roman 
youths is your equal : at any rate, that is my opinion. 
If I am wrong, I am your father, bear Avith me and 
do not force from me a verdict which my natural 
feelings reject. But in fact, while I love fondly, I 
criticise frankly and strictly. Bestow on me, I beg, 
such favours constantly, thereby both delighting and 
complimenting me. Your skill in poetry has the 
additional attraction of delicious flattery. For what 
else do these lines mean ? — 
" He who through rashness gave his name to the 

Icarian Sea 
And he who, prudent, winged his way to the 

Chalcidian hold," ^ 

save that you call your own lively and soaring vigour 
rashness, but aflirm that I, being both wary and one 
whom a son ought to imitate, am endowed with a 
wholesome cautiousness ? - But indeed the reverse is 
true. For you fly high in such wise that you do 
not fall : my old age is content to stay still. 

I make this brief pronouncement out of hand on 
the morning next after the evening mentioned ; for 
your messenger is only waiting long enough to take 

^ i.e. Paulinus compares himself to Icarus and Ausoiiius 
to Daedalus. 

85 



AUSONIUS 

referretj instabat. nam si mihi otium fuerit, oblec- 
tabile negotium erit ad te prolixius delirarCj te ut 
cliciam, mihi ut satisfaciam. vale. 

XXIV. — AusoNius Paulino Sal. Pl. D. 

Paulino Ausonius. metrum sic suasit, ut esses 

tu prior at nomen praegrederere meum, 
quamquam et fastorum titulo prior et tua Romae 

praecessit nostrum sella curulis ebur, 
et, quae iamdudum tibi palma poetica pollet, 5 

lemnisco ornata est, quo mea palma caret, 
longaevae tantum superamus honore senectae. 

quid refert? cornix non ideo ante cycnum ; 
nee quia mille annos vivit Gangeticus ales, 

vincit centum oculos, regie pavo, tuos. 10 

cedimus ingenio, quantum praecedimus aevo ; 

adsurgit Musae nostra Camena tuae. 
Vive, vale et totidem venturos consere ianos, 

quot tuus aut noster conseruere patres. 

XXV. — Ausonius Paulino Suo Sal. Pl. D. 

QuANTo me adfecit beneficio non delata equidem, 
sed suscepta mea querimonia, Pauline fili ! veritus 
displicuisse oleum, quod miseras, munus iterasti, ad- 
dito etiam Barcinonensis muriae condimento cumu- 



^ The /emniscus was a streamer attached to a victor's 
crown, as a mark of extraordinary distinction. 
^ The Phoenix : cp. iTriphun 16. 

86 



THE EPISTLES 

back a reply. For if I have spare time, it will be 
a delightful occupation to maunder on at greater 
length to you, partly to draw you out, and partly 
to please myself. Farewell. 

XXIV. — AusoNius TO Paulinus sends hearty 
Greeting 

To Paulinus, Ausonius. Metre so bids, placing 
vou before me and setting your name in front of 
mine. And yet before mine comes your name in our 
annals, and at Rome your curule chair of ivory has 
precedence of mine, and in poetry your palm is 
long since decked with ribbons ^ which my palm 
lacks. 'Tis in the glory of prolonged old age alone 
I have the advantage — what matters that .'' The 
crow is not therein above the swan, nor, because he 
lives a thousand years, does the bird of Ganges ^ 
surpass the kingly peacock with his hundred eyes. 
I am beneath you in genius as far as I am above 
you in age ; my homely Muse rises in deference to 
yours. 

13 Live, keep well, and in the time to come link 
New Year to New Year as oft as did your father or 
mine. 

XXV. — Ausonius to his dear Paulinus sends 
HEARTY Greeting 

What kind treatment of me, that my complaint 
is dealt with without even being delivered, my son 
Paulinus ! Fearing that the oil you sent had not 
given satisfaction, you repeat the gift and, by the 
addition of some Barcelona sauce called muria,^ in- 

* = a.\fj.vpls : a sauce prepared by pickling the intestines 
of tunnies or scombers in brine. 

87 



AUSONIUS 

latius praestitisti. scis autem nie id nomen muriae, 
quod in usu vulgi est, nee solere nee posse dicere, 
cum scientissimi veterum et Graeca vocabula fasti- 
dientes Latinum in gari a{)pellatione non habeant. 
sed ego, quocumque nomine liquor iste sociorum 
vocatur, 

lam patinas implebo meas, ut parcior ille 
maiorum mensis applaria sucus inundet. 

Quid autem tam amabile tamque hosjjitale, quam 
quod tu, ut me participes, delicias tuas in ipsa pri- 
mitiarum novitate defrudas ? o melle dulcior, o 
Gratiarum venustate festivior, o ab omnibus patrio 
stringende complexu ! sed haec atque alia huius 
modi documenta liberalis animi aliquis fortasse et 
aliquando, quamvis varus : illud de epistularum tu- 
arum eruditione, de poematis iucunditate, de inven- 
tione et concinnatione iuro omnia nulli uraquam 
imitabile futurum, etsi fateatur imitandum. de quo 
opusculo, ut iubes, faciam. exquisitim universa li- 
mabo et quamvis per te manus summa contigerit, 
caelum superfluae expolitionis adhibebo, magis ut 
tibi paream, quam ut perfectis aliquid adiciam. 

Interea tamen, ne sine corollario j)oetico tabella- 
rius tuus rediret, paucis iambicis praeludendum 



' = yapov, a variety of mnria prepared from the ydpos, or 
scomber. 

* C]>. Pliny, X.II. xxxi. 94 : aliud etiamnum liquoris ex- 
quisiti geniis, quod garon vocavere, intestinis piscium . . . 



THE EPISTLES 

crease its measure. But you know that I am neither 
accustomed nor able to pronounce that name tnuria 
which is popularly used, though the most learned of 
the ancients, even while disdaining to use Greek 
terms, have no Latin name by which to call garum.^ 
But by whatever name that " Liquor of the Allies " ^ 
is called, 

" ni Hood mv plate : tiiis juice, too little used 
Bv our forefathers, must overHow the spoon." 

But what could be more friendly or more generous 
than that you, to give me a share, should cheat 
yourself of your own dainties just when freshly 
coming into season ? O friend sweeter than honey, 

more delightsome than the Graces' charms, O 
worthy to be clasped by everyone in a fatherly 
embrace ! However, these and other tokens of a 
generous nature some other, [)erchance, some day, 
though but rarely, may reveal : as for your talent 
shown in the scholarliness of your letter, in the 
sweetness of your poem, in imagination and in apt 
composition, I swear by everything that it will never 
be imitable by any man, however much he admit 
that it deserves imitation. As for the work itself, 

1 will do as you bid. I will work over the whole 
minutely, and although it has received the highest 
finish at your hands, I will apply my chisel to give a 
superfinish however needless, but rather to obey you 
than to add aught to what is perfect. 

Meanwhile, however, that your messenger may 
not return without a douceur of verse, I think I 
must make a preliminary gambol in a few iambics 

sale maceratis ut sit ilia putrescentium sanies . . . Sociorum 
id appellatur. 

89 



AUSONIUS 

putavi, dum illud, quod a me heroico metro desi- 
deras, incohatur. isti tamen, ita te et Hesperium 
salvos habeam, quod spatio lucubratiunculae unius 
effusi, quamquam hoc ipsi de se probabunt, tamen 
nihil diligentiae ulterioris habuerunt. vale. 

lambe Parthis et Cydonum spiculis, 
iambe pinnis alitum velocior, 
Padi ruentis impetu torrentior, 
magna sonorae grandinis vi densior, 
flammis corusci fulminis vibratior, * 5 

iam nunc per auras Persei talaribus 
petasoque ditis Arcados vectus vola. 
si vera fania est Hippocrene^ quam pedis 
pulsu citatam cornipes fudit fremens, 
tu, fonte in ipso procreatus Pegasi, 10 

primus novorum metra iunxisti pedum 
sanctisque Musis concinentibus novem 
caedem in draconis concitasti Delium. 

Fer banc salutem praepes et volucripes 
Paulini ad usque moenia, Hebromagum loquor, 15 
et protinus, iam si resumptis viribus 
alacri refecti corporis motu viget, 
salvere iussum mox reposce mutuum. 
nihil moreris iamque, dum loquor, redi, 
imitatus ilium stirpis auctorem tuae, 20 

triplici furentcm qui Chimaeram incendio 
supervolavit tutus igne proximo, 
die "te valere," die: "salvere te iubet 
amicus et vicinus et fautor tuus, 

1 Mercury (born in Arcadia) was god of messengers : the 
pelasus, with which he is represented, was worn bj' travellers 
and in- later art is represented as winged. 

- The first verse ever invented was believed to be the 
iambic Irj iroiaV, Iri traidi', trj iraiav—a. strain with which 

90 



THE EPISTLES 

while the work in heroic strains which you want of 
me is beginning. But — so may I have you and 
Hesperius safe ! — since they are dashed off in a 
single evening (though this they in themselves Avill 
guarantee), have had no further pains bestowed upon 
them. Farewell. 

Iambus than Parthian or Cydonian dart, Iambus 
than wings of birds more fleet, than rushing Padus' 
current more impetuous, than the downpour of ratt- 
ling hail more searching, than lightning's dazzling 
flash more darting, even now speed through the 
air borne by Perseus' winged sandals and with the 
cap of the Arcadian god.^ If 'tis truly told that 
Hippocrene gushed forth at the hoof-beat of the 
impatient courser, thou, begotten in the very fount 
of Pegasus, wast first to link new rhvthmic feet 
and, while the nine holy Muses sang in harmony, 
didst urge the lord of Delos to slaughter of the 
dragon.2 

1^ Bear this my greeting, fleetfoot, winged-foot, 
even to the town where Paulinus dwells, I mean 
Hebromagus, and straightway, if, his strength now 
regained, brisk vigour nerves his refreshed frame, 
bid him " hail, " then demand of him a return. Tarry 
not at all, and return now ere I cease to speak, after 
the example of that author of thy source,^ who o'er 
Chimaera with her triple blast of raging flame flew 
safe from the fire so near. Say " hail to thee," say 
" greetings to thee sends thy friend and neighbour 

Apollo was encouraged in his struggle w ith the dragon for 
the possession of Delphi (see 1. 13). See Terentianus Maurus, 
1558 ff., a passage which is almost paraphrased here. 

• i.e. Hippocrene, which burst forth at the hoof-beat of 
Pegasus (auctor) ; cp. 11. 8 ff. 

91 



AUSONIUS 

honoris auctor^ altor ingenii tui." 25 

die et magister, die parens^ die omnia 
blanda atqiie sancta caritatis nomina. 
haveque dicto die vale, actutum et red!. 

Quod si rogabitj quid super scriptis novis 
maturus aevi nee rudis diiudicem : 30 

nescire diees, sed paratum iam fore 
heroicorum versuuni plenum essedum. 
eui subiugabo de molarum ambagibus, 
qui maehinali saxa volvunt pondere, 
tripedes caballos terga ruptos verbere, 35 

his ut vehantur tres sodales nuntii. 
fors et rogabit, quos sodales dixeris 
sinml venire ? die : " Trinodem dactylum 
vidi paratum crucianti cantherio : 
spondeus illi lentipes ibat comes, 40 

paribus moratur qui locis cursum meum, 
mihique similis, semper adversus tamen, 
nee par, nee impar, qui trochaeus dicitur." 

Haec fare cursim nee moratus per vol a, 
aliquid reportans interim munusculi 45 

de largitate musici jiromjitarii. 

XXVI. — AusoNius Paulino suo Sal. Pl. D. 

MuLTAs et frequentes mihi gratiae tuae eausas et 
occasio subinde nata concinnat et naturae tuae faci- 
litas benigna conciliat, Pauline fill, nam quia niiiil 



^ Paulinus owed his consulship to the influence of Ausonius. 
92 



THE EPISTLES 

and tliy patron, the source of thine honours,^ the 
fosterer of thy intellect." Say also "master," say 
" father," say every caressing name of hallowed 
affection. And havin<j^ said " Hail," say " Farewell " 
and instantly return. 

■'^•' But if he ask what judgment my i*ipe and not 
unskilful age pronounces on his latest writings, say 
thou knowest not, but that soon there will be ready 
a waggon full of heroic verses. Thereto I will yoke 
a pair of three-legged screws, back-broken with the 
lash, taken from the labyrinths of the mill, where 
by the heavy crank they turn the millstones, that 
by these may travel three jovial messengers. Per- 
chance, too, he will ask who are these jovial fellows 
whom thou dost say are coming in a troop ? Then 
say : " I saw tliree-jointed Dactyl ready on a heart- 
breaking hack ; ^ slow-footed Spondee was tramping 
in his company — he who at equal intervals checks 
my career— and one much like me but always facing 
about, neither equal to me nor unequal, who is called 
Trochee." 

^^ Thus speak : then in haste fly hither straight 
without delay, bringing back meanwhile some little 
gift from the abundance of that storehouse of poetry. 

XXVI. AUSONIUS TO HIS FRIEND PaULINUS SENDS 

HEARTY Greeting 

Many and various are the causes I have for grati- 
tude to you, which both circumstance, arising from 
time to time, happily introduces, and the ready 
generosity of your nature voluntarily invites, my 
son Paulinus. For in that you deny me nothing 

" cp. Plautus, Caplivi,'8,\'\:: qui advehuntur quadrupedanti 
crucianti cantherio. 

93 



AUSONIUS 

poscente nie abnuis, magis acuis procaciam quam 
retundis : ut nunc quoque in causa Philonis procu- 
ratoris quondam mei experiere, qui apud Hebro- 
niaguni conditis mercibus, quas per agros diversos 
coemit, concesso ab liominibus tuis usus hospitio, 
inmature periclitatur expelli. quod nisi indulseris 
rogante me, ut et mora habitandi ad commodum 
suum utatur et nauso aliave qua navi usque ad op- 
pidum praebita frugis aliquantum nostrae advehi 
possit, Lucaniacus ut inopia liberetur mature : tota 
ilia familia hominis litterati non ad Tullii frumen- 
tariani, sed ad Curculionem Plauti pertinebit. 

Hoc quo facilius impetrarem, aut quo maiorem 
verereris molestiam, si negares, concinnatam iambis 
signatamque ad te epistulam misi, ne subornatum 
diceres tabellarium, si ad te sine signi fide veniret. 
signavi autem, non, ut Plautus ait. 

Per ceram et linum ^ litterasque intei'pretes ; 

sed per poeticum characterem : magis notam inustam, 
quam signum impressum iudicares. 

Philon, meis qui vilicatus praediis, 

ut ij)se vult, eVtrpoTTo?, 
(nam gloriosuni (iraeculus nomen putat, 

quod sermo fucat Dorius) 

^ So Plautua, Pseud. 42 : lignum, MSS. and Peiper. 

^ Or Eburoinagus, the muilern Brain, iitar the foot of llie 
eastern Pyrenees. * A.'s estate. 

94 



THE EPISTLES 

when I demand, you whet my effrontery rather than 
blunt it ; as now again you will realize in the matter 
of Philo, formerly my bailiff, who, after storing at 
Hebromagus ^ goods which he has bought up on 
various estates, is in danger of being driven in- 
conveniently from the slielter which your people 
afforded him. And unless you kindly grant this my 
request — namely that he be permitted to stay on 
there as suits his purpose, and that a barge or some 
sort of vessel be furnished him, that a little of my 
corn may be transported as far as the town, thereby 
delivering Lucaniacus •^ from famine betimes — a lite- 
rary man's whole household there will be reduced, 
not to Cicero's Speech on the Corn Stipply,^ but to the 
Weevil of Plautus. 

That I may the more easily obtain this boon, or 
that you may fear greater bother if you refuse, I 
send you a letter composed in iambics, and duly 
sealed, that you may not say the messenger has 
been tampered with, should he come to you without 
the guarantee of a seal. Yet I have sealed it, not, 
as Plautus says — 

" With wax and thread and signs significant," ^ 

but with a poetic stamp : this you may regard more 
as a brand burnt in than a seal impressed.^ 

Philo, who is bailiff of my estate, or as he him- 
self wishes, the administrator (for your Greekling 
thinks that a fine-sounding name wiiich shows the 

* i.e. the third speech against Verres, dealing witli the 
Sicilian corn supplies, '' Pseudolus, 42. 

* i.e. "my style is like the brand of a hot iron, not super- 
ficial like the impression of a seal." 

95 



AUSONIUS 

suis querellis adsei'it nostras preces, 5 

qiias ipse lentus prosequor. 
videbis ipsuni, qualis adstet coinmimis, 

imago fortunae suae, 
canus, comosus, liispidus, trux, atrihiix, 

Terentianus Phormio, 10 

horrens capillis ut marinus asperis 

echinus aut versus niei. 
liic saepe falsus niessibus vegrandibus 

nomen perosus vilici, 
semente sera sive multum praecoqua 15 

et siderali inscitia 
caelum lacessens seque culpae subtrahens 

reos peregit caelites. 
non cultor instans, non arator gnaruris, 

promusque quam condus magis, 20 

terram infidelem nee feracem criminans 

negotiari maluit 
mercator quo <libet> foro venalium, 

mutator ad Graecam fidem, 
sapiensque supra Graeciae septem viros 25 

octavus accessit sophos. 
et nunc jiaravit ^ triticum casco sale 

novusque pollet emporus ; 
adit inquilinos, rura, vicos, oppida 

soli et sali commercio ; 30 

acatis, phaselis, lintribus, stlattis, rate 

Tarnim et Garumnam permeat 

^ Z : parahit, Peiptr. 



^ cp. Cic. Pro Caecina, x. 27 : nee minus niger, nee minus 
confidens quam ille Terentianus est Phormio. 

^ Hor. Epod. V. 'J7 f. : horret capillis ut niaiiuus asperis 
echinus aut Laurens aper. 



96 



THE EPISTLES 

gilt of the classic tongue), unites with his complaints 
my prayers, which reluctantly I myself dispatch. 
You shall see the man himself as he stands close by 
me, the very image of his class, grey, bushy-haired, 
unkempt, blustering, bullying, Terence's Phormio,^ 
with stiff hair bristling like a sea-urchin- or my lines. 
This fellow, when light harvests had oft belied his 
promises, came to hate the name of bailiff; and, 
after sowing late or nmch too early through igno- 
rance of the stars,^ made accusation against the 
powers above, carping at heaven and shifting the 
blame from himself No diligent husbandman, no 
experienced ploughman, a spender rather than a 
getter,* abusing the land as treacherous and un- 
fruitful, he preferred to do business as a dealer in 
any sale-market, bartering for "Greek credit," '' and, 
wiser than the Seven VV^orthies of Greece, has joined 
them as an eighth sage. And now he has provided 
grain at the price of old salt,*^ and blossoms out 
as a new trader ; he visits tenants, country parts, 
villages and townships, travelling by land and sea ; 
by bark, skiff, schooner, galley, he traverses the 
windings of the Tarn and the Garonne, and by 

' i.e. of those which mark the time for sowing. Soe 
Hesiod, W. and D. 384, 615 f. 

* cp. Plant. Psend. (j08 : coiuliis promus procurator pen!. 
^ See iJpi.st. vi. 42 (note). 

• i.e. ]]\ bartering salt for grain. 

97 

vol.. II. H 



AUSONIUS 

ac lucra dainiiis, danina mutans fVaudibus 

se ditat et me pauperat. 
Is nunc ad usque vectus Hebiomagum tuani 35 

sedem locavit niercibus, 
ut inde nauso devehat[ur tritiouni *] 

nostros in usus, ut refert. 
hunc ergo paucis ne graveris hospitem 

[cura diebus ut meet,^] 40 

adactus ut niox navis auxilio tuae 

ad usque portus oppidi 
iam iam Perusina, iam Saguntina fame 

Lucaniacum Hberet. 
Hoc si impetratum munus abs te accepero, 45 

prior colere quam Ceres : 
Triptolemon olim, sive Epimenidem vocant, 

aut viUconum Buzygem, 
tuo locabo postferendos numini, 

nam munus hoc fiet tuum. 50 

XXVI I. — Ad eundem cum ille ad alia magis 

RESPONDEHET NEQUE SE VENTURUM POLl.ICERETUR 

DiscuTiMUs, Pauline, iugum^ quod nota fovebat 
temperies, leve quod positu et venerabile iunctis 
tractabat paribus Concordia mitis liabenis ; 
quod per tarn longam seriem volventibus annis 
tabula non umquam, numquam querimonia movit, 5 
nulla querella loco pepulit, non ira nee error 
^ Suppl. Schenld. " Suppl. Translator. 

^ i.e. where there is a profit he represents it (in his 
accounts) as a loss ; and where there is really loss he 
fraudulently enlarges it. 

■'' Perusia, held by L. Antonius, was reduced through 
famine by Oolavian (41-40 B.C.) ; Saguntuni was similarly 
taken by Hannibal (219 B.C.). 

98 



THE EPISTLES 

changing profits into losses and losses into frauds,^ 
he makes himself rich and me poor. 

^^ He now has sailed right up to your villa He- 
bromagus and made it the depot for his goods, that 
thence by barge grain may be carried down for my 
service, as he avers. This guest, then, lest you be 
burdened, speed on his way in a few days, that, 
transported forthwith by the help of your vessel 
as far as the township's harbour, he may deliver 
Lucaniacus from famine by now, by now Perusian, 
by now Saguntine.^ 

■'^ If I receive this boon I ask of you, you shall 
be worshipped above Ceres : old Triptolemus or, as 
some call him, Epimenides, or Buzyges,^ the bailiff's 
patron, will I arrange to make inferior to your god- 
head, for this corn will become your gift. 

XXVH. — To THF. SAME PaULINUS, WHEN HE REPLIED 
TO EVERYTHING ELSE WITHOUT PROMISING TO COME 

We are shaking off' a yoke, Paulinus, which its 
tried equableness once made easy, a yoke liglitly 
laid and worthy the respect of those it joined, which 
mild Concord used to guide with even reins ; which 
through so long a line of rolling years never an idle 
tale, never a peevish complaint has stirred, nor 
quarrel thrust from its place, nor anger, nor mis- 
apprehension, nor Suspicion which, lending too ready 

'■' According to Hesycliius, an Attic liero who first yoked 
oxen to tlie plough : lie was also known as Epimenides. 
Triptolemus was otherwise believed to have made this in- 
vention. 

99 



AUSONILTS 

nee quae conpositis male suadae crediila causis 
conciiinat veri similes suspiciu cuIjkis ; 
tarn placidum, tam mite iiigum, quod utrique parentes 
ad senium nostri traxere ab origine vitae 10 

inpositumque piis lieredibus usque niauere 
optai'uiit, dum longa dies dissolveret aevum. 
et mansit, dum laeta fides nee cura laborat 
officii servare vices, set sponte feruntur 
iucustoditum sibi continuantia cursum. 15 

Hoc tam mite iugum docili cervice subirent 
Martis equi stabuloque feri Diomedis abacti 
et qui mutatis ignoti Solis habenis 
fubnineum Phaethonta Pado mersere iugales. 
discutitur, Pauline, tamen : nee culpa duorum 20 

ista, set unius tantum tua. namque ego semper 
contenta cervice feram. consorte laborum 
destituor, nee tam promptum gestata duobus 
unum deficiente pari perferre sodalem. 
non animus viresque labant, sed iniqua ferendo 25 
condicio est oneri, cum pondus utrumque relicto 
ingruit acceduntque alienae pondera librae, 
sic pars aegra hominis trahit ad contagia sanum 
corpus et exigui quamvis discrimine membri 
tota per innumeros artus conpago vacillat. 30 

obruar usque tamen, veteris ne desit amici 
me durante fides memorique ut fixa sub aevo 
restituant profugum, solacia cassa, sodalem. 

Inpie, Pirithoo disiungere Thesea posses 
Euryalumque suo socium secernere Niso ; 35 



THE EPISTLES 

ears to Persuasion's truinped-up pretexts, forms from 
them grievances to look like truth ; so gentle, so 
easy a yoke which both our fathers drew on into 
old age from the beginning of their life, which, laid 
upon tiieir duteous heirs, they would have had re- 
main throughout till length of days broke up our 
lives. And remain it did, while there was joyous 
trust and no laborious care to maintain exchange 
of good offices, but they flowed freely, keeping 
unbroken their unguarded course. 

^^ This yoke so mild Mars' horses would endure 
with obedient neck, and those wild steeds stolen 
from the stable of Diomedes, and even that team 
which, when another than the Sun held their reins, 
plunged lightning-blasted Phaethon in the Padus. 
Yet it is being shaken off, Paulinus ; and that, not 
through the fault of both, but of one alone — of 
thee. For my neck will ever bear it gladly. It is 
the partner of my toil deserts me, and 'tis not so 
easy for one, when his fellow fails, to carr}^ on alone 
that which the two bare as comrades. Heart and 
strength fail not, but unfair is the condition of 
carrying a burden, when both loads are laid on the 
partner left and the weight of another's charge is 
added. So one ailing member in a man involves the 
sound body in infection, and the j)eril even of a tiny 
limb makes the whole knitted frame totter in all its 
countless joints. Yet let me even be crushed if only 
loyalty to my old friend fail not while I endure, and 
memory deep-planted in the years bring back — vain 
consolation ! — my errant comrade. 

^* Ah, heartless ! From Peirithous thou couldst 
part Theseus and separate Euryalus from the com- 
pany of his dear Nisus ; urged to flight by thee, 

lOI 



AUSONIUS 

te suadente fugam Pylades liquisset Oresten 

nee ciistodisset Siculus vadimonia Damon. 

quantum oblectamen populi, quae vota bonorum 

sperato fraudata l)ono I gratantia cuncti 

verba loquebantur: iam nomina nostra parabant iO 

inserere antiquis aevi melioris amicis. 

cedebat Pylades, Phrygii quoque gloria Nisi 

iam minor et promissa obiens vadimonia Damon. 

nos documenta magis felicia, qualia magnus 

Scipio longaevique dedit sapientia Laeli : 45 

nos studiis animisque isdem miracula cunctis, 

lioc maiora, pares fuimus quod dispare in aevo. 

ocius ilia iugi fatalis solvere lora 

Pellaeum potuisse ducem reor, abdita opertis 

principiis et utroque caput celantia nodo. 50 

Grande aliquod verbum nimirum diximus, ut se 
inferret nimiis vindex Rhamnusia votis ; 
Arsacidae ut quondam regis non laeta triumphis 
grandia verba premens ultrix dea Medica belli 
sistere Cecropiduni in terris nionumenta paranti 55 
obstitit et Graio iam iam Agenda tropaeo 
ultro etiam victis Nemesis stetit Attica Persis. 

Quae tibi Romulidas proceres vexare libido est? 
in Medos Arabasque tuos per nubila et atrum 
perge chaos : Romana procul tibi nomina sunto. 60 

^ cp. Epigr. xlii. Pausanias (i. xxxiii. 2) relates that the 
Persians, making sure of victory, brought with them to Mara- 
tlion a block of Parian marlile to l)e erected there as a 
trophy (Graio iam iumfgenda tropaeo). After the rout of the 

102 



THE EPISTLES 

Pylades would have left Orestes, and Sicilian Damon 
would not have kept his bond ! What general de- 
light, what good men's prayers have thus been 
cheated of their looked-for gain ! They all were 
speaking words of congratulation: already the}' were 
about to enter our names in the lists of friends be- 
longing to nobler days of old. Pylades was giving 
place, Phrygian Nisus also now was growing less 
famed, and Damon who met his promised bail. We 
showed less tragic tokens of friendship, even as 
great Scipio and Laelius, long-lived in wisdom : we, 
with pursuits and hearts the same, were marvellous 
to all, the more for this that we were equals though 
unequal-aged. Sooner, methinks, could the Pellaean 
war-lord have loosed the lashings of that fate-fraught 
yoke, although their beginning was concealed from 
view and their end hidden by a double knot. 

^1 Some presumptuous word we surely spoke, that 
the vengeful queen of Rhamnus thus made onslaught 
on our excessive hopes; as in old days when, angered 
at the vaunting of Arsaces' royal son, the avenging 
goddess, crushing his presumptuous boasts, with- 
stood his purpose to set up in the land of Cecrops' 
sons a memorial of the Median arms, and just when 
she was to be raised to support a trophy of Greek 
arms, deliberately took her stand as Attic Nemesis 
to mark the Persian rout.^ 

^8 What caprice of thine is this to harass nobles 
of the seed of Romulus ? Against Medes and Arabs, 
thy natural foes, advance through clouds and chaos 
black : from men of Roman name keep thou afar. 

Persians tliis was wrouglit by Phidias (others say Agora- 
critus) into a statue of Nemesis and set up at Rhamnus 
(see 1. 52). 

103 



AUSONIUS 

illic quaere alios oppugnatura sodales, 

livor ubi iste tuus ferrugineumque veiicnum 

opportuna tuis inimical pectora fucis. 

Paulimim Ausoniumque, viros, quos sacra Quirini 

purpura et auratus trabeae velavit amictus, Gu 

non decet insidiis peregrinae cedere divae. 

Quid queror eoique insector crimina inoiistri ? 
occidui me ripa Tagi, me Punica laedit 
BarcinOj me bimavis iuga ninguida Pyrenaei. 
[laedis et ipse tuos qui deseris ultro, relictis ^] 
moenibus et patrio forsan quoque vestis et oris 70 
[more, interque novos qui nunc versaris amicos'] 
quemque suo longe dirimat provincia tractu 
trans montes solemque alium, trans flumina et urbes 
et quod terrarum caelique extenditur inter 
Emeritensis Anae lataeque fluenta Garumnae. 

Quod si intervalli spatium tolerabile limes 75 

poneret exiguus (quamvis longa omnia credant, 
qui simul esse volunt), faceret tamen ipsa propinquos 
cura locos, mediis iungens distantia verbis; 
Santonus ut sibi IJurdigalam, mox iungit Aginnum 
ilia sibi et po])ulos Aquitanica rura colentes ; 80 

utque duplex Arelas Alpinae tecta Viennae, 
Narbonemque pari spatio sibi consent, et mox 
quinquiplicem socias tibi, Martie Narbo, Tolosam. 
hoc mihi si spatium vicinis moenibus esset, 

^ Suppl. Translator. 
104 



THE EPISTLES 

There rather seek thou friendships to assail, where 
that jealousy of thine and rankling venom estranges 
hearts well-fitted for thy deceits. For Paulinus and 
Ausonius, men whom the sacred purple of Quirinus 
and the golden tissue of the consul's robe have 
enwrapped, to yield to the stratagems of a foreign 
goddess is not seemly. 

^"^ Wherefore do I complain and cry out on the 
ravage of an eastern monster ? 'Tis western Tagus' 
shores, 'tis Punic Barcelona that does me hurt, 'tis 
the Pj^renees whose snowy crests join sea to sea, 
thou thyself also dost me hurt, thou who abandonest 
thy friends witliout a cause, deserting th}^ town and, 
])erchance, the native fashion of thy dress and speech, 
thou who now dwellest among new friends, whom 
the extent of a wide province parts from me beyond 
mountains 'neath an alien sun, beyond rivers and 
cities and all the land and sky which lie outsj)read 
betwixt Merida by Ana's streams and the wide flood 
of the Garonne. 

"^ If only the division were narrow and interposed 
a separating space not too formidable (albeit they 
think every place far off who seek to be together), 
even so affection's self would make the places near, 
spanning the interval with a bridge of words ; even 
as Saintes keeps touch with Bordeaux, and she again 
with Agen and the folk who till the country parts 
of Aquitaine ; and as two-fold Aries ^ links to her- 
self at equal distances the roofs of Alpine Vienne 
and Narbonne ; and then thou, Martian "^ Narbonne, 
alliest with thee five-fold Toulouse.^ If such the 
distance severing our neighbouring towns, then 



1 cp. Ordo Urb. Xoh. x. 1. 

- id. 2; xix. 1. ^ id. xviii. 7 flf. 



105 



AUSONIUS 

tunc ego te ut nostris aptum conplecterer ulnis 85 
adflaretqiie tuas aures nostrae aura loquellae. 

Nunc tibi trans Alpes et marmoream Pyrenen 
Caesarea est Augusta domus, Tyrrlienica j^ropter 
Tarraco et ostrifero super addita Barcino ponto : 
me iuga Burdigala/ trino me flumina coetu 90 

secernunt turbis popularibus otiaque inter 
vitiferi exercent coUes laetumque colonis 
uber agri^ tum prata virentia, tum nemus umbris 
mobilibus celebrique frequens ecclesia vico 
totque mea in Novaro sibi proxima praedia pago, 95 
dispositis totum vicibus variata per annum, 
egelidae ut tepeant liiemes rabidosque per aestus 
adspirent tenues frigus subtile Aquilones. 
te sine set nullus grata vice provenit annus, 
ver pluvium sine flore fugit, Canis aestifer ardet, 100 
nulla autumnales variat Pomona sapores 
effusaque hiemem contristat Aquarius unda. 
agnoscisne tuam, Ponti dulcissime, culpam? 
nam mihi certa fides nee conmutabilis umquam 
Paulini illius veteris reverentia durat 105 

quaeque meoque tuoque fuit concordia patri. 
si tendi facilis cuiquam fuit arcus Ulixei 
aut praeter dominum vibrabilis ornus Achilli, 
nos quoque tarn longo Rhamnusia foedere solvet. 

^ P : Burdigalae, Peiper. 

' Originally 8aldiiba, it was renamed in honour of Augus- 
tus in 25 B.C. 

io6 



THE EPISTLES 

would I clasp thee, ready to my embrace, and the 
air of my complaint would be breathed into thy 
ears. 

^'^ Now for thee beyond the Alps and stony 
Pyrenees, Saragossa is thy home,^ Tyrrhenian Tarra- 
gona'^ is near by, and Barcelona built above the 
oyster-bearing sea: me hills, me rivers in tri])le array ^ 
part from Bordeaux and from the common throng, and 
in my leisure the vine-clad hills engage me, the rich 
glebe with its blithe peasantry, now the green meads, 
now the copse with its dancing shades, the church * 
thronged with crowding villagers, and all those my 
domains hard by each other in Novarus village, 
which enjoy such change at the various seasons 
throughout the year, that the chill winters are warm 
for them and in the furious summer heats soft north 
winds breathe over them a gentle coolness. Yet 
without thee the year advances, bringing no grate- 
ful change. The rainy Spring flits by lacking its 
flower, the heat-bringing Dog-Star parches, Pomona 
brings not variety of sweet autumn fruits, and with 
outpoured water Aquarius makes gloomy all the 
winter. Dost thou perceive thy fault, my dearest 
Pontius ? For my loyalty remains steadfast and, 
never to be changed, inv regard for the Paulinus of 
old days endures, even as the harmony betwixt my 
sire and thine. If Ulysses' bow Avas easy to be 
strung by any man, or if Achilles' spear could be 
wielded save by its lord, then shall the queen of 
Rhamnus loose us from so long a bond. 

^ Tarragona was not an Etrurian foundation, but looks 
out over the Etruscan Sea. 

■* The Garonne, the Durane, and the Charente. 
* Or assembly. 

107 



AUSONIUS 

Set cm- tam maesto sero tristia carmina versu 110 
et non in meliora animus se vota propinquat ? 
sit procul iste metus. certa est fiduoia nobis, 
si genitor natusque dei pia verba volentum 
accipiat, nostro reddi te })osse precatu, 
ne sparsam raptamque doniiim lacerataque centum 
per dominos veteris Paulini regna Heamus 116 

teque vagum toto quam longa Hispania tractu, 
inmemorem veterum peregrinis fidere amicis. 

Adcurre, o nostrum decus, o mea maxima cura, 
votis ominibusque bonis ])recibusque vocatus, ll'O 

adpropera, dum tu iuvenis, dum nostra senectus 
servat inexliaustuni tibi gratificata vigorem. 
ecquando iste meas inpellet nuntius aures ? 
" Ecce tuus Paulinus adest ; iam ninguida linquit 
oppida Hiberorum, Tarbellica iam tenet arva, 125 
Hebromagi iam tecta subit, iam praedia fratris 
vicina ingreditur, iam labitur amne secundo 
iamque in conspectu est: iam prora obvertitur amni : 
ingressusque sui celebrata per ostia portus 
totum occursantis populi praevertitiir agmen 130 

et sua praeteriens iam iam tua limina pulsat. " 

Credimus an, qui amant, i])si sibi somnia fingunt? 



loS 



THE EPISTLES 

110 But why weave 1 sucli sad refrain in niournt'iii 
verse, why does my heart nut turn to nobler prayers? 
Far he that fear! Sure is my confidence that, if 
tlie Father and the Son of God accept the reverent 
words of those who seek, thou canst be restored at 
my prayer, that I may weep not for a home scattered 
and ravaged, for the reahii rent in pieces between 
a hundred owners, once Pauhnus's, and for thee, 
that, wandering with a range as wide as the extent 
of Spain, unmindful of old friends thou dost trust 
in strangers. 

119 O hasten hither, my pride, my chiefest care, 
summoned with vows, good omens, and with prayers 
speed thee hither, while thou art young and while 
my old age to win thy favour preserves its vigour 
unconsumed. Ah, when shall this news break on 
my ears ? " Lo, thy Paulinus is at hand : now he 
leaves the snowy towns of Sjiain, now reaches the 
fields of Tarbellae, now approaches the homesteads 
of Hebromagus, now enters his brother's domains 
hard by, now glides down stream, and now is in 
sight : now the prow is being swung out into the 
stream : i now he has passed the thronged entrance 
of his home-port, outstrips the whole host of folk 
who hurry to meet him, and passing his own doors 
now, even now beats at thine." 

" Do I believe, or do those who love feign dreams 
for their own selves." '^ 

1 cp. V^irgil, Aen. vi. .S : obvertunt pelago proras. The 
prow was swung outwards, the stern brought in to land for 
mooring. * Virgil, Ed. viii. 108. 



109 



AUSONIUS 
XXVI I [. — Ad eundem Pontium Paulinum Epistui.a 

SUBINDE SCUIPTA 

Proxima quae nostrae fuerat queriinonia chartae, 

credideram quod te, Pauline, inflectere posset 

eliceretque tuarn blanda obiurgatio voeem. 

set tu, iuratis velut alta silentia sacris 

devotus teneas, perstas in lege tacendi. 5 

non licet ? anne pudet, si quis tibi iure j)aterno 

vivat amicus adhuc maneasque obnoxius heres ? 

ignavos agitet talis timor, at tibi nuUus 

sit metus et morem missae acceptaeque salutis 

audacter retine. vel si tibi proditor instat 10 

aut quaesitoris gravior censura timetur, 

occurre ingenio, quo saepe occulta teguntur. 

Thraeicii quondam quam saeva licentia regis 

fecerat elinguem, per licia texta querellas 

edidit et tacitis mandavit criniina telis. 15 

et pudibunda sues malo commisit amores 

virgo nee erubuit tacituro conscia pomo. 

depressis scrobibus vitium regale minister 

credidit idque diu texit fidissima tellus : 

inspirata deliinc vento cantavit harundo. 20 

lacte incide notas : arescens charta tenebit 

semper inaspicuas ; prodentur scripta favillis. 

vel Lacedaemoniam scytalen imitare, libelli 

segmina Pergamei tereti circumdata ligno 

^ The allusion is probably to the rule of silence on which 
monks at this period laid gi-eat stress. 

^ Therasia, I'aulinus' wife is meant : cp. 1. 31 (below). 

* For the story of Piiilomela and Tereus see Ovid, Metam. 
vi. 574 fl". 



THE EPISTLES 

XXVIII. To THE SAME PoNTIUS PaULINUS: A LeTTER 

WKITTEN JUST AFTER THE PRECEDING 

I HOPED that the coniphiint which filled my latest 
letter might be able to move thee, Paulinus, and 
that my caressing re{)roof might lure thee to reply. 
But thou, as if after swearing by holy things thou 
wast vowed to keep deep silence, abidest obstinately 
by the rule of speechlessness.^ Is it not allowed ? Or 
art thou ashamed to have a friend still alive who claims 
a father's rights, whilst thou remainest the dependent 
heir? Let cowards quake with such dread, but have 
thou no fear, and boldly keep the custom of giving 
and returning greeting. Or if an informer is beside 
thee, and if 'tis an inquisitor's ^ too stern rebuke is 
feared, baffle it with a device vhereby secrets are 
oft concealed. She wliom the brutal outrage of the 
Thracian king had robbed of her tongue, revealed 
her sorrows by means of woven threads and com- 
mitted the story of her wrongs to the silent loom." 
Also a shamefast maid entrusted the tale of her love 
to an apple,"* and blushed not to share her secret 
with fruit which could never speak. To deep-dug 
pits a servant revealed his royal lord's deformity,^ 
and long the earth hid the secret most faithfully : 
thereafter the reed, breathed on by the wind, sang 
the story. Trace letters with milk : the })aper as it 
dries will keep them ever invisible ; yet with ashes 
the writing is brought to light.^ Or imitate the 
Spartan scylule, writing on strips of parchment wound 

* Cydippe : see Ovid, Htroides, xx. 9 f. 

^ Midas : for the story see Ovid, Metam xi. 180 ff. 

* If a paper written as prescribed is sprinkled with ashes, 
which are then shaken off, the writing shows up faintly in 
grey. 

Ill 



AUSOXIUS 

l)erj)etuo inscrihens versu, qui deiude solutus, 25 

lion respondentes sparse dabit ordine formas, 
donee eonsiniilis lii>iii repliectur in orheni. 

Innuineras possum celandi osteiidere formas 
et clandestinas veterum reserare loquellas : 
si prodi, Pauline, times nostraeque vereris 30 

ei-imen amicitiae; Tanaquil tua neseiat islud. 
tu contemne alios nee dedignare parentem 
adfari verbis, ego sum tuus altor et ille 
praeceptor, primus veterum largitor lionorum, 
primus in Aonidum qui te collegia duxi. 35 

XXIX. — Cum Pontius Paulinus iunior quartis 

JAM LITTERIS NON RESPONDISSET SIC AD EUM 
SCRIPTUM EST 

QuARTA tibi haec notos detexit epistula questus, 
Pauline, et blando residem sermone lacessit. 
officium set nulla piuni mihi pagina reddit, 
I'austa salutigeris adscribens orsa libellis. 
unde istam meruit non felix charta repulsam, 5 

spernit tam longo cessatio quam tua fastu ? 
hostis ab hoste tamen per barbara verba salutem 
accipit et Salve mediis intervenit armis. 
respondent et saxa homini et percussus ab antris 
sermo redit, redit et neinorum vocalis imago; 10 

* See Aulus Gellius, xvii. ix. 6 ff. 

^ i.e. for enciphering and deciphering. 

' c]-). Juvenal, vi. 560. Tanaquil (wife of the elder Tar- 
(juin), the typical domineering woman, represents Therasia, 
the wife of I'aulinus. 



THE EPISTLES 

about a rounded stick in continuous lines, wliich, 
afterwards unrolled, will show characters incoherent 
because sequence is lost, until they are I'olled again 
about just such another stick. ^ 

2^ I can show thee countless codes of the ancients 
for concealing and unlocking secret messages " ; if 
thou, Paulinus, fearest to be betrayed and dread'st 
the charge of my friendship, let thy Tanaquil ^ know 
naught of it. Do thou scorn others, but disdain 
not to address thy father. I am thy nourisher, thy old 
tutor, the first to lavish on thee the honours of old 
time,* the first to introduce thee into the guild of 
the Aonides. 

XXIX. — When Pontius Paulinus the younger did 

NOT reply to the FOUR LETTER* ALREADY SENT, 
THE FOLLOWING WAS WRITTEN TO HIM 

This is the fourth letter in which I have laid bare 
to thee, Paulinus, my familiar complaint, and with 
caressing words sought to stir thee from thy lethargy. 
But never a page comes to repay my loving atten- 
tions, no propitious words writ at the head of sheets 
whicli bring me greeting.^ How has my luckless 
letter, for which your long neglect shows such 
disdain, deserved this rebuff? Yet foe from foe 
receives greeting ^ in savage speech and "hail " comes 
between opposed arms. Even rocks make answer to 
mankind and speech beating back from caves returns, 
returns too the vocal mimicry of the woods; cliffs by 

■• The reference may be either to the consulship which 
Ausonius procured for Paulinus in 378 a.d., or to the glories 
of ancient literature. 

'^ i.e.. no letter with the formula, ftaliittm dal plurimam. 

^ As pugilists shake hands on entering the ring. 

VOL- "• I 



AUSONIUS 

litorei clamant scopuli, daiit murmiira rivi, 
Hyblaeis apibus saepes depasta susurrat. 
est et Iiarundineis modulatio musica ripis 
cumque suis loquitur tremulum coma j)inea ventis. 
incubuit foliis quotiens levis eurus acutis, 15 

Dindyma Gargarico resjjondent cantica luco. 
nil mutum natura dedit. non aeris ales 
quadrupedesve silent, habet et sua sibila serpens, 
et pecus aequoreum tenui vice vocis anhelat. 
cymbala dant flictu sonitum, dant pulpita saltu 20 
icta j)edum, tentis reboant cava tympana tergis ; 
Isiacos agitant Mareotica sistra tumultus 
nee Dodonaei cessat tinnitus aeni, 
in numerum quotiens radiis ferientibus ictae 
respondent dociles modulato verbere pelves. 25 

Tu velut Oebaliis habites taciturnus Amvclis 
aut tua Sigalion Aegyptius oscula signet, 
obnixum, Pauline, taces. agnosco j)udorem, 
quod vitium fovet ipsa suum cessatio iugis, 
dumque pudet tacuisse diu, placet officiorum 30 

non servare vices ; et amant longa otia culpam. 
quis j)rohibet Salve atque Vale brevitate ])arata 
scribere felicesque notas mandare libellis? 
non ego, longinquos ut texat pagina versus, 
postulo multiplicique oneret sermone tabellas. 35 

1 cp. Virgil, Ed. i. 54 ff. : saepes Hyblaeis apibus floreni 
depasta salicti, etc. 

- Dindymus, near Pessinus, was famed for the' noisy rites 
of Cybele held there : Gargara is a part of Mount Ida. 

•* i.e. Egyptian Tiie i^iMrum was a rattle consisting of 
rings strung on the cross-bars of a metal frame, and was used 
for ritual purposes. 

114 



THE EPISTLES 

the sea-shore cry out, streams utter their murmurs, 
the hedges, whereon bees of Hybla feed,^ are 
ever wliispering. Reed-grown banks also have their 
tuneful harmonies, and the pine's foliage in trem- 
bling accents talks with its beloved winds. So oft as 
the light eastern breeze leans on the shrill-voiced 
leaves, strains of Dindymus respond to the grove of 
Gargara.- Nature made nothing dumb. Birds of 
the air and four-footed beasts are not mute, even the 
serpent has its own hissing note, and the herds of 
the deep sigh with faint semblance of a voice. 
Cymbals give sound at a clash, stages at beat of 
bounding feet, the taut skins of hollow drums give 
back a booming ; Mareotic ^ sistra raise rattling din 
in Isis' honour nor does Dodona's brazen tinkling cease 
as oft as the lavers at the clappers' measured stroke 
obediently reply with rhythmic beat.* 

2*5 Thou, as though thou wert a mute citizen of 
Oebalian Amyclae,'' or Egyptian Sigalion ^ were 
sealing thy lips, stubbornly keepest silence, Paulinus. 
I recognise shame in thee, for continued negli- 
gence cherishes her own defect, and in shame 
for long silence thou dost resolve not to main- 
tain interchange of courtesies ; and lengthened 
idleness loves its own fault. Who forbids you to 
write "hail" and "farewell" with studied brevity, 
and to commit to paper these words of greeting ? 
I do not demand that thy page should Aveave a long 
drawn out web of verse and burden thy letter with a 

* The Oracle at Uodona was surrounded by a circle of 
brazen pans hung in trees which were either struck by a 
priest, or clashed together in the wind. 

* See Profe.ssoref, xv. 6 and note. 

* i.e. Harpocrates (Heru-pa-khrat), who is represented in 
EgN'ptian art with his finger upon his lips. 

I 2 



AUSONIUS 

una fuit tantum, qua respondere Lacones 
littera, et irato vegi placuere negantes. 
est etenim comis brevitas : sic fania renatum 
Pythagoram docuisse refert. cum multa loquaces 
ambiguis sererent verbis, contra omnia solum 40 

Est, respondebat, vel Non. o cei'ta loquendi 
regula ! nam brevius nihil est et plenius istis, 
quae firmata probant aut infirmata relidunt. 
nemo silens placuit, multi bi*evitate loquendi. 

Verum ego quo stulte dudum spatiosa locutus 45 
provehor ? ut diversa sibi vicinaque culpa est ! 
multa loquens et cuncta silens non ambo placemus. 
nee possum reticere, iugum quod libera numquam 
fert pietas nee amat blandis postponere verum. 
vertistij Pauline, tuos dulcissime mores } 50 

Vasconis hoc saltus et ninguida Pyrenaei 
hospitia et nostri facit hoc olilivio caeli ? 
inprecer ex merito quid non tibi, Hiberia tellus ! 
te populent Poeni, te perfidus Hannibal urat, 
te belli sedem repetat Sertorius exul. 55 

ergo meum patriaeque decus columenque senati 
Birbilis aut haerens scopulis Calagorris habebit, 
aut quae deiectis iuga per scruposa minis 
arida torrentem Sicorim despectat Hilerda.'' 
hie trabeam, Pauline, tuam Latiamque curulem 60 
constituis, patriosque istic sepelibis honores ? 

Quis tamen iste tibi tam longa silentia suasit 

* When Philip asked leave to visit their city, the '^l)artalls 
replied o ( = ov). See Technopueyn. xiii. 5 and note. 

Il6 



THE EPISTLES 

multitude of words. Twas but one letter wherewith 
the Spartans made reply and, though refusing, 
pleased the angry king.^ For indeed terseness is 
courteous ; so, report says, taught reborn Pythagoras. 2 
While babblers would be stringing indecisive words, 
in all cases he would answer only "Yes" or " No." 

stable rule of speech ! For nothing is shorter and 
more adequate than these, Avhich approve the valid 
or reject the invalid. None pleased by silence ; 
many by brief reply. 

*^ But I, whither with foolish amplitude of speech 
have I been long careering ? How distant from 
itself and yet how near is error ! 1 with long speech, 
thou with utter silence, we both displease. Yet can 

1 not keep silence, for free affection never bears 
yoke, nor loves to screen truth with glozing words. 
Hast thou, dearest Paulinus, changed thy nature ? 
Do Biscayan glades and sojourns in the snowy 
Pyrenees and doth forgetfulness of our clime work 
thus ? What curse shall I not righteously call down 
on thee, O land of Spain ? May Carthaginians 
ravage thee, may faithless Hannibal waste thee with 
fire, may banished Sertorius again seek in thee the 
seat of war ! Shall then Birbilis or Calagorris cling- 
ing to its crags, or parched Ilerda ^ whose ruins, 
littered over rugged hills, look down on brawling 
Sicoris, possess him who is mine and his country's 
pride, the mainstay of the Senate ? Here dost thou, 
Paulinus, establish thy robe consular and Roman 
curule chair, and wilt thou bury there thy native 
honours ? 

^2 But who is that unhallowed wretch who has 

- Pythagoras claimed to be a reincarnation of Euphorbus. 
3 The places named are Baubola, Calahorra, and Lerida. 

117 



AUSONJUS 

inipius? lit nullos hie vocem vertat in usus, 
gaudia non ilium vegetent, non dulcia vatum 
carmina, non blandae modulatio flexa querellae, 65 
non fera, non ilium pecudes, non mulceat ales^ 
non quae pastorum nemoralibus abdita lucis 
solatur nostras Echo resecuta loquellas. 
tristis, egens deserta colat tacitusque [)ererret 
Alpinis conexa iugis, ceu dicitur olim 70 

mentis inops coetus hominum et vestigia vitans 
avia perlustrasse vagus loca Bellerophontes. 

Haec precor, banc vocem, Boeotia numina Musae, 
accipite et Latiis vatem I'evocate camenis. 

XXX. — AusoNio Paulinus 

CoNTiNUATA meae durare silentia linguae 
te numquam tacito memoras placitamque latebris 
desidiam exprobras neglectaeque insuper addis 
crimen amicitiae t'ormidatamque iugalem 
obicis et durum iacis in mea viscera versum. 5 

parce, precor, lacerare tuum, nee amara paternis 
admiscere velis, ceu melle absinthia, verbis. 
Cura mihi semper fuit et manet ofKciis te 
omnibus excolere, adfeetu observare tideli. 
non uinquam tenui saltim tua gratia naevo 10 

conmaculata mihi est ; ipso te laederc vultu 
semper et incauta timui violai'e figura ; 
cumque tua accessi, venerans mea cautius ora 



^ See Homer Z '.01 f. 

- On I'aulinus see Introduction, and Eput. xxiii. (note). 

llS 



THE EPISTLES . 

urged you to so long silence ? May he turn no 
sound to any advantage, may no joys enliven him, 
no sweet poets' lays, no melting harmonies of se- 
ductive elegy, maj- no cry of beast nor low of cattle 
nor song of bird cheer him, nor yet Echo, who 
hidden in shepherds' bosky groves consoles us while 
repeating our complaints. Sad, needy let him dwell 
in waste places and in silence roam the borders of 
Alpine hills, even as, 'tis said, in days of old Beller- 
ophon, distraught, avoided the company of men and 
wandered straying through untrodden places.^ 

"^ This is my prayer, this cry, Boeotian Muses 
divine, receive ye and with Latin strains call back 
your bard ! 

XXX. PaULINUS 2 TO AusoNius 

Thou tellest me that my tongue keeps unbroken 
silence while thou art never dumb, and reproachest 
me with choosing idleness in secret retreats, and 
withal addest the charge of neglected friendship and 
tauntest me with terror of my spouse, launching 
a cruel line against my very heart.^ Cease, I prithee, 
to wound thy friend, and seek not to mingle bitter- 
ness — as wormwood with honey— with a father's 
words. 

8 My care has been and still, endures, to honour 
thee with every friendly token, to compass thee 
with faithful affection. No blemish, however slight, 
has ever marred my devotion towards thee ; even by 
a look I have ever feared to hurt thee and to wrong 
thee with an. unguarded aspect ; and when I have 
approached thee, out of respect I have the more 

' i.e. against Therasiu, herself. 

119 



AUSONIUS 

conposui et laeto formavi lumine fronteni, 

ne qua vel a tacito contractam pectore nubem 15 

duceret in sanctum suspicio falsa parentem. 

hoc mea te domus exemplo coluitque colitque 

inque tuum tantus nobis consensus amorem est, 

quantus et in Christum conexa mente colendum. 

Quis tua> quaeso, tuis obduxit pectora Hvor ? 20 
quo rumore pium facihs tibi fama per aures 
inrupit pepulitque animum contraque vetustam 
experta pietate fidem nova vulnera movit, 
laederet ut natis placidum male suada parentem ? 

Set mihi non fictae mens conscia simplicitatis 25 
nee patris inculti pietas rea respuit omne 
inmeritum et falso perstringi crimine non fert, 
inmunis vero : gravius violatur iniquo 
vulnere, tam tenera offensae, quam libera culpae. 

Discussisse iugum quereris me, quo tibi doctis 30 
iunctus eram studiis. hoc nee gestasse quidem me 
adsei'o. namque pares subeunt iuga : nemo valentes 
copulat infirmis neque sunt concordia frena, 
si sit conpulsis mensura iugalibus inpar. 
si vitulum tauro vel equum committis onagro ; 35 

si confers fulicas cycnis et aedona j)arraej 
castaneis corulos ; aequas viburna oupressis ; 
me conpone tibi : vix Tullius et Maro tecum 
sustineant aequale iugum. si iungar amore. 



THE EPISTLES 

heedfully ordered my looks and given my featm-es a 
bright and cheerful cast, that no ungrounded sus- 
picion might bring down a cloud upon thee, my 
revered father, even though arising from an un- 
spoken thought. After like pattern my household 
has honoured and honours thee, and in love for thee 
we are as agreed together as our hearts are linked 
together in worship of Christ. 

2<i What rancour, I beg of thee, against thy friends 
is crept over thy heart ? With what idle tale has 
nimble Slander forced her way into thy ears, smitten 
thy fond heart, and aimed late blows against 
the tried affection of ancient faith, so as to harm a 
son by cozening a sire from his peace ? 

2'^' i3ut my heart is conscious of no feigned sin- 
cerity, my devotion, guiltless of neglect towards my 
father, hurls back with scorn every undeserved taunt, 
and brooks not to be scarred with a false charge 
because in truth innocent : as easy hurt as it is 
free from fault, it is the more sorely injured by an 
unjust blow. 

'^^ Thou dost complain that I have shaken off the 
yoke ^ wlierewith I was joined with thee in the 
pursuit of letters. This I declare that I have never 
even borne. For only equals share one yoke : no one 
links the powerful with the weak, and no team 
works with one Avill, if the forced yoke-fellows are of 
unequal measure. If thou dost match calves with 
bulls or horses with wild-asses ; if thou comparest 
moorhens with swans, and nightingales with owls, 
hazels with chestnuts, or rankest wayside shrubs 
with cypresses ; — then place me beside thee : Tully 
and Maro scarce could uphold a like yoke with 
thee. If I be yoked in love, in that alone will 
1 In reply to Epist. xxvii. If. 



AUSONIUS 

hoc tantum tibi me iactare audebo iugalem, 40 

quo modicus sociis magno contendit habenis. 
dulcis amicitia aeterno mihi foedere tecum 
et paribus semper redamandi legibus aequat. 
hoc nostra cervice iugum non scaeva resolvit 
fabula, non terris absentia longa diremit, 45 

nee perimet, toto licet abstrahar orbe vel aevo. 
nuniquani animo divisus agam : prius ipsa recedet 
corpore vita meo, quam vester pectore vultus. 

Ego te per omne quod datum mortalibus 

et destinatum saeculum est, 50 

claudente donee continebor corpore, 

discernar orbe quambbet, 
nee orbe longe nee remotum lumine 

tenebo fibris insitum : 
videbo corde, mente conplectar pia 55 

ubique praesentem mihi. 
et cum solutus corporaH carcere 

terraquc jirovohivero, 
quo me locarit axe communis pater, 

ilUc quoque animo te geram ; 60 

neque finis idem, qui meo me corpore 

et amore laxabit tuo. 
mens quippe, lapsis quae superstes artubus 

de stirpe durat caeliti, 
sensus necesse est simul et adfeclus suos 65 

teneat aecjue ut vitam suam, 
et ut mori, sic oblivisci non capit, 

perenne vivax et memor. 

Vale domine ilhistris. 



122 



THE EPISTLES 

I dare boast myself thy yoke-fellow wherein the 
humble vies with the great in even career. Sweet 
friendship makes us peers through the eternal bond 
betwixt me and thee and through the equal laws of 
endless mutual love. This yoke no malicious tale 
has unloosed from my neck, no long absence from 
my land has broken it nor ever shall destroy it, 
though I should be removed from thee by the whole 
span of space and time. Never shall I live separate 
from thee in soul : sooner shall life itself depart 
from my frame than thy face from my heart. 

4^ Through all the length of time given to mortals 
and ordained, so long as I shall be confined in this 
halting frame, though I be held a world apart, thee 
neither parted by a world nor severed from my sight I 
will keep implanted in my inmost being: in heart I 
shall see thee, in loving thought embrace thee, having 
thee with me everywhere. And when, released 
from the prison of the body, I shall have flown forth 
from the earth, in whatever clime our general Father 
shall place me, there also will I bear thee in my 
heart ; nor shall the selfsame end which severs me 
from my body, unloose mc from love of thee. For 
the soul, which, surviving the body's ruin, endures in 
virtue of heavenly birth, must needs keep both its 
own faculties and affections no less than its own life, 
and so admits forgetfulness no more than death, re- 
maining ever living, ever mindful. 

^^ Farewell, illustrious master. 



123 



AUSONIUS 

XXXI. — AusoNio Paulinos 

QuARTA redit duris haec iam messoribus aestas, 

et totiens cano bruma gelu rigiiit, 
ex quo nulla tuo milii littera venit ab ore, 

nulla tua vidi scripta notata manu, 
ante salutifero felix quam charta libello 5 

dona negata diu multiplicata daret. 
trina etenim vario florebat epistula textu, 

set numerosa triplex pagina carmen erat. 
dulcia multimodis qiiaedam subamara querellis, 

anxia censurae miscuerat pietas. 10 

sed mihi mite patris plus quam censoris acerbum 

sedit, et e blandis aspera penso animo. 
ista suo regerenda loco tamen et graviore 

vindieis heroi sunt agitanda sono. 
interea levior paucis praecurret iambus 15 

discrete referens mutua verba pede. 
Nunc elegi salvere iubent dictaque salute, 

ut fecere aliis orsa gradumque, silent. 

Au.soNio Pa u I.I N us 

Quid abdicatas in meam curam, pater, 

redire Musas praecipis ? 20 

negant Camenis nee patent A})ollini 

dicata Christo pectora. 
fuit ista quondam non ope, sed studio pari 

tecum mihi concordia. 



124 



THE EPISTLES 

XXXI. — Paulinus to Ausonius 

'Tis the fourth summer now returns for hardy 
reapers, and as oft has winter grown stark with 
hoary rime, since any syllable from thy lips reached 
me, since I saw any letter penned by thy hand — 
ere thy page, auspicious with its message of 
greeting, bestowed manifold the gift so long denied. 
For indeed 'twas a triple letter enriched with various 
flowers of composition, but the melodious sheets 
were a three-fold poem. Things sweet, though 
somewhat soured with manifold complaints, troubled 
affection had mingled with criticism. But with me 
the father's gentleness rather than the critic's bitter- 
ness finds a resting place, and in my heart I draw 
from the kindly words what may weigh against the 
harsh. But these charges must be refuted in their 
proper place and canvassed in the sterner tones of 
the avenging lieroic measure. Meanwhile, though 
briefly, lighter iambus shall hurry on ahead, in 
separate metre ^ paying back his debt of words. 

1'' Now my elegiacs bid thee "hail" and having 
hailed thee, since they have made for others a 
beginning and a step, cease to speak. 

Paulinus to Ausonius 

Why dost thou bid the deposed Muses return to 
my affection, my father ? Hearts consecrate to 
Christ give refusal to the Camenae, are closed to 
Apollo. Once was there this accord betwixt me 
and thee, equals in zeal but not in power — to call forth 

^ i.e. as distinct from the hexameters of 11. 103 S. : the 
double sense of pede cannot well be reproduced. The debt 
of words is the obligation to reply to the strictures of 
Ausonius. 

125 



AUSONIUS 

ciere surdum Deli)hica Phoebuni specu, 25 

vocare Musas miniina, 
fandique munus inunere indiiltuin dei 

petere e nemoribiis aut iugis. 
nunc alia nientem vis agit, maior deus, 

aliosque mores postulat 30 

sibi reposcens ab honiine ^ niunus suuni, 

vivamus ut vitae patri. 
vacare vanis, otio aut negotio, 

et fabulosis litteris 
vetat ; suis ut pareamus legibus 35 

lucemque cernamus suam^ 
quam vis sophorum callida arsque rhetoruni et 

fignienta vatum nubilant, 
qui corda falsis atque vanis inibuunt 

tantumque linguas instruunt, 40 

nihil adferentes. ut saluteni conferant, 

quod veritatem detegat. 
quid enim tenere vel bonum aut veruui queant, 

qui non tenent summae caputs 
veri bonique fomitem et fontem deum, 45 

quern nemo nisi in Christo videt ? 
Hie veritatis lumen est, vitae via, 

vis, mens, manus, virtus patris, 
sol aequitatis, fons bonorum, flos dei, 

natus deo, mundi sator, 50 

mortalitatis vita nostrae et mors necis. 

magister hie virtutium, 
deusque nobis atque pro nobis homo, 

nos induendus induit, 
aeterna iungens homines inter et deum 55 

in utrumque se commereia. 
hie ergo nostris ut suum praecordiis 

vibraverit caelo iubar, 

, ^ MSS. : nomine, Peiper. 

126 



THE EPISTLES 

(leaf Apollo from his Delphic cave, to invoke the Muses 
as divine, to seek from groves or hills the gift of utter- 
ance by the god's gift bestowed. Now 'tis another 
force governs my heart, a greater God, who demands 
another mode of life, claiming for himself from man 
the gift he gave, that we may live for the Father of 
life. To spend time on empty things, whether in 
pastime or pursuit, and on literature full of idle tales, 
he forbids ; that we may obey his laws and behold 
his light which sophists' cunning skill, the art of 
rhetoric, and poets' feignings overcloud. For these 
steep our hearts in things false and vain, and train 
our tongues alone imparting naught which can 
reveal the truth. For what good thing or true can 
they hold who hold not the head of all, God, the 
enkindler and source of the good and true, whom 
no man seeth save in Christ. 

^' He is the light of truth, the path of life, the 
strength, mind, hand, and power of the Father, the 
sun of righteousness, the fount of blessings, the 
flower of God, born of God, creator of the world, 
life of our mortality and death of Death. He, the 
Lord of \'irtues, to us God and for us Man, puts on 
our nature as we must put on his, linking God with 
man in perpetual intercourse, himself of each par- 
taking. He, then, when he has launched his beams 
from heaven upon our hearts, wipes off the sorry 

127 



ALISON I US 

abstergit aegruin corporis pigri situm 

habitumque mentis innovat : 60 

exhaurit onme, quod iuvabat antea, 

castae voluptatis vice, 
totusque nostra iure domini vindicat 

et corda et ora et temjiora. 
se cogitari, intellegi, credi, legi, 65 

se vult timeri et diligi. 
aestus inanes, quos movet vitae labor 

praesentis aevi tramite, 
abolet futura cum deo vitae fides. 

quae, quas videmur spernere, 70 

non ut profanas abicit aut viles opes, 

set ut magis caras monet 
caelo i-eponi creditas Christo deo, 

qui plura promisit datis, 
contempta praesens vel mage deposita sibi 75 

multo ut rependat faenore. 
sine fraude custos, aucta creditoribus 

bonus aera reddet debitor 
multaque spretam largior pecuniam 

restituet usura deus. 80 

Huic vacantem vel studentem et deditum, 

in hoc reponentem onniia 
ne quaeso segneni neve perversum putes 

nee crimineris impiuni. 
pietas abesse Christiano qui potest ? 85 

namque argumentum mutuuni est 
pietatis, esse Christianuni, et inipii, 

non esse Christo subditum. 
banc cum tenere discimus, possum tibi 

non exhibere, id est patri, yO 

cui cuncta sancta iura, cara nomina 

debere me voluit deus? 

128 



THE EPISTLES 

filth of our dull bodies and renews the disposition ot 
our hearts : he draws forth all which aforetime used 
to please, giving unsullied pleasure in return, and 
absolutely with a master's right claims both our 
hearts and lips and time. He seeks himself to en- 
gross our thoughts, our minds, belief and choice, him- 
self to be feared and loved. Those aimless surges, 
which the toils of life stir up in the course of this 
present span of time, are brought to naught by faith 
in a life to come with God. This casts not away 
the riches, which we are thought to scorn, as un- 
hallowed or little worth, but, as more dear, bids 
them be laid up in Heaven in trust with Christ our 
God, who has promised more than he receives, to 
pay back with large usury those things now despised 
or rather laid up in his keeping. A faithful guardian, 
an unfailing debtor, he will repay witii increase 
wealth entrusted to him, and of his bounty God 
with abundant interest will restore the money we 
have spurned. 

8^ To Him given up, whether waiting or serving, 
in Him laying up my all, think me not, I beseech 
thee, slothful nor wayward, nor charge me with 
want of filial piety. How can piety be wanting in a 
Christian.'' For "piety" has the acquired meaning to 
be a Christian, and " the impious " one not subject to 
Christ. When I am learning to hold fast this, can I 
fail to show it toward thee, that is, towards my father, 
to whom God has willed that I should owe all sacred 
duties and names of affection ? To thee I owe 

129 

VOL. ir. K 



AUSONIUS 

tibi disciplinas, dignitatem, litteras, 

linguae^ togae, famae decus 
})rovectus, altus, institutus debeo, 95 

})atrone, praeceptor, pater. 
Sed cur remotus tamdiu degam^ arguis 

pioque motu irasceris. 
conducit istud aut necesse est aiit placet : 

veniale, quidquid horunij erit. 100 

ignosce anianti, si geram quod expedit ; 

gratare, si vivam^ ut libet. 



Ausoxro Paulinus 

Uefore me patriis tota trieteride terris 

atque alium legisse vagis erroribus orbem, 

culta prius vestrae oblitum consortia vitae^ 105 

increpitas Sanctis mota pietate querellis. 

amplector patrio venerandos pectore motus 

et mihi gratandas salvis adfectibus iras. 

set reditum inde meum, genitor, te poscere raallem, 

uude dari possit. revocandum me tibi credam, 110 

cum steriles fundas non ad divina precatus, 

Castalidis supj)lex averso numine Musis ? 

non his numinibus tibi me patriaeque reduces. 

surda vocas et nulla rogas (levis hoc feret aura, 

quod daturin nihilum) sine numine nomina Musas. 115 

inrita ventosae rapiunt haec vota procellae, 

quae non missa deo vacuis in nubibus haerent 

nee penetrant superi stellantem regis in aulam. 

130 



THE EPISTLES 

training, lionours, learning, my pride of eloquence, 
of civil rank, of reputation, being by thee ad- 
vanced, fostered, and instructed, my patron, tutor, 
father. 

'-•' But why do I live so long retired, thou askest 
reproachfully, and art stirred with a loving anger. It 
is expedient, or 'tis necessary, or 'tis my pleasure : 
whichever of these it be, it will be pardonable. 
Forgive me, as I love thee, if I do what is convenient; 
be thankful if I live as pleases me. 

Paulinus to Ausonius 

That I shall be absent from my native land full 
three years' space, and that I have traversed another 
world in aimless wanderings, forgetful of that fellow- 
ship in thy life, once cherished — thou dost reproach 
me with complaints hallowed by the love whence 
they spring. I welcome with reverence due the 
emotions of a father's heart and the anger which 
claims my gratitude leaving affection unimpaired. 
Yet for my return, my father, I would rather thou 
should'st ask it there where it can be granted. 
Shall I believe that thou canst call me back to thee 
while thou pourest forth barren prayers to beings 
not divine, suppliant to the Castalian Muses while 
God turns from thee ? Not through such deities 
wilt thou bring me back to thee and to my country. 
Thou call'st the deaf, implorest things of naught — 
a light breeze will bear away what is addressed to 
a nothing — the Muses, who are names but non- 
entities. The stormy winds whirl away ineffectual 
such prayers as these, which, not addressed to God, 
catch in the empty clouds nor make their way into 
the starry court of the King of Heaven. 

K 2 



AUSONIUS 

Si tibi cura mei reditus, ilium adspice et ora, 
qui tonitru summi quatit ignea culniina caeli, 120 

qui trifido igne micat nee inania murmura niiscet 
quique satis caelo soles largitur et imbres^ 
qui super omne, quod est;, vel in omni totus ubique, 
omnibus infuso rebus regit omnia Christo : 
quo mentes tenet atque movet, quo tempora nostra 1 25 
et loca disponit. quod si contraria votis 
constituat nostri^ prece deflectendus in ilia est, 
quae volumus. 

Quid me aecusas ? si displicet actus 
quem gero agente deo, prius est : fiat reus auctor, 
cui placet aut formare meos aut vertere sensus. 130 
nam mea si reputes, quae pristina, quae tibi nota. 
sponte fatebor eum modo me non esse, sub illo 
tempore qui fuerim, quo non perversus habebar 
et perversus eram falsi caligine cernens, 
stulta dei sapiens et mortis pabula vivens. 135 

quo magis ignosci mihi fas, quia promptius ex hoc 
agnosci datur a summo genitore novari, 
quod non more meo geritur : non, arbitror, istic 
confessus dicar mutatae in prava notandum 
errorem mentis, quoniam sim sponte professus 1-10 
me non mente mea vitam mutasse priorem. 
mens nova mi,fateor,mensnonmea : non meaquondam, 
set mea nunc auctore deo, qui, si quid in actu 
ingeniove meo sua dignum ad munia vidit, 

1 cp. 1 Cov. iii. 19. 
132 



THE EPISTLES 

^1^ If thou carest for my return, look towards liim 
and pray to him who with his thunder shakes the 
fiery heights of highest Heaven, who shoots forth his 
triple flash of flame, nor mingles it with idle sounds, 
who on the crops graciously bestows sunshine and 
rains from heaven, who being above all that is, or 
wholly in all things everywhere, reigns over all 
through Christ who permeates all things : through 
whom he occupies and sways our minds, through 
whom he orders our times and places. But if he 
ordains things opposed to our hopes, by prayer he 
may be turned aside to that which we desire. 

v^s Why blamest thou me } If thou mislikest the 
course which I pursue under God's influence, there 
is an earlier step : let the Author be accused, who is 
pleased either to shape or change my feelings. For 
if thou thinkest my nature is as of old and as 'twas 
known to thee, I will avow of myself that now I am 
not the man I was about that time when I was not 
thought wayward though wayward I was, seeing with 
the darkness of error, wise in what with God is 
foolishness,^ and living on the food of death. Where- 
fore thou art the more bound to pardon me, because 
by this the more readily 'tis permitted thee to 
recognize that this change is from the most high 
Father — that 'tis not in accordance with my nature: 
by this I shall not, methinks, be held to have ad- 
mitted a lamentable distraction of a mind changed 
for the worse, since I have openly avowed that not 
my own mind has caused me to change my former 
life. I have a new mind, I confess— a mind not 
my ov/n : not mine aforetime, though mine now 
through God's influence — and if in my deeds or 
thoughts he sees anything worthy for his gifts, to 

133 



AUSONIUS 

gratia prima tibij tibi gloria debita cedit, 145 

cuius praeceptis partum estj quod Christus amaret. 

Quare gratandum magis est tibi^ quam queritandum^ 
quod tuus ille, tuis studiis et moribus ortus, 
Pauliiuis, cui te non infitiare parentem, 
nee modo, cum credis perversum, sic mea verti 150 
consilia, ut sim promeritus Christi fore, dum sum 
Ausonii. feret ille tuae sua praemia laudi 
deque tua primum tibi deferet arbore fructum. 

Unde, precor, meliora putes nee maxima perdas 
praemia detestando tuis bona fontibus orta. 155 

non etenim mihi mens vaga, sed neque participantum 
vita fugax hominum, Lyciae qua scribis in antris 
Pegaseum vixisse equitem, licet avia multi 
numine agente colant, clari velut ante sophorum 
pro studiis xiiusisque suis : ut nunc quoque, castis 160 
qui Christum sumpsere animis, agitare frequentant, 
non inopes animi neque de feritate legentes 
desertis habitare locis ; sed in ardua versi 
sidera spectantesque deum verique profunda 
perspicere intenti de vanis libera curis 1G5 

otia amant strepitumque fori rerumque tumultus 
cunctaque divinis inimica negotia donis, 
et Christi imperiis et amore salutis, abhorrent 
speque fideque deum sponsa mercede sequuntur, 
quam referet certus non desperantibus auctor, 170 
si modo non vincant vacuis praesentia rebus, 

^ cp. Epi-if. xxix. 70 ft". 



THE EPISTLES 

thee chief gratitude, to thee the glory falls due, 
since thy instruction has produced what Christ could 
love. 

I*'' Wherefore thou shouldst give thanks rather than 
complain because I — that son of thine, offspring of 
thy learning and thy character, Paulinus, whose 
parentage thou dost not deny, even now when thou 
believest me wayward — have so changed my prin- 
ciples that I have gained grace to become the child 
of Christ while I am the child of Ausonius. He will 
confer his rewards u})on thy merit and from this tree 
of thine proifer the first fruit to thee. 

^^^ And so, I pray thee, think nobler thoughts and 
lose not the highest rewards by execrating good 
things which have their source from thee. For 
indeed my mind does not wander, nor even does 
my life flee from intercourse with men — even as 
thou writest that Pegasus' rider lived in Lycian 
caves 1 — albeit many dwell in pathless places through 
God's leading, just as before them men famous 
among the sages did for the sake of their learning 
and their inspiration. Even so in these days also, 
they who with pure hearts have adopted Christ 
are wont to live — not as beside themselves, nor out 
of savagery choosing to dwell in desert places ; but 
because — turning their faces to the stars on high, 
contemplating God, and intent to scan the deep 
wells of truth — they love repose void of empty cares, 
and shun the din of public life, the bustle of affairs, 
and all concerns hostile to the gifts of Heaven both 
by Christ's command and in desire for salvation. By 
hope and faith these follow God for the pledged 
reward which he, whose promise cannot fail, will 
bestow on such as persevere, if only this present life 

135 



AUSONIUS 

quaeque videt spcrnat^ quae non videt ut meieatur 
secreta ignitus penetrans caelestia sensiis. 
namque caduca patent nostris, aeterna negantui* 
visibus; etnuncspesequiniur,quodmentevidemus, 175 
spernentes varias^ rerum spectacula, fornias 
et male corporeos bona sollicitantia visus. 
attamen haec sedisse illis sententia visa est, 
tota quibus iam lux patuit verique bonique, 
venturi aeternum saecli et praesentis inane. 180 

At mihi, non eadem cui gloria, cur eadem sit 
fama ? fides voti par est, sed amoena colenti, 
nunc etiam et blanda posito locupletis in acta 
litoris, unde haec iam tarn festinata locorum 
invidia est? utinam iustus me carpere livor 185 

incipiat : Christi sub nomine probra placebunt. 
non patitur tenerum mens numine firma pudorem, 
et laus hie contempta redit mihi iudice Christo. 

Ne me igitur, venerande parens, his ut male vei'sum 
increpites studiis neque me vel coniuge carpas 190 
vel mentis vitio : non anxia Bellerophontis 
mens est nee Tanaquil milii, sed Lucretia coniunx. 
nee mihi nunc patrii est, ut visa, oblivio caeli, 
qui summum suspecto patrem, quem qui colit unum, 
hie vere memor est caeli. crede ergo, pater, nos 195 
nee caeli inmemores nee vivere mentis egentes, 
liumanisque agitare loeis. studia ipsa piorum 



^ There is an inept play on the two-fold meaning of codum 
= heavens (clime) and Heaven. 

T36 



THE EPISTLES 

with its vain interests does not prevail, and the fiery 
perceptions, penetrating to Heaven's secret places, 
scorn what they see to gain what they see not. For 
things perishable are open to our sight, the eternal 
are denied ; and now in hope we pursue Avhat with 
the mind we see, scorning the various shapes, the 
iiTiages of things, and the attractions which provoke 
our natural sight. And yet such resolve has been 
found to lodge in those to whom already is revealed 
the light of the good and true, the eternity of the 
world to come and the emptiness of that which is. 

1^1 But I, who have not the same cause for 
boasting, why do I bear the same reproach? My 
surety of hope is no less ; but since I dwell in pleasant 
places, and even now abide upon the agreeable 
shores of a prosperous coast, whence this so premature 
carping at my abode ': I would that jealousy with 
good grounds may begin to pluck at me : bearing the 
name of Christ I shall welcome taunts. A mind 
strengthened by power divine feels no weak shame, 
and the praise I here despise is restored to me when 
Christ is judge. 

180 Do not, then, chide me, my honoured father, as 
though I had turned to these pursuits perversely, and 
do not twit me with my wife or with defect of mind: 
mine is not the perturbed mind of Bellerophon, nor 
is my wife a Tanaquil but a Lucretia. Nor am I now 
forgetful, as thou thinkest, of the heavens 'neath 
which my fathers dwelt, seeing that I look up to the 
all-highest Father, and that whoso worships Him 
alone he is truly mindful of Heaven.^ Believe then, 
father, that I am not unmindful of the heavens and 
do not live distraught in mind, but dwell in a civilized 
place : pursuits themselves bear witness to the 

137 



AUSONIUS 

testantur mores hominum ; nee enim impia summum 

gens poterit novisse deum : sint multa locoruni, 

multa hominum studiis inculta, expertia legum, 200 

quae regio agresti ritu caret ? aut quid in istis 

improbitas aliena nocet ? quod tu mihi vastos 

Vasconiae saltus et ninguida Pyrenaei 

obicis hospitia, in primo quasi limine fixus 

Hispanae regionis agam nee sit locus usquam 205 

rure vel urbe mihi, summum qua dives in orbem 

usque patet mersos spectans Hispania soles, 

sed fuerit fortuna iugis habitasse latronum, 

num lare barbarico rigui mutatus in ipsos, 

inter quos habui, socia feritate colonos ? 210 

non recipit mens pura malum neque levibus haerent 

inspersae fibris maculae : si Vascone saltu 

quisquis agit purus sceleris vitam, integer aeque 

nulla ab inhumane morum contagia ducit 

hospite. sed mihi cur sit ab illo nomine crimen, 215 

qui di versa colo, ut colui, loca iuncta superbis 

urbibus et laetis hominum celeberrima cultis? 

ac si Vasconicis mihi vita fuisset in oris, 

cur non more meo potius formata ferinos 

poneret, in nostros migrans, gens barbara ritus? 220 

Nam quod in eversis habitacula ponis Hibera 
urbibus et deserta tuo legis oppida versu 
montanamque mihi Calagorrim et Birbilim acutis 
pendentem scopulis coUemque iacentis Hilerdae 



' i.e. if they are just as wicked as others, that is no special 
objection against them. 

138 



THE EPISTLES 

character of righteous men ; for an unrighteous race 
will not be able to know the most high God: granted 
that much of the country, much of the folk is 
unimproved and ignorant of laws, yet what tract is 
without its rustic worshij) ? Or what offence in them 
is wickedness common to other parts P^ And yet 
thou dost taunt me with tlie woodlands of Vasconia 
and snowy lodgings in the Pyrenees, as tiiough I 
live tied down at the very frontier of the whole 
realm of Spain and have no place of my own any- 
where in country or in town, where wealthy Spain 
outstretched along the world's boundary watches the 
suns dip down into the sea. But suppose it had 
been my lot to dwell amid the hills of brigands, 
have I become a block in a savage's hut, changed into 
the very serfs amid whom I lived, partaking of their 
wildness ? A pure heart admits no evil, even as 
filth spattered upon smooth bristles does not stick: if 
one without stain of wickedness spends his life in a 
Vasconian glade, his character, unblemished as before, 
draws no infection from his host's barbarity. But 
why am I charged on that account when I dwell, as 
I have dwelt, in a far different country bordering 
on splendid cities and thickly covered with man's 
prosperous tillage .'' And if my life had been led on 
the borders of Vasconia, why should not the savage 
folk rather have been moulded after my mode of life, 
laying aside their barbarous customs to come over to 
our own ? 

2-21 po,. whereas thou dost fix my Spanish dwelling- 
place in ruined cities, traversing in thy verse desolate 
towns, and castest in my teeth mountain Calahorra, 
Bambola hanging from its jagged crags, and Lerida 
prostrate on its hill-side — as though, an exile from 

139 



AUSONIUS 

exprobras, velut his habitem laris exul et urbis 225 

extra liominum tecta atque vias ; — an credis Hiberae 

has telluris opes, Hispani nescius orbis, 

quo gravis ille poli sub pondere constitit Allans, 

ultima nunc eius mons portio metaque terrae, 

disci udit bimarem eel so qui vertice Calpen ? 230 

Birbilis huic tantum, Calagorris, Hilerda notantur, 

Caesarea est Augusta cui, Barcinus amoena 

et capite insigni despectans Tarraco pontum ? 

Quid numerem egregias terris et moenibus urbes, 
quas geminum felix Hispania tendit in aequor, 235 
(jua Betis Oceanum TA'rrhenumque auget Hiberus, 
lataque distantis pelagi divortia conplet, 
orbe suo finem ponens in liniite niundi ? 
anne tibi, o doniine inlustris, si scribere sit mens, 
qua regione habites, placeat reticere nitentem 240 
Burdigalam et piceos malis describere Boios ? 
cumque Maroialicis tua prodigis otia thermis 
inter et umbrosos donas tibi vivere lucos, 
laeta locis et mira colens habitacula tectis : 
nigrantesne casas et texta mapalia culnio 245 

dignaque pellitis habitas deserta Bigerris ? 
quique superba tuae contenmis moenia Romae 
consul, arenosas non dedignare Vasatas? 
vel quia Pictonicis tibi fertile rus viret arvis, 
Raraunum Ausonias heu devenisse curules 250 

^ Tlie Guaclal((uivii-, " the Great River." 

2 The l':bro. 

•^ The niixlerii Ijourbonnais of tlie l)cp. tie rAUier. 

140 



THE EPISTLES 

home and city, I were dwelling in these far from the 
dwellings and highways of men ; dost thou believe 
these ai'e the i-esources of the Iberian land, ignorant 
of the Spanish world where laden Atlas took his 
stand beneath the load of Heaven, he whose moun- 
tain, now the furthest fragment and boundary of the 
earth, shuts out with its lofty peak Calpe tliat lies 
betwixt two seas ? Are only Bambola, Calahorra, 
Lerida, placed to tlie credit of this land which has its 
Saragossa, pleasant Barcelona, and Tarragona looking 
from majestic heights down to the sea ? 

2'^* What need for me to tell over the cities, 
distinguished for their territories and walls which 
prosperous Spain thrusts forth between two seas ; 
where Betis ^ swells the Atlantic, Hiberus - theTuscan 
sea — Spain whose compass occupies the wide inter- 
vening tract which parts main irom main, setting its 
bounds at the extreme verge of the world ? If thou, 
O famous master. Avert minded to describe the 
region where thou dwellest, wouldst thou be content 
to leave unnamed cheerful Bordeaux preferring to 
write of the pitchy Boii ■* ? And when thou bestowest 
thy leisure on the hot springs of Maroialum^ and 
permittest thyself to live amid shady groves, dwelling 
amid cheerful scenery and habitations marvellously 
built, dost thou inhabit murky hovels and cabins of 
twisted straw amid a wilderness fit for the skin-clad 
natives of Bigorre ? Dost thou, a consul, scorn the 
proud walls of thine own Rome while not disdaining 
Bazas amid its sand hills? Or because the fertile 
country and green fields of Poiteau are about thee, 
shall I lament that the Ausonian consulate — alas ! — 
has sunk to the level of Raraunum,^ and that the 



* Probably Bagueres de BigoiTe. 
^ Now R(jm or Raiun. 



141 



AUSONIUS 

conquerar, et trabeam veteri sordescere fano ; 
quae tamen augusta Latiaris in urbe Quirini 
Caesareas inter parili titulo palmatas 
fulget inadtrito longum venerabilis auro, 
florentem retinens meriti vivacis honorem. 255 

aut cum Lueani retineris culmine fundi, 
aeniula Romuleis habitans fastigia tectis, 
materiam pi-aebente loco, qui proxima signat, 
in Condatino diceris degere vico ? 

Multa iocis pateant, liceat quoque ludere fictis ; 260 
sed lingua mulcente gravem interlidere dentem, 
ludere blanditiis urentibus et male dulces 
fermentare iocos satirae niordacis aceto 
saepe i)oetarum, numquam decet esse parentum. 
namque fides pietasque petunt, ut, quod mala nectens 
insinuat castis fama auribus, hoc bona voti 266 

mens patris adfigi fixumque haerescere cordi 
non sinat. et vulgus scaevo rumore malignum 
ante habitos mores, non semper flectere vitam 
crimen habct : namque est laudi bene vertere. cum me 
inmutatum andis, studium ofticiumque require. 271 
si pravo rectum, si relligiosa profanis, 
luxurie parcum, turpi mutatur honestum, 
segnis, iners, obscurus ago, miserere sodalis 
in mala perversi : blandum licet ira j^arentem 275 
excitet, ut lapsum rectis instauret amicum 
moribus et monitu reparet meliora severo. 

> Elsewhere (e.g. Epist. xxvi. 44) called Lucaniacus. 
142 



THE EPISTLES 

official robe grows shabby in some mouldering shrine ; 
whereas in fact it hangs in the renoAvned city of 
Roman Quirinus along with the imperial palm- 
broidered robes, trophies of like distinction, there 
gleaming, long venerable, with unfrayed gold, keep- 
ing fresh the glorious bloom of thy deathless achieve- 
ment ? Or when thou art lodged under the roof ot 
Lucanus,^ thy country house, inhabiting a pile vying 
with the halls of Rome, shall we take the pretext 
afforded by the place whicli gives its name to the 
vicinity, saying thou dwellest in the hamlet of 
Condate^? 

-'*'' Let much admit of jests, let sportive fiction 
also be allowed ; but with a smooth tongue to strike 
against an aching tooth, to sport with stinging 
compliments, and to season jests ill-relished with the 
vinegar of tart satire, oft befits a poet, never a father. 
For loyalty and natural affection demand that what 
slander-spinning Rumour instils into guileless ears, 
that the good-hoping mind of a father should not 
suffer to take hold and gain firm lodgment in the 
heart. Even the common herd, malignant in its 
brutal sneers towards habits formerly observed, does 
not always hold it crime to alter one's life : for to 
alter wisely is accounted praise. When thou hearest 
I am changed, ask what is my pursuit and my 
business. If 'tis a change from right to wrong, from 
godliness to wickedness, from temperance to luxury, 
from honour to baseness, if I live slothftd, sluggish, 
ignoble, take pity on a comrade strayed into evil ; 
a gentle father well may be stirred with anger to 
restore a fallen friend to right living and by stern 
reproof to bring him back to better things. 

^ Cognac, near Saintes. 

143 



AUSONIUS 

At si forte itidem, quod legi et quod sequor, audis, 
corda pio vovisse deo venerabile Christi 
imperium docili pro credulitate sequentem, 280 

persuasumque dei rnonitis aeterna parari 
praemia mortal! damnis praesentibus empta, 
non reor id sancto sic displicuisse parenti, 
mentis ut errorem credat sic vivere Christo, 
ut Christus sanxit. iuvat hoc nee paenitet luiius 285 
erroris. stultus diversa sequentibus esse 
nil moror, aeterno mea dum sententia regi 
sit sapiens, breve^ quidquid homo est, liomo corporis 

aegri, 
temporis occidui et sine Christo pulvis et umbra : 
quod probat aut damnat tanti est, quanti arbiter ipse, 
ipse obit atque illi suus est comitabilis error 291 

cumque suo moriens sententia iudice transit. 

Et nisi, dum tempus praesens datur, anxia nobis 
cura sit ad domini praeceptiim vivere Christi, 
sei-a erit exutis homini querimonia membris, 295 

dum levia humanae metuit convicia linguae, 
non timuisse gi*aves divini iudicis iras ; 
quem patris aeterni solio dexti'aque sedentem, 
omnibus impositum regem et labentibus annis 
venturum, ut cunctas aequato examine gentes 300 
iudicet et variis referat sua praemia gestis, 
credo equidem et metuens studio properante laboro. 
si qua datur, ne morte pi-ius quam crimine solvar. 

Huius in adventum trepidis mihi credula fibris 

M4 



THE EPISTLES 

^'s But if perchance thou dost likewise hear — and 
'tis what I hav'e chosen and what I pursue — that I 
have vowed my heart to our holy God, following in 
accord with obedient belief the awful behest of 
Christ, and that I am convinced by God's word that 
deathless rewards are laid up for man, purchased by 
present loss, that, methinks, has not so displeased my 
revered father that he thinks it a perversion of the 
mind so to live for Christ as Christ appointed. This 
is my delight, and this "perversion" I regret not. 
That I am foolish in the eyes of those who follow 
other aims gives me no pause, if only in sight of the 
eternal King my opinion be wise. A short-lived 
thing is man at best, man with his frail body and 
passing season, dust and a shadow without Christ : 
his praise and blame are so much worth as the arbiter 
himself. Himself he perishes and his own mistake 
must bear him company, and with the judge who 
pronounced it a verdict dies and passes. 

2^^ And unless, while this present time is granted, 
we take careful heed to live according to the com- 
mand of Christ our Lord, too late, when man has 
put off his mortal frame, will be his complaint that 
while he feared the light rebuke of human tongues, he 
feared not the severe wrath of the Heavenly Judge. 
And that He sitteth on the throne at the right 
hand of the eternal Father, that He is set over all as 
king, and that as years roll away He will come to try 
all races with even-balanced judgment, and bestow 
due rewards upon their several deeds, I for my part 
believe, and, fearing, toil with restless zeal tliat, if 
so it may be, I be not cut off by death ere I am cut 
off from sin. 

304 Against His coming my believing heart trembles 

M5 



A U SON I us 

corda treniunt gestitque aniina id iam cauta futuri, 305 
praemetuens, ne vincta aegris pro corpore curis 
ponderibusque gravis rerum, si forte recluso 
increpitet tuba vasta polo, non possit in auras 
regis ad occursum levil)us se tollere pinnis, 
inter honora volans sanctorum milia caelo, 310 

qui per inane levis neque mundi conpede vinctos 
ardua in astra pedes facili moliniine tollent 
et teneris vecti per sidera nubibus ibunt, 
caelestem ut medio venerentur in aere regem 
claraque adorato coniungant agmina Christo. 315 

Hie metus est, labor iste, dies ne me ultimus atris 
sopitum tenebris sterili deprendat in actu, 
tempora sub vacuis ducentem perdita curis. 
nam quid agam, lentis si, dum coniveo votis, 
Christus ab aetheria mihi proditus arce coruscet 320 
et, subitis domini caelo venientis aperto 
praestrictus radiis, obscurae tristia noctis 
suffugia inlato confusus lumine quaeram ? 

Quod mihi ne pareret vel diffidentia veri, 
vel praesentis amor vitae rerumque voluptas 325 

curarumque labor, placuit praevertere casus 
proposito et curas finire superstite vita 
communemque adeo ventura in saecula rebus 
expectai'e truceni securo pectore mortem. 

Si placet hoc, gratare tui spe divite amici : 330 
si contra est, Christo tantum me linque probari. 



146 



THE EPISTLES 

with fluttering strings and my soul, even now aware 
of what shall be, quakes with foreboding lest, 
shackled with paltry cares for the body and weighted 
with a load of l)usiness, if perchance the awful trump 
should peal from the opened heaven, it should fail 
to raise itself on light pinions into the air to meet 
the Lord,^ flitting in Heaven amid glorified thousands 
of the saints, who through the void up to the stars 
on high shall with unlaborious effort uplift light feet, 
unshackled with the world's fetters, and wafted on 
soft clouds shall pass amid the stars to worship the 
Heavenly King in mid air and join their glorious 
companies with Christ whom they adore. 

^1'^ This is my fear, this my task, that the Last Day 
overtake me not asleep in the black darkness of 
profitless pursuits, spending wasted time amid empty 
cares. For what shall I do if, while I drowse amid 
sluggish hopes, Christ, disclosed to me from his 
heavenly citadel, should flash forth, and I, dazzled by 
the sudden beams of my Lord coming from opened 
Heaven, should seek the doleful refuge of murky 
night, confounded by the o'erwhelming light .'' 

3-^ Wherefore, that neither doubt of the truth, nor 
love of this present life with delight in worldly 
things and anxious toil should bring this on me, I 
am resolved to forestall calamity by my plan of life, 
to end anxieties while life remains, awaiting with 
untroubled heart fierce Death, the general doom of 
things for ages yet to come. 

^"•^ If this thou dost approve, rejoice in thy friend's 
rich hope : if otherwise, leave me to be approved by 
Christ alone. 

^ cp. 1 Thessa/onians iv. 16 f. 



147 



AUSONIUS 

XXXII. — Oratio Faulini 

Omnipotens genitor reruin, ciii sumnia potestas, 
exaudij si iiista precor. ne sit mihi tristis 
ulla dies, placidam nox rumj)at nulla quietem. 
nee placeant aliena mihi, quin et mea prosint 
supplicibus nullusque habeat mihi vota nocendi 5 
aut habeat nocitura mihi. male velle facultas 
nulla sit ac bene posse adsit tranquilla potestas. 
mens contenta suo nee turpi dedita lucro 
vincat corporeas casto bene eonscia leeto 
inlecebras, turpesque iocos obscenaque dicta 10 

oderit ilia nocens et multum grata malignis 
auribus efFuso semper rea lingua veneno. 
non obitu adfligar cuiusquam aut funere crescam, 
invideam numquam cuiquam nee mentiar umquam. 
adsit laeta domus epulisque adludat inemptis 15 

verna satur fidusque comes nitidusque minister, 
morigera et coniunx caraque ex coniuge nati. 

Moribus haec castis tribuit deus : hi sibi mores 
perpetuam spondent ventura in saecula vitam. 

XXXIIl. — <Paulinus Gestidio> 

Domino merito suspiciendo Geslidio Paulivus. 

Iniuria quidem est patri familias maritimis deliciis 

abundanti terrenum aliquid et agreste praebere ; 

sed ego, ut et causa mihi esset aput unanimitatem 

148 



THE EPISTLES 

XXXII.— A Prayer of Paulinus 

ALMUiHTV Father of all things, to whom supreme 
power belongs, hear, if I pray aright. Let no day be 
passed by me in sadness, no night disturb my calm 
repose. Let others' goods not atti'act me, but rather 
let my own avail such as implore my aid : may none 
have a wish to hurt me or the means to hurt me. 
Let me have no occasion to will ill and let the 
unruffled power to do well be with me. Let my 
mind, content with its own and not given to base 
gains, overcome bodily enticements keeping the 
conscience of chaste conduct. Let that offending 
member, the ever-guilty tongue, well-pleasing to 
malicious ears for the poison it sheds, hate lewd 
jesting and unseemly words. Let me not be over- 
come by any man's decease, nor prosper through the 
death of any ; let me never envy any man 
nor ever tell a lie. Be mine a cheerful home, and 
at my unpurchased ^ repasts may a Avell-fed 
slave bred in my house, my trusty comrade and 
prosperous henchman, serve blithely ; and mine an 
obedient wife with children born of my dear wife. 

1^ Upon pure conduct God bestows such gifts : such 
conduct assures itself of life unending against the 
world to come. 

XXXIII. — Paulinus to Gestidius 

Faulinus to the justly respected lord Gestidius. 

It is an insult to present a man of standing who 
has plenty of sea dainties with anything derived from 
the land and country-side. But, that I might have 

^ i.e. consisting of "home-grown " products, and so homely, 
not luxurious. 

149 



AUSONIUS 

tuani aliquid conloquendi et aliquod sermoni hm'c 
obsequium viderer adiungere, pauculas de paucis- 
simis, quas pueruli vespere inferunt, ficedulas misi. 
quarum cum erubescerem paucitatem, plura etiam 
versiculis verba subtexui, quasi vero numerum 
loquacitate facturus. sed quia utraque culpabilia 
sunt, tu utrisque benigne ac familiariter ignoscendo 
fades, ut nee inhumana videatur paucitas nee 
odiosa garrulitas. 

Sume igitur pastas dunioso in rure volucres, 

quas latitans filicis sub tegmine callidus auceps, 

dum simili mentitur aves fallitque susurro, 

agmina viscatis suspendit credula virgis. 

tunc referens tenueni non parvo muneie praedam 5 

digerit aucupiuni tabulis : et primus opimis 

ordo nitet, sensim tenuatus ad ima tabellae. 

ut minus offendat macies, praelata saginae 

gratia praeventos pingui iuvat alite visus. 



XXXIV. — Ad Eundem 

Pauperis ut placeat carum tibi munus amici, 

munera ne reputes, quae mittis ditia nobis. 

nam tibi quid dignum referam pro piscibus illis, 

quos tibi vicinum locupleti gurgite litus 

suppeditat miros specie formaque diremptos ? 5 

at mihi vix alto vada per saxosa profundo 

150 



THE EPISTLES 

excuse for some converse with you, my bosom friend, 
and to make a show of accompanying tliese words of 
mine with some token of respect, I am sending a 
poor few of the very few fig-peckers which my lads 
bring home of an evening. And since I blush for 
their small number, I added on more words to my 
verses, as though indeed I could increase their 
number by my chatter. But since both alike are 
open to criticism, you will do a kind and friendly 
action by pardoning both, so as to make the fewness 
of the birds not appear mean, and my wordiness not 
tiresome. 

Take, then, these fowl fed in the thickets of the 
country-side, which the cunning fowler, lurking 
beneath a screen of bracken, while he beguiles and 
decoys birds with a call like their Own, has taken 
hanging on his limed twigs — a silly tribe. Then, 
bringing home his light prey of no slight price, he 
sets out the catch upon his stall : and the array 
makes goodly show of prime birds in front gradually 
thinning out towards the back of the counter. That 
the more skinny may not displease, the fat birds with 
their attractive plumpness hold the foremost place, 
forestalling and delighting the gaze. 



XXXIV^— To THE SAME 

That thy poor friend's loving gift may find favour 
Avith thee, think not on the rich gifts which thou 
sendest me. For what fit return can I make thee for 
those fish which the neighbouring shore supplies thee 
from its teeming pools, so wondrous in appearance, so 
diverse in shape ? But for me in the deep pools amid 

151 



AUSONIUS 

rarus in obscura generatur spliondylus alga. 

hinc te participans bis quinque et bis tibi ternas 

transmisi aequoreo redolentes nectare testas, 

qiias viscus praedulce replet bicolore medulla. 10 

Oro libens sumaSj nee vilia dedigneris, 
quae sunt parva modum magno metitus aniore, 

XXXV. — Fragmenta Epistulahum 

1 Redite sursum flumina ! 

2 investigatum ferre dolo leporem. 

3 quae tantae tenuere morae rumore sub omni ? 



152 



THE EPISTLES 

the rocky shallows only a few shell-fish are bred 
among the dark seaweed. Of these I give thee a 
share sending across to thee twice five and twice 
three shells smelling of the sea's fragrance, filled with 
delicious meat and substance of double hue. 

" I pray thee accept them gracefully and despise 
them not as little worth : if they are few, use great 
love in measuring their quantity. 



XXXV. — Fragments of Epistles ^ 

1 Ye rivers, backwards return ! 

2 To carry off a hare tracked down by craft. 

3 What things have kept thee lingering so long, 
while Rumour is rife ? 

1 These three citations from epistles no longer extant 
are preserved by an anonj'nious gramniarian of the seventli 
centurv. 



153 



LIBER XIX 

EPIGRAMMATA AUSONII DE DIVEKSIS 
REBUS 

I 

I. — Tlpo(TWTro7roiLa IN Chartam 

Si tineas carienique pati te, charta, necesse est^ 

incipe versiculis ante perire meis. 
"malo, inquis, tineis." sapis, aerumnose libelle, 

perfungi mavis quod leviore malo. 
ast ego damnosae nolo otia perdere Musae, 5 

iaeturani somni quae parit atque olei. 
" utilius dormire I'uit, quani perdere soninum 

atque oleum." bene ais : causa sed ista mihi est : 
irascor Proculo, cuius facundia tanta est, 

quantus honos. scripsit plurima, quae cohibet. 10 
hunc studeo ulcisci ; et prompta est ultio vati : 

qui sua non edit carmina, nostra legat. 
Indus in arbitrio est, seu te iuvenescere cedro, 

seu iubeat duris vermibus esse cibum. 
huic ego, quod nobis superest ignobilis oti, 15 

deputo, sive legat, quae dabo, sive tegat. 



^ Possibly the son of Titianus, Count of the East in 382-3, 
executed 392 a.d. 



BOOK XIX 

EPIGRAMS OF AUSONIUS ON VARIOUS 
MATTERS 

I 

I. — A Personal Address to his Paper 

If worms and decay must needs be thy lot, my 
sheet, begin to perish under my verses first. 
"Rather," thou sayest, "the worms." Wisely, my 
woeful little book, dost thou choose to endure the 
lesser evil. But I like not to lose the leisure given 
to the wasteful Muse, who causes loss of slumber and 
lamp-oil too. " It had been better to sleep than to 
lose both slumber and oil." Well said : but this is 
my reason for it. I am angry with Proculus ^ whose 
eloquence is equal to his rank. He has written 
reams, but keeps all close. On him I long to be 
avenged, and a poet has vengeance ready to hand : 
let him who publishes not his own verse read mine. 
For him is it to decide whether to bid thee keep thy 
youth with cedar oil,^ or to be food for cruel worms. 
To him I commit all that I have to show for my 
inglorious leisure, either to scan what I shall give 
him or to ban it. 

- Cedar-oil was used to preserve books from the attacks of 
worms. 



AUSONIUS 

II. EXMOUTATIO AD MoDESTIAM 

Fama est fictilibus cenasse Agatlioclea regem 

atque abacum Samio saepe onerasse luto, 
fercula genimatis cum ponevet horrida ^ vasis 

et misceret opes pauperiemque simiil. 
quaerenti caiisam respondit : " Rex ego qui sum 

Sicaniae, figulo sum genitore satus." 
fortunam reverenter habe, quicumque repente 

dives ab exili progrediere loco. 



III. — In Eumpinam^ Adulteram 

Toxica zelotypo dedit uxor moecha marito, 

nee satis ad mortem credidit esse datum, 
miscuit argenti letalia pondera vivi^ 

cogeret ut celerein vis geminata necem. 
dividat haec si quis, faciunt discreta venenum ; 5 

antidotum sumet, qui sociata bibet. 
ergo inter sese dum noxia pocula certant, 

cessit letaHs noxa salutiferae. 
protinus et vacuos alvi petiere recessus, 

lubrica deiectis qua via nota cibis. 10 

quam pia cura deum ! prodest crudelior uxor : 

etj cum fata volunt, bina venena iuvant. 



IV. — In Eunomum Medicum 

Languentem Gaium moriturum dixerat olim 
EuDomus. evasit fati ope, non medici. 

' So V : aurea, Z. 

- So VZ : Kuripulam ? ( = Euripylam), Peiper : Kuripinam 
Schejdi. 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

II. — An Exhortation to Moderation 

'Tis said that Agathocles ^ when king dined off 
earthen plates and that his sideboard oft bare a load 
of Samian ware, whereas he used to lay his rustic 
trays with jewelled cups, thus mingling wealth and 
poverty together. To one who asked his reason he 
replied : " I, who am king of Sicily, was born a 
potter's son." 

' Bear good fortune modestly, whoe'er thou art 
who from a lowly place shall rise suddenly to 
riches. 

III.— To EUMPINA A FAITHLESS WiFE 

A FAITHLESS wifc gavc poison to her jealous spouse, 
but believed that not enough was given to cause 
death. She added quicksilver of deadly weight, that 
the poison's redoubled strength might force on a 
speedy end. If one keej) these apart, separate they 
act as poison ; whoso shall drink them together, will 
take an antidote. Therefore while these baleful 
draughts strove with each other, the deadly force 
yielded to the wholesome. Forthwith they sought 
the void recesses of the belly by the accustomed easy 
path for swallowed food. 

^^ Mark well the loving kindness of the gods ! A 
wife too ruthless is a gain, and, when the Fates will, 
two poisons work for good. 

IV. — To EuNOMUs A Physician 

EuNOMus had once pronounced that Gaius would 
die of his sickness. He slipped away. Fate— not the 

1 King or tyrant of Sicily, 317-289 B.C. 



AUSONIUS 

paulo post ipsum videt, aut vidisse putavit, 

pallentem et niulta mortis in eftigie. 
" Quis tu ? " "Gains," ait. '' \')visne ? " liicabnuit. 5 
" Et quid 

nunc agis hie ? " " Missu Ditis, ait, venio, 
ut, quia notitiam rerunique honiinunique tenerem, 

accirem medicos. " Eunomus obriguit. 
turn Gains : " Metuas nihil, Eunome. dixi ego et 
onines, 

nuHum, qui saperet, dicere te medicum." 10 

V. — In Hominem Vocis absonae 

Latuatus catulorum, hinnitus fingis equoruni, 

caprigenumque pecus lanigerosque greges 
balatu adsimulas ; asinos quoque rudere dicas, 

cum vis Arcadicum fingere, Marce, pecus. 
gallorum cantus et ovantes gutture corvos 5 

et quidquid vocuni belua et ales habet, 
omnia cum siniules ita vere, ut ficta negentur, 

non potes humanae vocis habere sonum. 

Yl. — De Alxii.io Grammatko 

Emenoata })otest quaenam vox esse magistri, 
nomen qui proprium cum vitio loquitur? 

auxilium te nempe vocas, inscite magister ? 
da rectum casum : iam solicismus eris. 

^ i.e. asses. 
iS8 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

doctor — aiding. A little afterwards the doctor saw, 
or thought he saw, the man, pale, and in death's 
very likeness. " Who art thou ? " he asked. 
" Gaius," he answered. "Art thou alive.''" He 
answered " No." " And what now dost thou here ? " 
" I come," said he, "at the behest of Dis, because I 
still retained knowledge of the world and men, to 
summon to him doctors." Eunomus grew stiff with 
fright. Then Gaius : " Fear nothing, Eunomus : I 
said, as all men say, that no man who is wise calls 
you a doctor." 

V. — To A Man with a discordant Voice 

Whelps' barking, horses' neighing thou dost copy, 
and imitate the bleating of herds of goats and 
woolly flocks, and a man would say asses were bray- 
ing, when thou, Marcus, wouldst mimic the Arcadian 
herd.^ The cock's crow, the raven's throaty caw and 
whatever cry is uttered by beast or bird — though 
these thou canst imitate so naturally that no one 
believes them feigned, thou canst not command the 
sound of the human voice. 



VI. — On Auxilius a Gkammar-Master 

How can a master speak a word correctly who 
cannot utter his own name without mistake .'' "Aux - 
ilium ~ " (a help) callest thou thyself forsooth, ignorant 
usher } Give the nominative : straightway thou wilt 
be a solecism ! 

* There is a i>lay on the word as both a proper and a 
common noun. 



AUSONIUS 

VII. — De Phii.omuso Ghammatico 

Emptis quod libris tibi bibliotheca referta est, 
doctuni et gr.animaticum te, Philomuse, putas? 

lioc genere et chordas et plectra et barbita condes 
omnia mercatus eras citharoedus eris. 



VIII. — De Rufo Ruetore 

"Reminisco" Riifus dixit in versu suo : 
cor ergo versus, inimo Rufus, non habet. 

IX. — In Statuam eiusdem Rheturis 

Rhetoris haec Rufi statiia est: nil verius ; ipse est, 
ipse, adeo linguani non habet et cei'ebrum. 

et riget et surda est et non videt : haec sibi constant ; 
unum dissimile est : mollior ille fuit. 

X.— Idem 

"Ore pulcro, et ore niuto, scire vis quae sini .^ " 
"Volo." 
" Imago Rufi rhetoris Pictavici." 
" Diceret set ipse, vellem, rhetor hoc mi." "Non 
potest." 
" Cur ? " " Ipse rhetor est imago imaginis." 

XI. — Idem 

" Rhetoris haec Rufi statua est .'* " "Si saxea, Rufi." 
" Cur id ais ? " "' Semper saxeus ipse fuit." 

* For reminiftcor : cor in 1. 2 = wit, intelligence. 
160 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

\^II. — On Philomusus a Grammar-Master 

Because with purchased books thy library is 
crammed, dost think thyself a learned man and 
scholarly, Philomusus ? After this sort thou wilt 
lay up strings, keys, and lyres, and, having pur- 
chased all, to-morrow thou wilt be a musician. 

VIII. — On Rukus a Rhetorician 

Reminisco,^ wrote Rufus in his verse : so then the 
verse — nay, Rufus — has no cor (wit). 

IX. — For a Statue ok the same Rhetorician- 

This is a statue of Rufus the Rhetorician ; nothing 
more life-like : 'tis the man himself, so much lacks 
it tongue and brain. 'Tis stiff' and dumb and sees 
not : in these points it tallies. One single point of 
difference is there — he was a little softer. 

X. — The same Sub.iect 

" With lips so fair and lips so dumb, wouldst know 
who I am?" " I would." " I am a figure of Rufus 
the Pictavian rhetorician." " Nay, I would have the 
rhetorician tell me this himself." '• He cannot." 
'' Why .^ " "The real rhetorician is an image of 
this image." 

XI. — The same Suriect^ 

" Is this a statue of Rufus the rhetorician t" " If 
'tis of stone, 'tis Rufus's." " Why sayest thou so ? " 
" Rufus himself was always made of stone. ' 

-' n>. Anth. Pal. xi. 14.'>, 149, 151. 
•' cji. id. xvi. 317. 

i6i 



AUSONIUS 

XII. — Idkm 

Elingukm quis te dicentis imagine piuxit? 

die niihi, Ruf'e. taces ? nil tibi tani simile est. 

XIII. — Idkm 

" Haec Rufi tabula est." "Nil verius. ipse ubi 
Rufus f " 
" In cathedra." " Quid agit ? " " Hoe, quod et in 
tabula." 



XIV'. Dk EO qui ThESAURUM REIM'EHIT ( um se 

Laqueo vellet suspendere 
[ex Graeco] 

Qui laqueum collo neetebat, repperit aurum 

thesaurique loco deposuit laqueum. 
at qui condiderat, postquam non repj)erit auruni, 

aptavit collo quern reperit laqueum. 

XV. — Ex Graeco 

^PXV ^^ '"*^' r/fxLcrv TravTos 
Incipe: dimidium facti est coepisse. superfit 
dimidium : rursum hoc incipe et etHcies. 

XVI. — Ex Graeco 
d Xapts d (3pa8vTrov^ a)^api<s X"-P'-^ 
Gr.\tia, quae tarda est, ingrata est. gratia namque 
cum fieri properat, gratia grata magis. 



1 = Anth. Pal. xvi. 318. ^ _ {^ [^ 44 a Lucian, Somn. li. 
162 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

XII. — The same Subject ^ 

Who painted tliee, Rufus, tongue-tied, in the like- 
ness of a speaking man ? Tell me, Rufus. Thou 
art silent.^ Nothing is more like you. 

XIII. — The same Subject 

" This is a })icture of Rufus." " Nothing more 
lifelike. Where is Rufus himself.'*" " In his chair." 
"What is he doing?" "The same as in the 
picture." 

XIV. — On the Man who found a Treasure when 

HE meant to hang HIMSELF (FROM THE GrEEk) - 

He who was knotting a halter for his own neck, 
found gold and buried the halter in the treasure's 
place. But he who had hidden the gold, not 
finding it, fitted about his neck the halter which he 
found. 

XV. — From the Greek 

The heginning is half the whole.^ 

Begin : to have commenced is half the deed. Half 
yet remains : begin again on this and thou wilt 
finish all. 

XVI. — From the Greek* 
"Favours slow-footed are unfavoured favours.'' 
Favours which tarry meet small favour. For a 
favour when it hastes to be performed, is a favour 
more favoured.^ 

■• = Anth. Pal. x. .SO. *' i.e. more acceptable. 

163 
M 2 



AUSONILS 

W'll Ex EODEM 

Si bene (jiiid facias, facias cito. nam cito factum 
oratum erit. iiii^ratum gratia tarda facit. 

XVIII. — Ue eo vui Capanelm saltans uuit 

Deceptae felix casus se miseuit arti : 
histrio, saltabat qui Capanea, ruit. 

XIX. — In Dcjorai.em 

Dodra ex dodrante est. sic collige : ius, aqua, vinum, 
sal, oleum, panis, mel, piper, lierba : novem. 

XX. — Idem 

'• Dodra vocor." ' Quae causa.- " " Novem species 

gero." "Quae sunt?" 
"lus, aqua, mel, vinum, panis, piper, herba, oleum, 

sal." 

XXI. — Idem 

AdSpa TTOTov Ktti dpi^/xds, ex*^ M^^'i olvov, iXator, 
apTOV, a\a?, (Soravrji', ^wfiov, v8wp, ireTrepi. 

XXII. — Ad Marclm Amiccm de Discordia quam 

HA BET CUM PuEl-LIS 

" Hanc amo quae me odit, contra illam quae me 
amat, odi. 
compone inter nos, si jjotes, alma \'enus ! " 

1 i.e. the acrobat made a slip and fell, but as he was in the 
part of Capaneus, the accident was appropriate, cp. Anth. 

164 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

XVII. — From the same 

If thou doest aught good, do it quickly. For what 
is done quickly will be acceptable. Favours slow 
granted are unfavourably received. 

X\'III. On ax A( KOliAT WHO FELL WHILE UANCING 

AS CaI'ANEL'S 

A HAiM'v chance combined with a fault in skill : 
a tumbler, dancing the part of Capaneus, fell to the 
ground.^ 

XIX. — On a HifEW ( ALLEi) "DunnA" 

Dodra"' ("nines") is from dodrans (nine-twelfths). 
Thus compound : brotli, water, wine, salt, oil, bread, 
honey, pepper, herbs : there's nine I 

XX. — The same Sliuect 

" I AM called dodra." " Why so? " " I am made 
of nine ingredients. " " Wiiat are they ? " "Broth, 
water, honey, wine, bread, pejiper, herbs, oil, salt," 

XXI. — The same Subject 

I, dodra, brew and number both, contain honey, 
wine, oil, bread, salt, herbs, broth, water, pepper. 

XXII. — To Marcus a Friend on his Lack of Con- 
roRi) WITH Girls 

" I love one girl who hates me, and again another 
who loves me I hate. Settle the trouble between us, 

Pal. xi. 2.54, 1—4. Capaneus, one of tlie Seven against 
Thebes, was smitten by a thunderbolt and fell from the walls. 
- A drink compounded of nine ingredients. 

165 



AUSONIUS 

'* Perfacile id faciam : mores niutabo et amores ; 

oderit haec, amet haec." " Rursus idem patiar." 
" Vis ambas ut ames ? " " Si diligat utiaque, vellem." 5 

" Hoc tibi tu praesta, Marce : ut ameris^ ama." 

XXIII.— DVSKUOS 

"SuAsisTi, Venus, ecce, duas dyseros ut aniareni. 

odit utraque : aliud da modo consilium." 
'' Vince datis ambas." " Cupio : verum arta domi res." 

" Pellice promissis." " Nulla fides inopi." 
" Antestare deos." " Nee fas mihi f'allere divos." 5 

" Pervigila ante foi'es." " Nocte capi metuo." 
"Scribe elegos." " Nequeo, Musarum et Apolliiiis 
expers." 

" Frange fores." " Poenas iudicii metuo." 
" Stulte, ab amore mori pateris : non vis ob amorem ? " 

" Malo miser dici, quam miser atque reus." 10 

" Suasi, quod j)otui : tu alios modo consule." "Die 
quos ? " 

" Quod sibi suaserunt, Phaedra et Elissa dabunt, 
quod Canace Phyllisque et fastidita Phaoni." ^ 

" Hoc das consilium f tale datur miseris." 

XXI\^ Dk KO yli| Tk.sTAM HoMlNIS INMISKHILOK- 

DITKU DISSII'ARK VOLUIT 

AniKCTA in triviis inininiati glal)ra iacebat 
testa hominis, nudum iani cute calvitiuni. 

* So V : I'haedra el ^>li.s^sa tibi dent hKiueuiii aiU glailiuiii, 
praecipilcui pelago vol LeiK-ados eligc rupeni, Z. 

l66 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

sweet Venus, if thou canst. " "Right easily will I : 
I will change thy leanings and thy loves ; the one 
shall hate, the other love." "Again I shall suffer 
the same fate." " Wouklst love them both .'' " "If 
both should love me, I would." " Bestow this, Marcus, 
on thyself: to be beloved, love." 

XXIII. A POOR LoVKR 

" Lo, Venus, thou hast persuaded me to love two 
girls, a luckless lover. Each hates me : give me 
another counsel now." '^' Overcome both with gifts." 
" Fain would I : but scant is my store at home." 
" Tempt them with promises." " A poor man has no 
credit." "Swear by the gods." "But 'twere a sin 
to deceive the gods." " Keep watch before their 
doors." "I fear to be caught at night." "Write 
sonnets." "I cannot, having no .skill of the 
Muses and Apollo." " Break down their doors." 
" I fear the legal penalties." " Fool, thou dost let 
thyself be killed by love : wouklst thou not die for 
love ? " " I would rather be called poor fellow than 
poor prisoner." " I have advised thee all I can : 
now take others' counsel." "Tell me whose?" 
" Phaedra and Elissa will give the advice they gave 
themselves, Canace, too, and Phyllis, and she whom 
Phaon scorned." "Do you give this counsel ? Such 
is given to the unhappy ! " 

XXIV. — On the Man \vh<» imtii.ksslv ruir.n to 

RRKAK !N IMElKS A HuMAN SkI'I.I. 

Till'; bare skull of an unburied man lay cast away 
where three roads met — a l)ald thing now stripped of 

167 



AUSONIUS 

fleverunt alii : fletu iion inotus Achilas, 
insuper et silicis verbere dissicuit. 

eminus ergo icto rediit lapis iiltor ab osse 
auctorisque siii tVontem ociilostjue ])etit. 

sic utinain certos mamis inipia dirigat ictus, 
auctorem ut feriant tela retorta siiiini. 



11 

XX\\ CoMMKNUATlO CODU IS 

Est quod mane legas, est et quod vespere ; laetis 

seria niiscuiiiius, tem))ore uti placeant. 
lion unus vitae color est iiec cariiiinis unus 

lector; liabet teiiipus j)agina quaetjue siuiui ; 
hoc iiiitrata \'enus, probat hoc galeata Minerva ; 

Stoicus has partes, has f!,picurus aiiiat ; 
salva niilii veteruiii nianeat duni regula iiioruni, 

plaudat perniissis sobria musa iocis. 



XXVI. --[1)e AtciusToi] 

Fhoehk potens nunieris, praeses Tritonia bellis, 

tu quoque ab aerio praepes Victoria lapsu, 

come serenatuni duplici diadeniate froiitem 

serta fereiis, quae dona togae, quae praemia pugiiae. 

bellaiidi fandique potens Augustus honoiem 5 

bis meret, ut gcniinct titulos, cpii proclia Musis 

teniperat et (ieticuin iiioderatur Apolline Marteni. 

* Sll|l|)l. /'ll/llKlllll. 

' 'I'liis culleotioii as a whole is finiiul only in ihc /! gcoui) of 
M8S., i.e. in the first published collection of Ausoiiins's 
work : see Introdudion. 

1 68 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

skin. Other men wept : by weeping all unmoved, 
Achilas even struck and cleft it with a stone. And 
so the avenginj^ stone, glancing from the skull, flew 
back and caught the face and eyes of him who 
threw it. So may an impious hand ever aim its 
deadly blows, that the weapon may rebound and 
smite the wieldcr. 

Ill 

XXV^ — \ Recommendation ok mis Book 

.Hkre is what thou mayest read at m(»rn, here also 
what at eve ; I have mingled grave with gay, each to 
give pleasure at its season. Life wears not one hue, 
nor has my verse one reader only ; each page has its 
due season ; mitred \ enus approves this, helmed 
Minerva that ; the Stoic loves this part, Epicurus 
that. So long as the code of ancient manners 
remains by me unbroken, let the grave Muse applaud 
at lawful jests. 

XXVI.— On Augustus 

Phoeiuis, tliou lord of song and thou, Tritonia, 
queen of war, thou also, Victory, down-swooping in 
dizzy flight, deck Avith a two-fold diadem an unknitted 
brow ■^ ; bring garlands, those which are gifts in 
peace, those which are ])rizes in fight. Mighty in 
war and eloquence, Augustus-' doubly wins renown, 
so that he claims a two-fold title, since by the 
Muses' aid he allays wars and by Apollo's restrains 

- i.e. on the Emperor's brow, no longer sternly knitted in 
war. 

' i.e. Gratian. 

169 



AUSONIUS 

arma inter Chunosqiie truces furtoque nocentes 
Sauromatas, quantum cessat de tempore belli, 
indulget Clariis tantum inter castra Camenis. 10 

vix posuit volucres stridentia tela sagittas : 
Musarum ad calamos fertur manus, otia nescit 
et commutata meditatur arundine carmen : 
sed carmen non molle modis ; bella horrida Martis 
Odrysii Tliraessaeque viraginis arma retractat. 15 
exulta, Aeacide : celebraris vate superbo 
rursum Romanusque tibi contingit Homerus. 

XXVII. — [De Feua a Caesare interfecta '] • 

Cedere quae lato nescit fera saucia ferro 

armatique urget tela cruenta viri, 
quam grandes parvo patitur sub vulnere mortes 

et solam leti vim probat esse manum ! 
mirantur easusque novos subitasque ruinas : 5 

nee contenta ictos letaliter ire per artus, 

coniungit mortes una sagitta duas. 
plurima communi pei'eunt si fulminis ictu, 

haec quoque de caelo vulnera missa putes. 10 

XXVIII. — An FoNTEM Danuvii Iussu \\\lentimani 

AUGUSTI 

li.i.vnK IS rcgiialor acpiis, tibi, Nile, secundus 
Damivius laetum profero fontc caput. 

' Sii])|>l. Arai)/iii<i. 



^ The Muses arc calltMl Claiiaii from their connection with 
Apollo, wlio was \vorsliip|ie<l al Claros, near Coloplum. 

170 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

the Getic Mars. 'Midst arms and Huns ferocious and 
Sauromatae dangerous in stealthy whatever rest he 
has from hours of war, in camp he lavishes it all 
upon the Clarian ^ Muses. Scarce has he laid aside 
his swift arrows, those whirring darts : 'tis to the 
Muses' sliafts he turns his hand, repose lie knows 
not, and setting the reed to new employ essays a 
song : yet 'tis a song not soft of strain ; the frightful 
wars of Odrysian Mars and the prowess of the 
Tliracian warrior-maid he treats anew. Rejoice, 
thou son of Aeacus ! Thou art sung once more by 
a lofty bard and thou art blessed with a Roman 
Homer.2 

XXVII. — On a Wild Beast slain by Caesar 

The beast which knows not how to yield when 
pierced with the broad steel, but hurls itself upon 
the gory spear of a full-armed man, how marvellous 
the death it suffers from a tiny wound, showing that 
on the hand alone death's might depends. Men 
wonder at swift disasters and sudden downfalls 

and not content to drive its deadly course through 
the stricken limbs, a single arrow deals two deaths 
at once. If full many deaths come from one light- 
ning stroke, these wounds also thou mayest deem 
sent from heaven. 

XX\TH. — On the Soukc e ok the Danuue. Whitten 
i)v Command of the EMrEuou \'ai.entima\ 

LoKD among streams of lilyricum, next to thee 
in greatness, O Nile, I, Danube, from m\- source put 

- (iratian appears to have been composing an epic on 
Achilles. 

171 



AUSONIUS 

salvere Augustus iubeo, natuinque patremque, 

armiferis alvi (juos ego Pannoniis. 
nuntius Euxino iam nunc volo cm'rere poiito, ') 

ut sfiat hoc superuni cura secunda Valens, 
caedc, fuga, flaniinis stratos periisse Suebos 

nee Rlienum Gallis limitis esse loco, 
quod si lege maris reHuus uiilii curreret amnis, 

hue possem victos inde referre Gothos. 10 

XXIX. V\\LENTINI.\N<) luNIORI IN SlCiNUM 

MAKMORKUM 

Nunc te niarnioreuni pro suniptu fecinius : at cum 
Augustus frater remeaverit, aureus esto. 

XXX. Plt'TUHAK SUUniTl Ulil Lko una SAtilTTA A 

Gratiano occisus est 

Quod leo tani tenui patitur sub harundinc letum, 
non vires ferri, sed ferientis agunt. 

XXXI. — Au FoNTEM Danuvii Jussu Valkntiniani 

AUGUSTI 

Danuvius penitis caput oecultatus in oris 

totus sub vcstra iam dicione Huo : 
qua gelidum fontcm mediis eft'undo Suebis, 

iniperiis gravidas qua seco Pannonias, 



' Valentinian I. aiulGratian : Valentinian's father, anotlier 
C4ratian, was a Pannouian. 

2 For the events commemoratcil see Iidroducdoii. 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

fortli my head in joy. 1 bid the Emperors hail, 
father and son,i whom I have nurtured amid the 
sword-wearing Pannonians. As herald to the Euxine 
Sea even now I long to speed, that \^alens, who is 
Heaven's next care, may learn of this — that with 
slaughter, Hight, and fire the Swabians^ are hurled 
to destruction, and Rhine no longer is accounted the 
frontier of Gaul. But if at the sea's behest my 
stream should flow backwards may I hither bring 
from there news that the Goths are vanquished. 

XXIX. — To \^alentiman the Younoer. For a 
MARBLE Statue 

Now we have made thee of marble, as our means 
afford : but when thine Emperor-brother is returned, 
be thou of gold.'^ 

XXX. — Links inscribed under a Picture showixo 
A Lion slain by Gratian with a sinole Arrow 

The death which the lion suffers through so frail 
a reed is due, not to the weapon's power, but to the 
wielder's. 

XXXI. — To THE Source of the Danube. By Command 
OF THE Emperor Valentinian 

I, Danube, whose head was once concealed in 
lands remote, now flow at full length under your 
sway : where 'midst the Suebi I pour forth my chill 
source, where I divide the Pannonias pregnant with 

•' cp. Virgil, Ed. vii. 35 f. : nunc te niarnioreum pro tem- 
pore feeimua ; at tu, Si fetura gregem suppleverit, aiu-eus 
esto. 



AUSONIUS 

et qua dives aquis Scytliico solvo ostiu ponto, 5 

omnia su]^ vestrum flumina mitto iugum. 

Augusto dahitur sed proxiina palma Valeiiti : 
invrniet fontes liic quoqiie, Nile, tiios. 

XXXII. — In Echo Pictam 

Vane, quid adfectas faciem mihi ponere, pietor, 

ignotamque oculis sollicitare deani ? 
Aeris et Linguae sum filia, mater inanis 

indicii, vocem quae sine mente gero. 
extremos pereunte modos a fine reducens, 5 

ludificata sequor verba aliena meis. 
auribus in vestris habito penetrabilis Rclio : 

et, si vis similem pingere, pinge sonum. 

XXXIII. — In Simulacrum Occasionis et 
Paenitentiae 

Cuius opus f Phidiae : qui signum Pallados, eius 

quique lovem fecit ; tertia palma ego sum. 
sum dea quae rara et paucis occasio nota. 

quid rotulae insistis ? stare loco nequeo. 
quid talaria liabes ? volucris sum. Mercurius quae ") 

fortunare solet, trado ego, cum volui. 
crine tegis faciem. cognosci nolo, sed lieus tu 

occipiti calvo es .'' ne tenear fugiens. 
quae tibi iuncta comes r dicat tibi. die rogo, quae sis. 

sum dea, cui nomen nee Cicero ipse dedit. 10 

* Because Valentinian was of Pannoiiian origin, 
174 



epic;kams on various matters 

eni])ire^^ and wliere with wealtli of waters I open my 
mouth to the Scythian sea, all my streams 1 cause to 
pass beneath your Roman yoke. I'o Augustus shall 
the chief palm be given, but the next to V'alens : he 
too shall find out sources — even thine, O Nile. 

XXXII. — To A Painting of Echo 

Fond painter, why dost thou essay to limn my 
face, and vex a goddess whom eyes never saw .'' I 
am the daughter of Air and Speech, mother of empty 
utterance, in that I have a voice without a mind. 
From their dying close I bring back failing strains 
and in mimicry repeat the words of strangers with 
my own. I am Echo, dwelling in the recesses of 
your ears : and if thou wouldst paint my likeness, 
paint sound. 

XXXIII. — For a Figurk of Opportunity and Regret 

" Whose work art thou.''" " Pheidias's : his who 
made Pallas' statue, who made Jove's : his third 
masterpiece am I. I am a goddess seldom found 
and known to few. Opportunity my name." " Why 
stand'st thou on a wheel ?" " I cannot stand still." 
" Why wearest thou winged sandals ? " "I am 
ever flying. The gifts which Mercury scatters at 
I'andom I bestow when I will." " Thou coverest thy 
face with thy hair." " I would not be recognised. " 
" But — what ! — art thou bald at the back of thy 
head?" "That none may catch me as I flee." 
" Who is she who bears thee company } " " Let her 
tell thee." "Tell me, I beg, who thou art." "I 
am a goddess to whom not even Cicero himself gave 

175 



AUSONIUS 

sum flea, quae factique et non facti exigo pneiias, 
nempe ut paeniteat. sie mktanof.a vocor. 

tu modo die, quid agat tecum, quandoque volavi, 
haee manet ; liane retinent, quos ego praeterii. 

tu quoque dum rogitas, dum percontando moraris, 15 
elapsam dices me tibi de manibus. 

XXX IV. — An Gallam Puellam iam senescentrm 

DicEBAM tibi : " Galla, senescimus ; efFugit aetas, 

utere rene tuo : casta puella anus est." 
sprevisti. obrepsit non intellecta senectus 

nee revocare potes, qui periere, dies, 
nunc piget et quereris, quod non aut ista voluntas 5 

tunc fuit, aut non est nunc ea forma tibi. 
da tamen amplexus o])litaque gaudia iunge. 

da : IVuar, et si non quod volo, quod vohii. 

XXXV. — De Lei'oue ( ai>to a Cane M \iii\o 

Thin ACKii quondam eurrentem in litoris ora 

ante canes leporem caeruleus rapuit. 
at lepus : " In me omnis terrae pelagique raj)ina est, 

forsitan et caeli ; si canis astra tenet." 



* = nerauota, primarily change of disposition and ])iirpose, 
then the emotion accompanying such change, and finally 
" regret," " remorse ' gencralh'. 



176 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

a name. I am a goddess who exacts penalties for 
what is done and what undone, to cause repentance. 
So I am called Melanoea.^" " Do thou - now tell me 
what does she along with thee ? '' " When I have 
flown away she remains : she is retained by those 
I have passed b}'. Thou also whilst thou keepest 
asking, whilst thou tarriest with questioning wilt say 
that I have slipped away out of thy hands." 



XXXI\ . To A M AID, GaI.I.A, now (iHI)\VIN(i or.i) ^ 

I usKo to say to thee : '' (ialla, we grow old, Time 
Hies away, enjoy thy life : a chaste girl is an old 
woman." Thou didst scorn my warning. Age has 
crept upon thee unperceived, nor canst thou call 
back the days that are gone. Now thou art sorry 
and dost lament, either because then thou wert dis- 
inclined, or because now thou hast not that former 
beauty. Yet give me thine embrace and share for- 
gotten joys with me. Give : I will take, albeit not 
what I would, yet what T once would. 



XXX\\ — On a Hahr caught nv a Ska-Doo * 

Onck on the strand of Sicily a sea-dog snapped up 
a hare speeding before the hounds. Then said the 
hare : " Against me both sea and land direct their 
ravages, perchance heaven also ; since there is a Dog 
among the stars." 

* The poet liere turns again to Oi)portunity. 
^ After Auth. Pal. v. 21. 
^ id. ix. 18. 



177 



AUSONIUS 
aXX\'I. — Df. Pkroamo ScniPTOHE fugitivo qv\ 

CAPTUS KUER AT 

Tam segnis scriptor, quain lentus, Pergaiue, cursor, 

fugisti et prinio cajjtus es in stadio. 
ergo notas scripto tolerasti, Perganie, vultu 

et qiias neglexit dextera, frons patitiir. 

XXXVII. — <In eundem Pergamum ^> 

Pergame, non recte punitus fronte subisti 
supplicium, lentae quod meruere manus. 

at tu, qui dominus, peccantia membra coherce : 
iniustum falsos excruciare reos. 

aut inscribe istani, quae non vult scribere, dextram, 
aut j)rofugos ferri pondere necte pedes. 

XXXVIII. — De Myrone qui Laidis Noctem 
rogaverat 

Canus rogabat Laidis noctem MjTon : 

tulit repulsam protinus 
causamque sensit et caput fuligine 

fucavit atra candidum. 
idemque vultu, crine non idem Myron 5 

orabat oratum prius. 
sed ilia formam cum cajMllo comparans 

similemque, non ij)sum, rata 
(fortasse et ipsum, sed volens ludo frui) 

sic est adorta callidum : 10 

" Inepte, quid me, quod recusavi, rogas ? 

patri negavi iam tuo." 
' Coinlnned in the MSS. -witli tlie fores,'oing epigram • 
.78 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 
XXXVI. — On Pergamus, a Runaway Scribe, who had 

BEEN CAUGHT 

As lazy a scribe as a sluggish runner, thou, Perga- 
mus, didst run away and wert caught at the first lap. 
Therefore thou hast felt letters^ branded, Pergamus, 
upon thy face, and those which thy right hand 
neglected thy brow endures. 

XXXVII. — On the same Pergamus 

Pergamus, when thou wast punished 'twas not just 
thy brow should bear the penalty which thy slow 
hands earned. Nay, do thou, their master, control 
thy errant limbs : it is unfair to torment those not 
really guilty. Either mark that right-hand which 
will not make a mark, or shackle those errant feet 
with an iron weight. 

XXXVIII. — On Mvron who asked Lais for ax 

Assignation - 

Hoar-headed Myron asked Lais for an assignation, 
and was refused outright : he understood the cause, 
and dyed his white poll with black soot. In face — 
though not in hair— the selfsame Myron, he begged 
what he had begged before. But she, contrasting 
his features with his hair, and thinking him like, 
though not the same (perchance even thinking him 
the same, but wishing to enjoy the jest), thus ad- 
dressed the artful gallant : " Fool, why askest thou 
what I have refused ? I have already rejected thy 
father." 

' i.e. rrc; = fwjUivus. 

- cp. Spartianus, Vita Hadriani, xx. 8. 

179 

N 2 



A U SON I us 

XXXIX. — De OriMONE QUAM DK II.I.O IIAISEHAT 
KITS UXOU 

Laioas et Glyceras, lasi-ivae iiomina faiiiae, 
coniunx in nostro carmine cinii legeret, 

ludere me dixit falsoque in amore iocari. 
tanta illi nostra est de probitate fides. 

XL. A I) UXOREM 

Uxo«, vivamus quod viximiis^ et teneamus 

nomina, quae primo sumpsimus in tlialamo : 
nee ferat ulla dies, ut commutemur in aevo ; 

quin tibi sim iuvenis tuque puella milii. 
Nestore sim quamvis provectior aemulaque aiinis 5 

vincas Cumanam tu quoque Deiphoben ; 
nos ignoremus, quid sit matura senectus. 

scire aevi meritum, non numerare decet. 

XLI. — In Meuoex Anum ebuiosam 

Qui primus, meroe, nomen tibi condidit, ille 

Thesidae nomen condidit Hippolvto. 
nam divinare est, nomen componere, quod sit 

fortunae et morum vel necis indicium. 
Protesilae, tibi nomen sic fata dederunt, 5 

victima quod Troiae prima futurus eras. 
Idmona quod vatem, medicum quod lapyga dicunt, 

discendas artes nomina praeveniunt. 
et tu sic Meroe, non quod sis atra colore, 

ut quae Niliaca nascitur in Meroe ; 10 



' i.e. tlie Sil)\'l of Ciuiiae, daughter of Glaucus (see Virgil, 
Aeii. vi. .36). 

* See Epitaphia, xii. 1-2 (note). 

l8o 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

XXXIX. How HIGHLY THE PoET's WifE THOUtiHT OF 

HIM 

Of Lais and Glycera, ladies of naughty fame, 
whene'er my wife read in my verse, she said I did but 
play and feign strange loves in jest. Sueh is her 
confidence in my integrity. 

XL. — To HIS Wife 

Dear wife, as we have lived, so let us live and 
keep the names we took when first we wedded : let 
no day ever make us change in lapse of time ; but I 
will be thy " Lad " still and thou wilt be my " Lass." 
Though I should outlive Nestor, and thou too 
shouldst outstrip Deiphobe of Cumae ^ in rivalry of 
years, let us refuse to know the meaning of ripe age. 
Better to know Time's worth than count his years. 

XLI. — To Meroe, a drunken Hag 

Who first compounded thee thy name, Meroe, he 
for Hippolytus, Theseus' son, compounded a name. 
For 'tis divining to make such a name as betokens 
lot, or character, or death. So, Protesilaiis, the Fates 
gave thee thy name, because thou wert to be Troy's 
first victim.2 When men call a poet Idmon,^ a 
physician lapyx,* the names anticipate the arts they 
are to learn. Even so art thou Meroe, not because 
thou art dusky-hued as one born in Nile-washed 

3 Jdmon (from the root i5-) was the bard and seer who 
accompanied the Argonauts. 

■* lapyx was the physician who tended Aeneas (Virgil, Aen. 
xxii. 391 ff'.). 

i8i 



AUSONIUS 

infusuni scd quod vinuin nun diluis undis, 
potare inniixtum sueta nierinn(|iie nieruin. 

XLII. Ex GllAFXO THAOUCTUM OE StATUA NkMKSIs 

Mk laj)idem (juondam Persae advexerc, tropaeinn 
ut fiereni bello : nunc ego sum Nemesis. 

ac sicut Graecis victoribus adsto tropaeum, 
punio sic Persas vaniloquos Xeniesis. 

XLIII. — De Thrasybulo Laceuaemonio yui loii- 

TISSIME DIMICANS OCCUBUIT 

ExciPis adverse quod pectoie vulnera sepLem, 

arma super veheris quod, Thrasybule, tua, 
non dolor hie patris est, Pitanae sed gloria maior. 

varum, tarn pulchro funere posse frui. 
quem postquam maesto socii posuere feretro, 5 

talia magnanimus edidit orsa pater : 
" Flete alios, natus lacrimis non indiget ullis, 

et meus, "et talis, et Lacedaemonius." 

XLIV^ — Ex Graeco traductum de Matre 

MAGNANIMA 

Mater Lacaena clipeo obarmans filium, 
"Cum hoc," inquit, " aut in hoc redi." 

The play upon ^^e)oe . . . menim cannot be reproduced. 
^ = Anth. xvi. "JGo. 
^ See Epist. xxvii. 53 tt'. and note. 

182 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

Meroe ; but because thou never slakest wine with 
water, being used to drink draughts unallayed of 
wine, pure wine.^ 

XLII. TllANSLATEO FROM THE GltEEK.^ On A SxATUE 

OF Nemesis 

As a stone the Persians once brought me here to 
be a trophy of war ; now am I Nemesis. And 

even as I stand here a trophy of Greek victory, so as 
Nemesis I requite the idly-boasting Persians.** 

XLIII. — On Thrasybulus the Lacedaemonian who 

FELL FIGHTING MOST BRAVELY * 

That thou receivest seven gashes all in front, that 
thou art borne, Thrasybulus, upon thy shield, this 
grieves not thy sire, but adds greater glory to Pitana.^ 
Rare is the opportunity of so fair a death. After thy 
comrades laid thee upon the mournful bier, these 
words did thy stout-heai*ted sire pronounce : " Weep 
ye for others : a son needs not any tears, being mine, 
so glorious, and a Spartan." 

XLIV. — Translated from the Greek. '^ On a brave 
Mother 

A Spartan mother slinging her son's shield, 
" Return with this," said she, "or upon it." 

* = Anth. Pal. vii. 2'29. 

* A Spcartaii town on the Eurotas. 

' Plut. Apophth. Laraen. Incert. 15 : tck^oc, etpyu h tou' f) 
iir] ras. 

183 



AUSONIUS 

XLV. — In Dkgeneiikm piviikm Moecho (iF.MTi m 

C^riDAM superhiis opibus et fastu tumcns 

taiituiiKjiie verbis nubilis 
spernit vigeiitis clara saecli nomiiia, 

antiqua captans stemmata, 
Martem Renuimque et conditorem Roniulmn 5 

jirivos j)areiites nuncupans. 
lios ille Serum veste contexi iubet : 

hos caelat argento jri'^vi, 
ceris inurens ianuarum liniina 

et atrioruni jiegmata. 10 

credo, quod illi nee pater certus fuit 

et mater est vere lupa. 

XL\'l. — Antisthenis C^ nu I Imagini suhditi 

Inventor primus Cvnices ego. "Quae ratio istaec .' 

Alcides inulto dicitur esse prior." 
Alcida quondam fueram doctore secundus : 

nunc ego sum Cynices primus, et ille deus. 



XLVII.— [De Eodem] 

Dis( ipui.rs melior null! meliorve magisler 
€1? ('if)iTr]i' avve/Si] Kal KvyiKi]i' aocftiijv. 

dicere me novit verum, qui novit utrumquc, 
KUL 6e6v A\K€L^r]V', Kal Kvva Atoy€i'>;i'. 



' Antisthenes, pupil first of (iorgias, then of Socrates, 
founder of the Cynic school, used to quote Heracles as illus- 



uS4 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

XLV. — To A RICH Degkneua'ik basely horn 

A FELLOW, purse-proud and swollen-headed, hijih 
born in words alone, scorns the illustrious names of 
the current age, hankering after an ancient pedigree 
and claiming Mars, Remus, and Romulus our 
founder as his own s})ecial forebears. Their figures 
he bids be woven in his silken robes, theirs he chases 
on his massy plate, or paints in encaustic on his 
threshold and on the ceiling of his halls. True for 
him ! For his father was not known and his mother 
surely is a bitch. 

XL\T. — Written under a Portrait ok Antis- 

THENES THE CyNIC 

"I AM the first discoverer of the Cynic rule." 
" How can that be ? Men say Alcides ^ long pre- 
ceded thee." "Once I was second with Alcides 
for my master ; now I am the first Cynic and he a 
god." 

XLV'II. — On the same 

None had a better pupil or a better master in 
virtue and the Cynic lore. He knows that I speak 
truth who knows each of the two, Alcides the god 
and Diogenes the dog (Cynic). 

t rating his doctrine that labour is a good. Diogenes (412- 
82.3 B.C.), disciple of Antislhenes, compared his mantle to the 
lion's skin of Heracles. 



i85 



AUSONIUS 

XLVlil. MlXOBAIlUAIlON LiBEIU PaTRIS Sl(iN() MAU- 

MOREo IN Villa nostra omnium Deorim 
Argumenta iiabenti 

OciVGinAE^ me Bacchum vocant, 

Osirin Aegypti putant, 

Mysi Phaiiacen nominant, 

Dionyson Indi existiinaut, 

Romana sacra Liberuni, 5 

Arabica gens Adoneum, 

Lucaniacus Pantheuni. 

XLIX. — LiBEHo Patri 
AiyuTTTtoji^ /x€v Ocripis eyo), Mvuwi' ok 4>ai'a/<';/s, 

TTupoyci'i;?, StKcptos, TiraioXcTT;?, Aidvvcros. 

L. — In C()Rvd<*nem marmoreum 
€15 At^os eK Trai/Tojj/ Atros cyw KopuSwv. 

LI. In SiMULAtRUM SaPI'HIS 

Lesijia Pieriis Sappho soroi* addita Musis, 

£l/x' ivOLTI] \vplKWl', AoVlSwV SeKULTt]. 

Lll. — Deae A'eneri 

Orta salo, suscej)ta solo, patre edita Caelo, 
Aeneadum genetrix, hie habito alnia Venus. 

1 cp. Statins, T/i>:b. ii. 5S6 : Ogygiac, MSS. 

' i.e. the Thcbaiis : Ogyges was the mythical founder of 
the citj'. ^ Ausoniu.s' estate. 

I 86 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

XLV^III. — An outlandish Medley to a marble 
Statue of Liueii Pater in my Country House, 
having the attributes of various gods 

The sons of Ogyges ^ call me IJacohus, Egyptians 
think me Osiris, Mysians name me Phanaces, Indians 
regard me as Dionysus, Roman rites make me Liber, 
the Aral) race thinks me AdoneuSj Lueaniacus^ the 
Universal God. 

XLIX. — To Liber Pater 

I AM Osiris of the Egvj)tians, Phanaces of the 
Mysians, Bacchus among the living, Adoneus among 
the dead. Fire-born, Twy-horned, Titan-slayer, Dio- 
nysus. 

L. To A MARBLE StaTUE OF CoRN DON 

A f.oAT, a ram, a wallet, a shepherd with his staff, 
an olive-tree, all in a monolith make up lithe '^ 
Cory don. 

LL — To A Figure of Sappho * 

I, Lesbian Sappho, adopted sister of the Muses, 
am ninth of the lyrists,^ tenth of the Aonides. 

LIL — To THE Goddess Venus 

Risen from the firth, received by earth. Heaven's 
child by birth, mother of Aeneas' line, I, kindly 
Venus, here do dwell. 

"' The play on a/9os . . . Aito's cannot full}' be reproduced. 
■* cp. Anth. Pal. ix. 506, 571 (11. 7 f.). 

® In reference to the Alexandrine Canons of standard 
authors (Nine Lyrists, Ten Orators, and so forth). 

187 



AlKSONinS 

LIll. N'ERsUS in N'e.sTE (ONTEXTl 

Laudet Achaemenias orientis gloria telas : 
molle auruni pallis, Graecia, texe tuis ; 

non minus Ausoiiiam celebret duni fania Sahiuain, 
parcentem magnis sumptil)us, arte j)areui. 

LI v.— Item 

SiVE probas Tyrio texlam subtemine vestem 
sen placet inscripti commoditas tituli, 

ipsius hoc doniinae concinnat utrumque venustas, 
has iicminas artes una Sabina colit. 



LV'. — 1)e eadem Sabina 

Lu lA qui texunt et carniina, carmina Musis, 

licia conlribuunt, casta Minerva, tibi. 
ast ego rem sociam non dissociabo Sabina, 

versibus inscripsi quae mea texta meis. 

LVl. — De Puella yiAM amabat 

Hanc volo, quae non vult ; illam, quae vult, ego nolo : 

vincere vult aninios, non satiare \ enus. 
oblatas sperno illeoebras, detrecto negatas : 

nee satiare aninnmi nee cruciare volo. 
nee bis cincta Diana placet nee nuda Cythere : 5 

ilia voluptatis nil habet, haee nimium. 
callida sed mediae Veneris mihi venditet artem 

femina, quae iungat, quod volo nolo vocant. 

' Again ,4 /coH ("ft bears a double meaning, "western ' and 
" wife of Ansonius."' 

* cp. Anth. Pal. xii. -iOtt. 

188 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

LI II. — Lines woven in a Robe 

Let the proud Orient extol its Achaemenian 
looms: weave in thy robes, O Greece, soft threads of 
gold; but let fame ecjually renown Ausonian^ Sabina 
who, shunning their costliness, matches their skill. 

Liy. — ^A Second Set 

Whetweu thou dost admire robes woven in Tyrian 
looms, or lovcst a motto neatly traced, my mistress 
w ith her charming skill combines the twain : one 
hand — Sabina's — practises these twin arts. 

LV'. — On the same Sabina 

Some weave yarn and some weave verse : these of 
their verse make tribute to the Muses, those of their 
yarn to thee, O chaste Minerva. But I, Sabina, will 
not divorce mated arts, who on my own webs have 
inscribed my verse. 

LVI. — On the M \in whom he i.ovEn - 

Hek I would have who will not, and her, who 
will, I would not : V enus would vanquish, not satisfy, 
the heart. Charms offered me I scorn, depreciate 
those denied : 1 would neither sate my heart nor 
torture it. Neither twice-girt Dian pleases, nor nude 
Cythere : the one gives no delight, the other over- 
much. Be mine a mistress skilfully to display the 
art of attempered love, who can unite what " I 
would," " I would not" mean."^ 

'■^ i.e. "who can unite the two attitudes these words 
imply." 

189 



AUSONKJS 

LVII. — Dk Dioitiis FiiA'nuBus 

Xpi}aTos, AkivSvvos, avroaBeXcfieoi, o'lKTpa 8e TtKi'a, 
moribus anibo nialis nomina falsa gerunt : 

ovo ouTos ^py/crros, ovh ovt(j<; ciku'Svvos icmv. 
una potest ambos littera corrigere. 

ai Kev Xp^cTTOs iXil """/^ aSeX(fiov ' AkivSvvov aX.<f>QL, 5 

ku'Sdi'os hie fiet, frater a^p-qcTTo<i erit. 

L\'II1. De ChRESTO ET AciNDYNO QlIBtS KUERAT 

MALE XOMEN IMPOSITUM 

Cjermam fratres sunt, CIn-estos, Acindynos alter, 
falsuni nomen utrique : sed ut verinn sit utrique, 
alpha siiinn Chresto det Acindynos^ ipse sine alpha 
permaneat ; veiuni nomen uterque geret. 

LIX. — QUODDAM QUASI AeNIGMA DE TRICLS IncESTIS 

"Tris uno in lecto : stiiprum duo perpetiuntur. 

et duo committunt." "' Quattuor esse rcor." 
" Falleris : extremis da singula crimina et ilium 

bis nuniera medium, qui focit et patitur. " 

LX. — De his qui dicunt Reminisco quod no\ 

EST LaTINUM 

Qui reminisco i)utat se dieere posse latine 

hie ubi co scriptum est, faceret cor, si cor haberet. 



190 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

LVII. — On two Brothers 

Chrestus and Aeindynus, own brothers but hap- 
less children, bear names which belie their unhappy 
qualities : neither this one is " Gracious/' nor this 
" Riskless." One letter can correct them both. If 
Chrestus should borrow alpha ("-less"), from his 
brother Aeindynus, one will become " Risk " and his 
brother will be "Graceless." 



L\'III. — On Chrestus ano Acindvnus who hau 

BEEN INAPI'ROI'RIATELV NAMED 

These are two own brothers, Chrestus and Aein- 
dynus. Both have been wrongly named : but that 
both may be set right, let Aeindynus give his (dpha 
to Chrestus, himself remaining without alpha ; each 
will be an appropriate name. 

LIX.— A Kind of Riddle on three lewd Fellows ^ 

" Tris uno in lecto : stuprum duo perpetiuntur, 
et duo committunt." " Quattuor esse reor." 

" Falleris : extremis da singula crimina et ilium 
bis numera medium, qui facit et patitur." 

LX. — On those who say " Reminlsco," which is 
not Latin 

He who thinks he can say reminisco and speak 
Latin, would put cor where co is written, if he had 
any sense. 

1 = Anth. Pal. xi. 225. 

191 



AUSONILS 



LXI.— Dk Vkuuis Ih'ii 

RuKUis vocatus rhetttr olim ad luijitias, 

celebri ut fit in convivio, 
grammaticae ut artis se perituni ostenderet, 

l\aec vota dixit nuptiis : 
" Et masculini et feniinini <rignite •"> 

generisque iieutri filios." 

LXII. 1)k (tLAU(1\ INMATUHA MoRTE I'KAKVKNTO 

Lakta his octono til)i iani sub fonsule pubes 

cingebat teneras, Cilaiuia adultc, geuas. 
et iani desieras puer aiine piiella videri : 

cum properata dies abstulit onine decus. 
sed neque functoruin socius iniscebere vulgo 5 

nee nietues Stygios Hebilis umbra laeus, 
verum aut Persephoiiae ("inyreius ibis Adonis, 

aut lovis FJvsii tu Catamitus eris. 

LXIII. — In SuiNUM Makmokkum Niobes 

VivEBAM : sum facta silex, quae deinde polita 

Praxiteb manibus vi\o iterum Niobe. 
reddidit artificis manus omnia, sed sine sensii : 

bunc ego, cum htesi numina, non habui. 

LXI\'. De PaI.I.AOE VOl.EXTE CERTAHE AllMIs ( LM 

\'enehe 

Armatam vidit Venerem Lacedaemone Pallas. 

"Nunc eertemus," ait, "iudice vel Paride." 
cui Venus : " Armatam tu me, temeraria, temnis, 

quae, quo te vici tempore, nuda fui ? " 

' cp. generally A)ith. Pa/, ix. 489. 

* Meaning apparentlj' that a rhetorician was often invited 
and expected to make a speech. 

192 



EPIGRAMS ON VAR[OUS MATTERS 

LXI. On an llTTERANrE OF RuFus 1 

RuFUS the rhetorician, being once invited to a 
wedding — a thing oft done at crowded festivals'- — 
to show his skill in grammar, expressed these 
wishes for the wedded pair : " May ye get sons of 
gender masculine, feminine and neuter." 

LXII. — On Glaucias, cut off by an untimelv 
Death 
Glad youth verging upon thy sixteenth year 
already was encircling thy soft cheeks* with down, 
young Glaucias. And already thou hadst ceased to 
seem boy or maid indifferently when the day came 
too hurriedly and bare off all thy comeliness. Yet 
neither shalt thou join company with the common 
throng of dead, nor shalt thou, a piteous shade, 
dread the Stygian pools, but thou shalt go thither 
as Persephone's Adonis, the son of Cinyras, or thou 
shalt be the Ganymede of Elysian Jove. 

LXI II. — For a marble Statue of Niobe^ 

I USED to live : I became stone, and then being 
polished by the hand of Praxiteles, I now live again 
as Niobe. The artist's hand has restored me all but 
sense : that, when I offended gods, I had not. 

LXIV. — On Pallas offering to do Combat with 
Venus •* 
At Lacedaemon Pallas saw Venus armed. " Now," 
quoth she, "let us contend, even with Paris for 
judge." Venus replied : " When I am armed, rash 
maid, dost thou despise me, seeing that when I con- 
quered thee I was bare f " 

» cp. Anth. xvi. 129. " = Anlh. xvi. 174. 

•93 

VOL. II. O 



AUSONIUS 

LXV.— De Laide dicante Veneri Speculum suum 

Lais anus Veneri speculum dico : dignum habeat se 

aeterna aeternum forma ministerium. 
at mihi nuUus in hoc usus, quia cernere talem, 

qualis sum, nolo, qualis eram, nequeo. 



LXVI. — [De Castore, Poli.uce et Helena] 

IsTos tergemino nasci quos cernis ab ovo, 
patribus ambiguis et matribus adsere nates, 
hos genuit Nemesis, sed Leda puerpura fovit ; 
Tyndareus pater his et luppiter : hie putat. hio scit. 

LXVII. — De Imaoine Veneris sculpta a Phaxitelf 

\'era Venus Gnidiam cum vidit Cyprida. dixit : 

" Vidisti nudam me, puto, Praxitele." 
" Non vidi, nee fas : sed ferro opus omne polinuis. 

ferrum Gradivi Martis in arbitrio. 
quulem igitur domino scierant placuisse Cytheren, O 

talem fecerunt ferrea caela deam." 

LXV'III. — In Buculam Aeream Mvroms 

But ULA sum, caelo genitoris facta Myronis 
aerea : nee factam me puto, sed genitam, 

sic me taurus init, sic proxima bucula mugit, 
sic vitulus sitiens ubera nostra petit. 

1 (•;;. Anfh. Pal. vi. 1. * -ju. Gorgia;:, Helm, S. '.'». 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 



LXV. — On Lais dedicating her Mirror to Venus '^ 

I, Lais, grown old, to Venus dedicate my mirror : 
let eternal beauty have the eternal service which 
befits it. But for me there is no profit in this, for to 
behold myself such as I am I would not, such as I 
was I cannot. 



LX\'I. — On Castor, Pollux, and Helen 

Those whom thou seest springing from a triple 
egg, declare their ancestry doubtful on either side. 
These Nemesis conceived, but pregnant Leda bare 
them in her womb ; Tyndareus to them was father 
and Juppiter : the one believes he is, the other 
knows. 2 

LXVII. — On a Statue ok Venus sculptured by 
Praxiteles 2 

The real \'enus, when she saw the Cnidian Cypris, 
said : " Methinks, Praxiteles, thou hast seen me un- 
clad." "I have not seen thee, 'twould be sin : but 
'tis with steel I finish every work. Steel is at the 
disposal of Mars Gradivus. Therefore my steel chisel 
has fashioned a goddess such as the Cvthera whom 
it knew to have pleased its lord." 

LXVTII. — On the Bronze Heifer of Myron * 

I AM a heifer, wrought in bronze by the chisel 
of Myron my creator : nay, I think I was not 
wrought but born, so does the bull make for me, so 
does the heifer by my side low, so the calf athirst 

3 Anth. xvi. 160 (cp. 162). 

« cp. Anth. Pal. ix. 713, 726, 730. 



AUSONIUS 

miraris, quod fallo gregem ? gregis ipse inagister 5 
inter pascentes me numerare solct. 

LXIX. — De eadkm Bucula Myronis 

Ubera quid pulsas frigentia matris aenae, 
o vitule, et sucum lactis ab aere petis ? 

Iiunc quoque praestarem, si me pro parte parasset 
exteriore Myron, interiore deus. 

L-XX. — Ad Daedalum de eadem Bucula 

Daedale, cur vana consumis in arte laborem ? 

me po£ius clausa subice Pasiphae. 
illecebras verae si vis dare, Daedale, vaccae, 

viva tibi species vacca Myronis erit. 

LXXI. — De eadem Myronis Bucula iam habente 
Shiritum 

Aerea mugitum poterat dare vacca Myronis ; 

sed timet artificis deterere ingenium. 
fingere nam similem vivae, quam vivere, plus est ; 

nee sunt facta dei mira, sed artificis. 

LXXII. — De eadem Bucula iam habente Spiritum 

Aerea bos steteram ; mactata est vacca Minervae ; 

sed dea proflatam transtulit hue animam. 
et modo sum duplex : pars aerea, pars animata. 

haec manus artificis dicitur, ilia deae. 



196 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

seeks my udders. Dost wonder that the herd mis- 
takes me ? The master of the herd himself oft 
reckons me with his grazing beasts. 

LXIX. — On the same Heifer of Myron 

Whv thrustest thou at the cold udders of a brazen 
dam, O calf, and seekest milky liquid from bronze .'' 
That also would I supply had Heaven made me 
within as Myron without. 

LXX. — To Daedalus on the same Heifer 

Daedalus, why wastest thou pains in idle craft ? 
Rather expose me with Pasiphae enclosed within. 
If thou wouldst offer the allurement of a real cow, 
Myron's shall be for thee a living image. 

LXXI. — On the same Heifer of Mvron now 

ENDOWED WITH BrEATH 

Myron's brazen heifer could low aloud, but fears 
to spoil the artist's craftsmanship. For to make me 
seem alive is more than to make me live ; and not 
the works of God are wondrous, but the artist's. ^ 

LXXII. — On the same Heifer now endowed with 
Breath 

I HAD stood here a brazen heifer ; a cow was 
slaughtered to Minerva ; but the goddess transferred 
to me the life breathed forth. And now I am two- 
fold : part is brazen, part alive. This is ascribed to 
the artist's skill, that to the goddess. 

^ i.e. natural objects ;ire taken for granted and excite no 
wonder : it is tlie artificial which meets with admiration. 

197 



AUSONIUS 



LXXIII. — Ad Taurum de eadem Bucula 

Quid me, taure, paras specie deceptus inire ? 
non sum ego Minoae machina Pasi])haae. 



LXXIV. — De eadem Myronis Bucula 

Necdum caduco sole, iam sub vespere, 
ageret iuvencas cum domum pastor suas, 
suam relinquens me nioiiebat ut suam. 



LXXV". — De eadem Myroms Bucula 

Unam iuvencam pastor forte amiserat, 

numerumque iussus reddere 
me defuisse conquerebatur, sequi 

quae noluissem ceteras. 

LXXVI.— <QuAE Sexum mutarint> 

Vallebanae (nova res et vix credenda poetis, 

sed quae de vera promitur historia) 
femineam in speciem convertit niasculus ales 

pavaque de pavo constitit ante oculos. 
cuncti admirantur monstrum : sed mollior agna 5 

[talia virginea voce puella refert : ^] 
" Quid stolidi ad speciem notae novitatis hebetis ? 

an vos Nasonis carmina non legitis ? 
Caenida convertit proles Saturnia Consus 

ambiguoque fuit corpore Tiresias. 10 

vidit scmivirum tons Salmacis Hermaphnxlitum : 

vidit nubentem Plinius Androgynum. 

' Supjil. Translalor 
198 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

LXXIII. — To A Bull on the same Heifer 

Why seekest thou to make for me, lord of the 
herd, beguiled by appearance ? I am no contrivance 
of Pasiphae, Minos' wife. 

LXXIV. — On the same Heifer of Myron 

Ere the sinking sun was set, evening now drawing 
on, the neatherd, while he drove his heifers home, 
left one of his own and chid me as though one of 

his. 

LXXV^ — On the same Heifer of Myron 

A neatherd chanced to have lost a single heifer, 
and, bidden to deliver up the tale, complained that I 
was missing because I would not follow the others 
home. 

LXXVI. — They who have changed their Sex 

At Vallebana ^ (a thing strange and scarce credible 
in a poet, but which is taken from a truthful tale) a 
male bird changed into female form, and an erstwhile 
peacock stood a peahen before men's eyes. All 
marvelled at the portent ; but a girl softer than any 
lamb spake thus with maiden voice : " Fools, why so 
amazed to see a thing strange yet not unknown .''Or 
do ye not read Naso's verse ? Consus, old Saturn's 
son, changed Caenis to a boy and Tiresias was not 
always of one sex. The fount Salmacis saw Herma- 
phroditus the half-man - ; Pliny ^ saw a man-woman 

' Unkuown. 

- SeeOvid, Mttam. xii. 189 ft.; iii. 323a.; iv. 2Sn ti. 

■■■ See Pliny X.II. vii. 3G. 

199 



AUSONIUS 

nee satis antiquum, quod Campana in Benevento 

unus epheborum virgo repente fuit. 
nolo tamen veteris documenta arcessere famae. 15 

ecce ego sum factus femina de puero." 

LXXVII. — Ad Pythagoram de Marco qui 

DICEBATUR Pui.LARIA 

" Pytiiagora Euphorbi, reparas qui semina reruni 

corporibusque novis das reduces aninias, 
die, quid erit Mareus iam fata novissima functus, 

si redeat vitam rursus in aeriani ? " 
"Quis Marcus?" " Feles nuper pullaria dictus, 5 

corrupit totum qui puerile seeus, 
perversae Veneris postieo vulnere fossor, 

Lueili vatis subj)ilo pullipremo." 
" Non taurus, non mulus erit, non hippocamelus, 

non caper aut aries, sed searabaeus erit." 10 

LXXVIII. — De Castore Fellatore yui slam 
lingebat Uxorem 

Lambere cum vellet mediorum membra virorum 
Castor nee posset vulgus habere domi, 

repperit, ut nullum fellator perderet inguen : 
uxoris coepit lingere membra suae. 

LXXIX. SUBSCRU'TUM PlCTURAE Ml'LIERIS 

IMPUniCAE 

Pkaetf-.u legitimi genialia foedera coetus 
repperit obscenas veneres vitiosa libido : 
Herculis lieredi quani Lemnia suasit egestas, 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

in the act. Nor is the tale yet old that in Campanian 
Beneventum a certain lad suddenly became a maid. 
Yet I would not cite you instances of old report : lo, 
I was changed from boy to girl." 



LXXVII. — To Pythagoras on Marcus who was 

SAID to be a KiDNAPPKR 

a Pythagoras, Euphorbus' son, thou who dost 
renew the seeds of nature and to fresh bodies dost 
assign souls brought back to earth, say, what will 
Marcus be who has now felt fate's final stroke, if he 
return again to live in our air ? " " Who is Marcus ? " 
" One lately known as seducer and kidnapper, who 
has debauched the entire sex, an unnatural scoundrel, 
01-, as the bard Lucilius says, a pilfering paederast." 
" No bull, no mule, no hippocaniel shall he be, no 
goat or ram, but he shall be a scarabaeus. " ^ 

LXXVIII.— De Castore Fellatore qui suam 
lingebat Uxorem 

Lambere cum vellet mediorum membra virorum 
Castor nee posset vulgus habere domi, 

repperit, ut nullum fellator perderet inguen : 
uxoris coepit lingere membra suae. 

LXXIX. — Written under the Portrait of a lewd 
Woman 

Puaeter legitinii genialia foedera coetus 
repperit obscenas veneres vitiosa libido : 
Herculis heredi quam Lemnia suasit egestas, 

' The Egyptian dung-beetle. 



AUSONIUS 

quam toga facundi scaenis agitavit Afrani 
et quam Nolanis capitalis liixus inussit. 
Crispa tamen cunctas exercet corpore in uno : 
deglubit, fellat, molitur per utramque cavernam, 
ne quid inexpertum frustra inoritura relinquat. 



LXXX. — De Alcone Medico qui Hakusprem 

VANILOQUUM FECIT 

Languenti Marco dixit Diodorus haruspex 
ad vitam non plus sex superesse dies. 

sed medicus divis fatisque potentior Alcon 
falsum convicit illico haruspicium 

tractavitque manuni victuri, ni tetigisset ; 
illico nam Marco sex periere dies. 

LXXXI. — De Signo Iovis tacto ab Alcone 
Medico 

Al( ON hesterno signum Iovis attigit. ille 
quamvis marmoreus vim patitur medici. 

ecce hodie iussus transferri e sede vetusta 
efFertur, quamvis sit deus atque lapis. 

LXXXII. — In EuNUiM Ligcrritorem 

KuNE, quid adfectas vendentem Phyliida odores.^ 
diceris banc mediam lambere, non molere. 

perspice, ne mercis fallant te nomina, vel ne 
aere Seplasiae decipiare cave, 

dum Kvadov Koo-roique putas connnunis odoris 
et narduin ac sardas esse sapore p.iri. 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

quam toga facundi scaenis agitavit Afrani 
et quam Nolanis capitalis luxus inussit. 
Crispatamen cunctas exercet corpore in uno : 
deglubit, fellat, molitur per utrainque cavernam, 
ne quid inexpertuiii frustra nioritura relinquat. 

LXXX. — On Alcon a Doctor who made a Sooth- 
saver A FALSE Prophet 
When Marcus was sick, Diodorus the soothsayer 
told him that no more than six days of Hfe remained. 
But the doctor, Alcon, more potent than the gods 
and fates, straightway proved the divination false 
and touched his patient's hand who might have 
lived had he not touched ; for straightway Marcus' 
six days came to an end. 

LXXXl. — On a Statue of Jove touched by Alcon 
THE Doctor 

Yesterday Alcon touched Jove's statue. He, 
though of marble, felt the doctor's influence. To-day, 
lo, he is being carried off, bidden to be removed 
from his ancient place, for all he is a god and made 
of stone. 

LXXXII. To EUNUS A LECHEROUS FeLLOW 

EuNus, why dost thou seek to win Phyllis, the 
scent-seller ? Diceris banc mediam lambei'e, non 
molere. Look that the names of her wares do not 
deceive thee, or that thou beest not deceived by the 
scent of Seplasia,^ while you think rank and fragrant 
smell alike and that spikenard and stockfish have the 
same savour. 

^ A street in Capua where scents were sold. 

203 



AUSONIUS 



LXXXIII. — <1n eundem Eunum> 

DiVERSA infelix et lambit et olfacit Eunus : 
dissimilem olfactum naris et oris habet. 



LXXXIW — Ad eundem Eunum quod non velit 

DENE NEC MALE OLERE 

Salgama non hoc sunt, quod balsama : cedite odores. 
nee male olere mihi, nee bene olere placet. 

LXXXV. — <Ad eundem Eunum> 

Lais Eros et Itys, Chiron et Eros, Itys alter 
nomina si scribis, prima elementa adime, 

ut facias verbum, quod tu facis, Eune magister. 
dicere me Latium non decet oj)probrium. 

LXXXVI. — Ad Eunum qui Uxoris suae Inguina 

LAMBEBAT 

Eune, quod uxoris gravidae putria inguina lambis, 
festinas glossas non natis tradere natis. 

LXXXVII. — -Ad Eunum Ligurritorem Paedagogi m 

Eunus Syriscus, inguinum ligurritor, 

opicus magister (sic eum docet Phyllis) 

muliebre membrum quadriangulum cernit : 

triquetro coactu .^. litteram ducit. 

de valle femorum altrinsecus pares rugas 5 

niediumque, fissi rima qua patet, callem 

.^V. dicit esse : nam trifissilis forma est. 

cui ipse linguam cum dedit suam, .A. est : 

204 



EPIGRAMS O.V VARIOUS MATTERS 

LXXXIII. — To THz SAME Elms 

Lnhappv Eunus tastes and smells thiii<is much 
unlike : his nose has one sense, his tongue another. 

LXXXI\ . — To THE SAME Elnls, because he Would 

SMELL NEITHER SWEET NOR RANK 

Pickles are one thing, balsam another : away with 
scents I Neither to smell rank nor to smell sweet 

jileases me. 

LXXXV. — To THE same Eunus 

Lais, Eros, and Itvs, Chiron and Eros, Itvs again, 
these names wTite down and take their initials, that 
thou mayest form a word describing what thou dost, 
schoolmaster Eunus. To name the infamv in Latin 
becomes me not. 

LXXXX'I. — An EuNUM qui L.xoris suae Inguina 
lambebat 

EiNE, quod uxoris gravidae putria inguina Iambic. 
festinas glossas non natis tradere natis. 

LXXX\ II. — To Eunus, a lecherous Schoolmaster 

EuNus Syriscus, inguinum ligurritor, 
opicus magister (sic enim docet Phyllis) 
muliebre membrum quadriangulum cernit : 
triquetro coactu .A.litteram ducit. 
de valle femorum altrinsecus pares rugas 
mediumque, fissi rima qua patet. callem 
.^. dicit esse : nam trifissilis forma est. 
cui ipselinguam cum dedit suam. .A. est : 



AUSONIUS 

veramque in illis esse .<l>. notain sentit. 

quid, imperite,'.P. putas ibi scriptuni, 10 

ubi locari .1. convenit longmn ? 

miselle doctor, .y. tibi sit obsceno, 

tuumque iiomen .0. sectilis signet. 

LXXXVIII. — Au Crispam quae a quibusdam 

niCEBATUR DEFORMIS 

Deformem quidani te dicunt, Crispa : ego istud 
nescio : mi pulchra es, iudice me satis est. 

quin etiam cupio, iunctus quia zelus amori est, 
ut videare aliis foeda, decora mibi. 

LXX XIX^ — -QuALEM velit habere Amicam 

Sit mini talis arnica velim, 

iurgia (juae temere incipiat, 

nee studeat quasi casta loqui : 

pulcra procax petulante manu, 

verbera quae ferat et i-egerat Z 

eaesaque ad oscula confugiat. 

nam nisi moribus his fuerit, 

casta modesta pudenter agens, 

dicere aboniinor, uxor erit. 

XC. Ex GrAECO TRADUCTUM ad CUPIDINEM 

Hoc, quod amare vocant, solve aut misceto, Cupido 
aut neutrum flammis ure vel ure duo. 

XCI. — Ad Dionen de Amore suo 
Aut restingue ignem, quo torreor, alma Dione, 
aut transire iube : vel fac utrimque parem. 

2o6 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

veramque in illis esse .<!>. notam sentit. 
quid, imperite, .P. putas ibi scriptum, 
ubi locare .1. convenit longuni ? 
miselle doctor, .S. tibi sit obsceno, 
tuumque nomen .®. sectilis signet. 

LXXX\'in. — To Crispa, said bv some to be 

DEFORMED 

Some say that thou art deformed, Crispa : that I 
know not : for me thou art fair, 'tis enough since I 
am judge. Nay more, I long — for jealousy is yoked 
with love — that thou mayest seem to others ugly, 
comely to me alone. 

LXXXIX. — What Sort of Mistress he would 

HAVE 

Fain would I have such a mistress as may lightly 
start a quarrel, nor be careful to speak as if an honest 
woman ; pretty, saucy, hasty of hand, one to take 
blows and return them, and, if beaten, to take refuge 
in kisses. For if she be not of this character, but 
live chaste, subdued, shamefastiy — 1 shudder to say 
it — she will be a wile. 

XC. — To Cupid. Transl.\ted from the Greek ^ 

This thing which they call love bring to an end 
or spread evenly, Cupid : either burn neither with 
thy Hame or burn both. 

XCI. — To DioxE ON HIS Passion ^ 

Either put out this fire wherein I burn, sweet 
Dione, or bid it pass over from me, or make it equal 
on both sides. 

1 cp. Anfli. Pal. V. 68. - cp. id. v. 88. 

207 



AUSONIUS 
XC'II. -De Iufus Consui.to qui Uxorkm habebat 

ADUI.TERAM 

luRis coiisulto, ciii vivit adultera coniunx, 

PAPiA lex placuit, iulia displicuit. 
(|uaeritis^ unde liaec sit distantia ? semivir ipse 

scANTiNiAM metuens non metuit titiam. 

XCIII. — Ad quendam qui leuia sibi Incjuina 

FACIEBAT 

Inguina quod calido levas tibi dropace, causa est: 

irritant volsas levia membra lupas. 
sed quod et elixo plantaria podice velHs 

et teris incusas pumice Clazomenas, 
causa latet : bimarem nisi quod patientia inorbum 5 

adpetit et tergo femina, pube vir es. 

XCIV. Au ZoiLUM QUI UXOREM MOECHAM DUXERAT 

Semivir uxorem duxisti, Zoile, moecham : 

o quantus fiet quaestus utrimque domi, 
cum dabit uxori molitor tuus et tibi adulter, 

quantum deprensi damna pudoris ement I 
sed modo quae vobis lucrosa libido videtur, 5 

iacturam senio mox subeunte feret : 
incipient operas conducti vendere moechi, 

(juos modo muniHcos lena iuventa tenet. 

XCV. — PuLCHRUM Dei Responsum 

DocTus Hylas caestu, Phegeus catus arte palaestrae, 
clarus Olympiads et Lycus in stadiis, 

' The Lex Papia Poppaea (9 a.d.), intended to promote 
marriage {cp. Tac. Ann. ii. 32 ; iii. 25, 28). 

- Lex Iulia de Adulteriis, promulgated bv Augustus 
(17 B.C.). 

208 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

XCII. — To A Lawyer who had a faithless Wife 

A LAWYER who had a faithless wife approved of 
the Papian statute ^ but disapproved of the Julian.- 
Do ye ask why this difference ? Effeminate himself, 
fearing the Scantinian,^ he feared not the Titian 
Law.^ 

XCII I. — Ad quendam gui levia sibi Inguina 

FACIEBAT 

Inguina quod calido levas tibi dropace, causa est : 

irritant volsas levia membra lupas. 
sed quod et elixo plantaria podice vellis 

et teris incusas pumice Clazomenas, 
causa latet : bimarem nisi quod patientia morbum 

adpetit et tergo femfna, pube vir es. 

XCIV^ To ZoiLUS WHO HAD MARRIED A LEWD WoMAN 

Effeminate thyself, Zoilus, thou hast wedded an 
unchaste wife : how great a profit Avill ye twain earn 
at home, when thy debaucher pays thy wife, and 
her lover thee, the fees of shame ! But lust, which 
now seems to you profitable, will soon, as age creeps 
on, cause loss : lovers will begin to sell you their 
services for pay, whom prostituted youth now makes 
your customers. 

XCV. — A NEAT Answer of the Oracle ^ 

H\LAs, the boxer, with Phegeus, skilled in wrest- 
ling, and Lycus, famous on the Olympian track, 

■'* .«'■. dc" nefanda Venere : the date is uncertain. 
' ? 31 B.C.: it directed provincial governors to appoint 
guardians to safeguard orphans. ^ A7ith. Pal. xi. Ki.S. 

2og 

V(l[.. 11. P 



AUSONIUS 

an possent omnes venturo vincere agoiie, 
Hammonem Libyae consuluere deuni. 

sed deus, ut sapiens : " Dabitur victoria voliis 
indubitata equideni, si caveatis " ait, 

" ne quis Hylam caestu, ne quis certamine luctae 
Phegea, ne eursu te, Lyce, praetei'eat. " 



XCVI. — <Df. Hermiones Zona> 

PuNicA turgentes redimibat zona jiapillas 
Hermiones : zonae textum elegeon erat : 

" Qui legis hunc tituluni, Papliie tibi niandat, ames me 
exemploque tuo neminem amare vetes." 



XCVII. — De Hyi.a quem Naiades RAruEnuNT 

Adsfice, quam blandae necis ambitione fruatur 
letifera experiens gaudia pulclier Hylas. 

oscula et infestos inter moriturus amores 
ancipites patitur Naidas Eumenidas. 



XCVI II. — Nymphis quae Hylam merserunt 

FuRiTis prdcaces Xaides 
amore saevo et irrito : 
ephebus iste Hos erit. 



XCIX. — Ad Narcissum qui sui ipsius Amohe 

CAPTUS erat 

Si cnperes alium, posses, Narcisse, potiri. 
nunc tibi amoris adest copia, fructus abest. 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

asked Ammon at his Libyan slirine ^ whether they 
all would win at the approachincf games. But the 
god (so wise was he) replied : " Victory shall be 
assured you, if only ye take heed that none excel 
Hylas with the gloves, Phegeus in clinching, and 
thee, Lycus, in speed of foot. " 

XCV^I. — On Hermione's Girdle ^ 

A CRIMSON girdle bound Hermione's swelling 
breasts : and on the girdle this couplet was embroi- 
'dered : " Thou who dost read this inscription, know 
that the Paphian commands thee to love me, and by 
thy conduct to forbid none to love." 

XCVII. — On Hylas seized by the Nymphs 

Behold with how sweet and proud a death is fair 
Hylas blessed^ tasting of joys that bring destruction ! 
Doomed to perish amid kisses and fatal love, 'twere 
hard to say whether Naiads or Eumenides so afflict 
him. 

XCV III. — To THE Nymphs who drowned Hylas 

Ye rave, ye wanton Nymphs, with love as cruel as 
'tis fruitless. That lad shall be a flower. 

XCIX. — To Narcissus seized with Love for himself 

Wert thou to desire another. Narcissus, then 
mightest thou win him. Of love thou hast abundance ; 
'tis the enjoyment fails. 

^ In the Oasis of Siwah in the Libyan desert. 
- A nth. Pal. v. 158. 



AUSONIUS 



C. — Dk Eodkm 



Qi!ii) noil ex luiius forni.i pateretur ainalor. 
ipse suani qui sic deperit effisjiem ? 

CI. — De Echo dolente propter Mortem Narcissi 

CoMMORiTUR, Narcisse, tibi resonabilis Echo, 

vocis ad extremos exaniniata modos : 
et pereuntis adhuc gemituni i-esecuta querellis, 

ultima nunc etiam verba loquentis amat. 

CII. — De HERMAPHROniTO ET EIUS NaTI'R \ 

Mercurio genitore satus, genetrice Cvthere, 
noniinis ut niixti, sic corporis Hermaphroditus, 
concretus sexu, sed non jierfectus, utroque : 
ambiguae Veneris, neutro potiendus amori. 

cm. — De Comunctione Sai.macis cum 
Hermaphrodito 

Salmacis optato concreta est nympha niarito. 

felix virgo, sibi si scit inesse viruni : 
et tu formosae, iuvenis, permixte puellae 

bis felix, unum si licet esse duos. 

CI\'. — Ad Apoi.mnem de Daphne fugiente 

Pone arcuni. Paean, celeresque reconde sagittas : 
non te virgo fugit, sed tua tela timet. 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

C On thk same Subject 

What would a lover not suffer through the beauty 
of this youth who thus pines away for his own 
reflection ? 

CI. — On Echo ouikvinu koii Narcissus' Dkatfi 

Along with thee. Narcissus, dies resounding Echo, 
her spirit passing with the last tones of thy voice : 
both while thou wert pining away, thy sighs she has 
hitherto answered with her plaints, and now also 
when she loves the latest words of thy voice. 

CII. — On Hermaphroi>itus and his Nature "^ 

Bv Mercury begotten, conceived by Cythera, 
Hermaphroditus, compound alike in name and frame, 
combining either sex, complete in neither, neutral in 
love, unable to enjoy either passion. 

cm. — On the Union of Salmacis and Hermai'hho- 
ditus 

The nymph Salmacis grew one with the mate 
she desired. Ah, happy maid, if she is conscious 
of a man's embrace. And twice happy thou, 
O youth, united with a lovely bride, if one being 
may still be two. 

CIV. — To Apollo : on Daphne fleeing him 

Put by thy bow. Paean, and hide thy swift aiTows : 
not thee the maid flees, but fears thy shafts. 

' cp. Anth. Pal. ix. 783. 

213 



AUSONIUS 

CV. — De Daphne tecta Coutice 

Invide, cur properas, cortex, operire puellam?' 
laurca debetur Phoeho, si virgo negatur. 

C\'I. — In scabiosum Polygitonkm 

Thermarum in solio si qiiis Polygitona viilit 

ulcera niembrorum scabie putrefacta foventeni, 

praeposuit cunctis spectacula talia hulls. 

j)rincipi() treniiilis gannitibus aera pulsat 

verbaque lascivos meretricum imitaiitia coetus 5 

vibrat et obscenae numeros pruriginis iinplet. 

brachia deinde rotat velut enthea daenione Maenas ; 

pectus, crura, latus, ventrem, femora, inguina, suras, 

tergum, colla, uineros, luteae Symplegadis antrum, 

tarn diversa locis vaga carnificina pererrat, 10 

donee marcentem caHdi fervore lavacri 

blandus letali solvat dulcedine morbus. 

desectos sic fama viros, ubi cassa libido 

femineos coetus et non sua bella lacessit. 

irrita vexato consumere gaudia lecto, 15 

titillata brevi cum iam sub fine volu})tas 

fervet et ingesto peragit ludibria morsu : 

torpida non aliter Polygiton membra resolvit. 

et, quia debentur suprema piacula vitae, 

ad Phlegethonteas sese iam praeparet undas. 20 

CVII. — De quodam Silvio Bono qui erat Brito 

Sii.vius ille Bonus, qui carmina nostra lacessit, 
nostra magis meruit disticha, Brito bonus. 



* Apparently "a good man" and "a Briton" were re 
garded as a contradiction in terms, ami a Briton surnamed 

214 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

CV. — On Daphne covered with Bark 

Too envious bark, why hastest thou to overlap the 
maid? Laurel is Phoebus' due, if the damsel is 
denied. 

CVI. — On mangy Polvgiton 

Whoe'er has seen Polyg'iton in a tub at the baths 
chafing the caked and rotting ulcers on his limbs, 
ranks such a sight above every comic show. First, he 
makes the air ring with his quavering howls, yells 
words suggestive of a brothel and sounds the full 
gamut of impurity. Next, he whirls his arms like 
a Maenad possessed by some spirit, while the itch 
strays at random, now in this part now in that, over 
his breast, legs, flanks, belly, thighs, loins and 
calves, his back, neck, shoulders, and his hinder 
parts. At length he droops with the heat of his 
scalding bath, and kind exhaustion makes him relax 
in a death-like swoon. Just as they say that men 
emasculate, when vain desire attacks them, exhaust 
themselves without fruition, mocked by pleasure 
unachieved ; even so Polygiton relaxes his nerveless 
limbs. And, since at the last he must expiate his 
life, let him now make ready for the waters of 
Phlegethon. 

CVII. — On one Silvius " Good " who was a Briton 

That Silvius " Good " who attacks my verse, has 
the more fully earned my lampoon, being a good 
Briton.^ 

Bonus as something extremely humorous. The expression 
"good Indian " (= a dead Indian) is somewhat similar. 

215 



AUSONIUS 

CVill.- loKM 

SiLVius hie Bonus est. "Quis Silvius?" Iste Britannus. 
" Aut Brito hie nun est Silvius, aut mains est." 

CIX. — Idem 

Silvius esse Bonus fertur ferturque Britannus : 
quis credat civem degenerasse bonum ? 

ex. — Idem 

Nemo bonus Brito est. si simplex Silvius esse 
incipiat, simplex desinat esse bonus. 

CXI— Idem 

Sii.vius hie Bonus est, sed Brito est Silvius idem : 
simplicior res est, credite, Brito malus. 

CXII.— Idem 

SiLvi, Brito Bonus : quamvis homo non bonus esse 
ferris nee <se quit> iungere Brito Bono. 



216 



EPIGRAMS ON VARIOUS MATTERS 

CVIII. -The Same 

" This is Silvius ' Good.' " " Who is Silvius ? " " He 
is a Briton." " Either this Silvius is no Briton, or he 
is Silvius ' Bad.' " 

CIX.— The Same 

Sh.vius is called Good and called a Briton : who 
would believe a good citizen had sunk so low ? 

ex. — The Same 

No good man is a Briton. If he should begin to 
be plain Silvius, let the plain man cease to be good. 

CXI. — The Same 

This is Silvius Good, but the same Silvius is a Briton: 
a plainer thing — believe me — is a bad Briton. 

CXII. — The Same 

Thou Silvius art Good, a Briton : yet 'tis said thou 
art no good man, nor can a Briton link himself with 
Good. 



217 



LIBER XX 

AUSONII BURDIGALENSIS VASATIS 

GRATIARUM ACTIO AD GRATIANLM 

IMPERATOREM PRO CONSULATU 

I. A(io tibi gratias, imperator Auguste ; si possem, 
etiam referrem. sed neque tua fortuna desiderat 
remunerandi vicem neque nostra suggerit restituendi 
facultatem. privatorum ista copia est inter se esse 
munificos : tua beneficia ut maiestate praecellunt, ita 
mutuum non reposcunt. quod solum igitur nostrae 
opis est, gratias ago : verum ita, ut apud deum fieri 
amat, sentiendo copiosius quam loquendo. atque 
non in sacrario [loco] imperialis oraculi, qui locus 
horrore tranquillo et pavore venerabili raro eundem 
animum praestat et vultum tui ; sed usquequaque 
gratias ago, turn tacens, turn loquens, turn in coetu 
hominum, turn ipse mecum, et cum voce patui, et 
cum meditatione secessi, omni loco actu habitu et 
tempore, nee mirum, si ego terminum non statuo 
tam grata profitendi, cum tu finem facere nescias 



* i.e. belonging (by origin) to Bazas, the birthplace of the 
orator's father. 

2l8 



BOOK XX 

THE THANKSGIVING OF AUSONIUS OF 

BORDEAUX, THE VASATE,i FOR HIS 

CONSULSHIP, ADDRESSED TO THE 

EMPEROR GRATIAN 

I. I EXPRESS my thanks to you, most gracious 
Emperor ; could I do so, I would also make repay- 
ment. But neither does your estate need any 
interchange of bounty, nor does mine supply 
the ability to return it. Men of private station 
alone have the opportunity for being liberal to one 
another : your favours at once surpass all others in 
their princely scale and demand no requital. And 
so I express my thanks — all that is in my power to 
do : yet in such a way as one is wont to do in the 
presence of God, with greater fulness of feeling than 
of speech. And it is not in the shrine of the 
imperial oracle, a place where feelings of subdued 
fear and reverent awe rarely permit your subject to 
exhibit outwardly all that he feels within ; but it is 
at all times and in all places that I express my thanks, 
now silently in my own heart, now with my tongue, 
now in company with others, now by myself, whether 
I speak openly or reflect inwardly and apart, in 
every place, deed, habit, and season. Nor is it 
surprising that I set no limit to the expression of 
my gratitude, seeing that you do not know how to 

219 



AUSONIUS 

honorantli. quis enim locus est aut dies, qui non me 
huius aut siinilis gratulationis adnioneat? admoiieat 
autfin ? o iiiertiain significationis ignavae I quis, 
inquam, locus est, qui non beneficiis tuis agitet, in- 
rianmiet ? nullus, inquam, imperator Augusta, quiii 
admirandam speciem tuae venerationis incutiat : non 
palatium, quod tu, cum terribile acceperis, amabile 
praestitisti ; non forum et basilicae, olim negotiis 
})lena, nunc votis pro tua salute susceptis : nam de 
sua cui non te imperante securitas ? non curia 
honorificis modo laeta decretis, olim sollicitis maesta 
(juerimoniis ; non publicum, in quo occursus gauden- 
tium plurimorum neminem patitur solum gratulari ; 
non domus commune secretum. lectus ipse, ad 
quietem datus, beneficiorum tuorum reputatione 
ti'anquillior. somnus, abolitor onmiuni. imagines 
tuas offert. ista autem sedes honoris, sella curulis, 
gloriosa pompis imperialis officii, in cuius me fastigio 
ex (jua mediocritate posuisti, quotiens a me cogitatur, 
vincor magnitudine et redigor ad silentium, non 
oneratus beneficiis, sed oppressus. ades enim locis 
omnibus, nee iam miramur licentiam poetarum, qui 
220 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

set any bound to your gracious favours. For what 
place, what time is there which does not remind me 
of this or some similar cause for thankfulness? Do 
I say " remind " ? What a weak and feeble conno- 
tation has that word ! Is there any place, I say, 
which does not thrill and fire me with a sense of 
your bounty ? There is no place, 1 say. Most 
(irracious Emperor, but stamps my consciousness with 
the wondrous image of your most worshipful majesty ; 
not the Court, which was so formidable when you 
succeeded, and which you have made so agreeable ; 
not the forum and basilicas, which once reechoed 
with legal business, but now with the taking of vows 
for your well-being — for under your rule who is there 
whose property is not secure ? — ; not the Senate- 
house, now happy in the business of passing reso- 
lutions in your honour as formerly gloomy and 
troubled with complaints ; not the public highways 
where the sight of so many joyous faces suffers no 
one to be alone in showing delight ; not the univer- 
sal privacy ot the home. The very bed, destined 
for our repose, is made more restful as we reflect 
upon your benefits : slumber, which blots out every- 
thing, nevertheless presents your picture to our gaze. 
As for that throne of honour, the curule chair 
surrounded with all the splendid circumstance 
which belongs to a rank which confers the 
imperium, to the proud elevation of which you 
have exalted me from so ordinary a station, as 
often as I think of it, its grandeur overpowers me 
and I am reduced to silence, being not merely loaded 
by your bounty, but overwhelmed. Your presence, 
indeed, is felt in all places and we are no longer 
surprised at the supposed extravagance of the poets 



AUSONIUS 

oinnia deo plena dixcruiiL. spcni supcras, cupiciula 
praeveiiis, vota praecurris : quaeque animi nostri 
celeritas divinuni instar adfectat, beneficiis praeeun- 
tibus anteceditur. praestare tibi est, quain nobis 
optare, velocius. 

II. Ago igitur gratias, optime iniperator. ac si 
quis hunc serinoneni meum isdem verbis tam saepe 
repetitum inopiae loquentis adsignat, experiatur lioc 
idem persequi, et nihil poterit ])roferre facundius. 
aguntur enim gratiae non propter niaiestatis ambitum 
nee sine argumentis imperatori fortissimo : testis est 
uno pacatus in anno et Danuvii limes et Rheni ; 
liberalissimo : ostentat hoc dives exercitus ; indul- 
gentissimo : docet securitas erroris humani ; consul- 
tissinio : probat hoc tali principe oriens ordinatus ; 
j)iissimo : huius vero laudis locui)letissimum testi- 
monium est pater divinis honoribus eonsecratus, 
instar filii ad imperium frater adscitus, a eontumelia 
belli j)atruus vindieatus, ad praefecturae collegium 
filius cum patre coniunctus, ad consulatum praeceptor 
electus. possum ire per omnes appellationes tuas, 



1 cp. Virgil, Ed. iii. 60. 

- After tin; defeat of Uic .\l;iinaiini at Argentaria in 

S A.l). 

' Valentiniau II., laised to tlie puiple as emperor of the 
Kast iti ."iT.") A.u. 

* Valens was killed in battle witli the (jotlis at Adriano])le 
in .S78 A.I), and his body burned. The (ioths were actually 
driven out bv Thcodosius. 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

who have declaied that "^all things are full of God. "* 
>'oii surpass our hopes, you anticipate all we can 
desire, you outstrip our fondest wishes ; and the 
swiftness of our thought, which claims to be some- 
thing divine, is outdistanced by your benefits which 
outrun it. For you to fulfil a wish is more in- 
stantaneous than for us to conceive it. 

II. Therefore I express my thanks, most gracious 
Emperor. And if anyone attributes so frequent a 
repetition in the same words of this phrase of mine 
to the speaker's poverty of speech, let him try to 
work out this same theme, and he w^ill not be able to 
produce anything more eloquent. For I am now 
expressing thanks, not with intent to flatter any royal 
vanity and not without proofs of my assertions, to a 
most valiant emperor— as witness the pacification in 
a single year of the Danubian and Rhenish frontiers : - 
to one most generous; the wealth of the Army shows 
as much : to one most merciful ; the safety which 
man's waywardness enjoys declares this: to one 
most statesmanlike ; the organization of the east by 
so great a prince is proof enough : to one most 
dutiful ; there is the amplest evidence to confirm 
this tribute — the canonization of his father with 
divine honours, the association of his brother,^ just as 
though he were a son, with himself in the imperial 
authority, the avenging of the outrage suffered by his 
uncle in war,'* the pairing of a son and father together 
in joint control of a praefecture,' and the election 
of his tutor to the consulate. I could enumerate all 
those titles which your valour has won for you in the 

° In .378 A.D. Ausonius ami his son Thalassius were col- 
leagues in the administration of the double prefecture of the 
(Jauls and Italy. 



AUSONIUS 

quas olim virtus dedit, qu.as proxime f'ortuna concessit, 
quas adhiic- indulc^entia divina meditatur : vocarem ' 
Germaniciini deditione gentilium, Alaruannicum tra- 
ductione captoruni, vincendo et ignoscendo Sarma- 
ticuni : conecterem omnia merita virtutis et cogno- 
mina felicitatis : sed alia est ista materia et suo 
parata secreto, cum placuerit signanter et breviter 
omnia, quae novimus, indicare nee persequi, ut qui 
terrarum orbem unius tabulae ambitu circumscribunt 
aliquanto detrimento magnitudinis, nullo dispendio 
veritatis. 

Nunc autem, quod diei huius proprium, de con- 
sulatu gratias agam. Sed procurrunt et aliae dig- 
nitates atque in vocem gratulationis erumpunt ac se 
prius debere profitentur. tot gradus nomine comitis 
propter tua incrementa congesti : ex tuo merito te ac 
patre j^rincipibus quaestura communis et tui tantum 
praefectura beneficii, quae et ipsa non vult vice sim- 
plici gratulari, liberalius divisa quam iuncta : cum 
teneanms duo integrum, neuter desiderat separatum. 

III. Sed ilia, ut paulo ante promisi, habebunt sui 

muuens peculiare secretum. consulatus hie nieus 

' Acidalius : voca, Z, Feiper. 

^ The Sarmatae were actually conquered bj' Theodosius in 
378-379 A. I). 

224 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

pastj those which Fortune has granted you so 
recently, and those which Heaven's favour is still 
designing for you : I might call you Germanicus in 
virtue of the surrender of that race to you ; Alaman- 
nicus, because of the prisoners whom you transplanted ; 
Sarmaticus,^ because you conquered and forgave 
that people : I might string together all the distinc- 
tions won by your valour, and all the titles earned by 
your good fortune ; but that is another theme and 
one which will be treated in its own separate place, 
when I decide that the time has come to sketch 
distinctly and brieHy all my facts without following 
them out in detail — like those who confine a map of 
the world to the compass of a single sheet, thereby 
causing it to lose something in impi*essiveness, but 
without any saci'ifice of truth. 

But now for the special business of this day, which 
is to express thanks for my consulate. And yet there 
are other distinctions besides, which push to the 
front and burst out into cries of acknowledgment, 
claiming that they have the right to do this first. 
All those honours heaped upon me at once under the 
title of '-companion" in acknowledgment of your 
upbringing ; the quaestorship for which I have to 
thank you, though it was held under the joint 
sovereignty of your father and yourself, and the 
praefecture which I owe to your kindness alone. 
This latter in its very self is not content with a 
single acknowledgment for the larger bounty which 
divided rather than kept it one : since two of us 
now possess it complete, neither desires it apart. 

III. But these honours, as I promised just now. 
shall have their special place apart for paying their 
tribute. At the present moment my consulship 



AUSONIUS 

orat atque obsecrat, ut obnoxiam tibi uni sinas fieri 
eius dignitatem, quern omnibus praetulisti. quot 
quidem et ipse sibi invenit gradus I cum clarissimo 
viro collega meo honore coniunctus, nuncupatione 
praelatus, consul ego, imperator Auguste, munere 
tuo non passus saepta neque campum, non suffragia, 
non puncta, non loculos : qui non prensaverim manus 
nee salutantium confusus occursu aut sua amicis 
nomina non reddiderim, aut aliena imposuerim : qui 
tribus non circumivi, centurias non adulavi, vocatis 
classibus non intremui, nihil cum sequestre deposui, 
cum distributore nil pepigi. Romanus populus, 
Martius campus, equester ordo, rostra, ovilia, senatus, 
curia, unus mihi omnia Gratianus. iure meo, Auguste 
niaxime, adfirmare possum incolumi omnium gratia, 
qui ad liunc honorem diversa umquam virtute 
venerunt venturique sunt (suus enim cuique animus, 
suum meritum sibique mens conscia est), iure, inquam 
meo adfirmare possum me mihi videri a ceteris esse 
secretum. sunt quos votorum cruciat inanitas : non 
optavi ; quos exercet ambitus : non petivi ; qui ad- 
siduitate exprimunt: non coegi ; qui offeruntur 
occasione : non adfui ; quos iuvat opulentia : obstat 

1 This was Q. Clodiiis Honnogeniauus Olybrius. 
* i.e. they happen to l)e before the Kinpeior when he is 
designating tJie consuls. 

226 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

begs and prays j-ou to allow one whom you have 
set above all to submit his high degree to your- 
self alone. And how many further degrees were 
added to this honour I Not only was I associated 
in this high office with a distinguished colleague,^ 
and designated as the senior, but by your favour, 
most gracious Emperor, I became consul without 
undergoing the ordeal of the hustings, the Cam- 
pus Martius, the canvassing, the registration, the 
gratuities ; I have not had to shake hands, nor 
have I been so confused by crowds of people 
pressing to greet me as to have been unable to call 
my friends by their proper names, or to have given 
them names which were not theirs : I have not had 
to visit the tribes, to flatter the centuries, I have not 
trembled as the classes were called upon to vote. I 
have made no deposit with a trustee, nor given any 
pledge to a financial agent. The Roman people, the 
Field of Mars, the Equestrian Class, the Rostra, the 
hustings, the Senate and the Senate House — Gratian 
alone was all of these for me. I have the right to 
declare, most mighty Emperor, and that without 
offending any of those who have ever attained or 
shall attain hereafter to this distinction in right of 
various qualities (for everyone has his own spirit, his 
own deserts, his own conscience) : I can, I repeat, 
rightfully declare that my consulship seems to stand 
apart from the consulships of other men. Some are 
cruelly grieved by the disappointment of their hopes : 
I longed for nothing ; some busy themselves in canvass- 
ing for this honour : I never sought it ; some extort 
it by their importunity : I brought no pressure to 
bear ; some owe their designation to the accident of 
their presence : ^ I was not at the court ; some use 

227 



AUSONIUS 

teniporum disciplina : non erDi_, nee possum con- 
linentiani iactare : non habui. uniun praestarc 
temptavi, et hoc ipsum quasi nieuni vindicare non 
possum : in tua enim positum est opinione, si merui. 

IV. Fecisti autem et faeies alios quoque consuleS;, 
piissime Gratiane, sed non et causa pari, viros 
gloriae militaris : habent enim tecum^ ut semper 
laboriS; ita dignitatis plerumque consortium^ virtutis 
quam honoris antiquiore collegio ; viros nobilitatis 
antiquae : dantuv enim multa nominibus et est fama 
pro nierito ; viros fide inclitos et officiis probatos : 
(juorum me etiamsi non secerno numero, tamen^ quod 
ad honoris viam pertinet, ratione dispei'tio. 

Quartum hunc gradum novi beneficii tu, Auguste, 
constituis : differre tibi ipsi, quo alter ornetur, bona 
animi tui ad alienam referre praestantiam eruditio- 
nemque natui'ae^, quam dec et patri et tibi debes, ad 
alterius efficaciam gratius retorquere quam verius. 
tua haec verba sunt a te mihi scripta : solvere te, quod 
debeds el adhuc dehere, quod solveris. o mentis aureae 
dictum bratteatum ! o de pectore candidissimo 



' i.f. ill addition to tlic llii-ce detailed iniiiiediiitely above. 
228 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

theii- wealth to help them : the morality of our age 
forbids such a practice ; I did not buy this honour, 
yet cannot boast any self-restraint : I had no money. 
One thing only I have tried to make sure of, and 
even that I cannot claim as my own ; for it de- 
pends upon your valuation whether I have been 
deserving. 

IV. You have appointed, and will appoint others 
also as consuls, most kindly Gratian, but never on 
similar grounds. Men of military renown : and as 
these are always associated with you in the toils of 
empire, so they, in common with you, hold the 
greater share in its distinctions, having been your 
colleagues in soldierly virtue before they became 
so in civil dignities ; men of ancient and famous 
lineage : for an illustrious name secures much, and 
distinction may serve as a substitute for achieve- 
ments ; men distinguished for their trustworthiness 
and tested by official duties : and though I do not 
place myself outside this category, yet, so far as 
the path to honours is concerned, I differ in my 
qualifications. 

And to this new favour of yours, your Majest}', 
you add a fourth degree,^ in that you disparage 
yourself to do another honour, give the credit of the 
excellences of your mind to the efficacy of exterior 
influence, and with greater generosity than truth, 
misrepresent those natural accomplishments which 
you owe to God, to your father, and to yourself 
as the product of a stranger's efforts. Your own 
words written to me in your own hand declare : 
that you are discharging a debt which yon owe, and still 
owe ivhat yon have discharged. Oh, how that sentence 
is overlaid with the gold of your nature ! How 

229 



AUSONIUS 

lactei sermonis alimoniam ! quisquamne tam parcus 
est in ostentatione beneficii ? quisquam pondus 
gratiae suae vim nieriti profitetur alien) ? quisquam 
denique quod indulget, quasi ab obnoxio deferatur, 
pretium mavult vocare quam donuin ? certent huic 
sententiae veteres illi et Homerici oratores, subtiUs 
deducta oratione Menelaus et instar profundae gran- 
dinis ductor Ithacensius et melleo delibutus eloquio 
iam tertiae Nestor aetatis : sed neque ille concinnius 
eloquetur, qui se Laconica brevitate collegit, nee ille 
contortius, qui cum sensibus verba glomeravit, nee 
iste dulcius, cuius lenis oratio mulcendo potius quam 
extorquendo persuasit. solvere te dicis^ quod debeas 
et debiturum esse, cum solveris. Auguste iuvenis, 
caeli tibi et humani generis rector hoc tribuat, ut 
praelatus antiquis, quos etiam elegantia sententiae 
istius antecessisti, vincas propria singulorum : in 
Menelao regiam dignationem, in Ulixe prudentiam, 
in Nestore senectutem. 

V, Subiciet aliquis : ista quideni adeptus es, sed 
efFare, quo merito? quid me oneras, sciscitator ? 
rationem felicitatis nemo reddit. deus et qui deo 
proximus tacito muiiera dispcrtit arbitrio vt benefi- 
ciurum suoruui iiulignatus per homines start- iudiciuni, 

230 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

sustaining is the milk of" these words, springing from 
the sincerest of breasts ! Is there anyone who 
shrinks so modestly from arrogant display of his 
generosity ? Anyone who thus alleges that his 
favours have no other weight but the receiver's 
work ? Anyone who, in a word, prefers to call his 
gifts payment as though rendered by a debtor ? Let 
those famous spokesmen of old, those orators of 
Homer — Menelaus, with his subdued but subtle 
mode of speech, the chieftain of Ithaca, so like a 
heavy storm of hail, Nestor, the survivor of three 
generations, whose lips were steeped in honey — let 
those seek to rival such a sentence ! Yet for all his 
compression and Spartan conciseness, the first will 
utter nothing neater ; the second, though he heap up 
words and ideas, nothing more forcible ; the last, 
nothing sweeter, although his gentle speech per- 
suaded rather by charming than overbearing. You 
say that you are paying a debt you owe and will still 
be in debt when you have paid. My young sovereign, 
may He who is the Ruler of heaven and of mankind 
grant that you may excel those ancients, even above 
whom the choiceness of that one sentence has placed 
you, and outstrip each one of them in his peculiar 
quality — Menelaus in kingly majesty, Ulysses in 
discretion, and Nestor in length of days. 

V. Someone will interpose : " It is true you have 
received all these benefits, but, tell me, how have 
you deserved them ? " Why do you cast this burden 
upon me. Master Inquisitor ? No man gives a 
reason for his prosperity. God, and he who stands 
next to God, distributes blessings at will, and dis- 
daining to await man's verdict on his favours, chooses 
rather in the persons of the uplifted to perform a 

231 



AUSONIUS 

mavult de subditis dedisse miraculum. quo, inquis, 
merito? ego nullum scio, nisi quod tu, piissime 
imperator, debere te dicis : et hoc debere latissime 
pertinet, sive hoc eruditionis tuae faenus existimas, 
sive sine faenore gloriam liberalitatis adfectas, sive 
te pondere conceptae sponsionis exoneras, seu fidei 
commissum patris exsolvis,seu magnanimitate caelesti, 
ostentatione suppressa, dei munus imitaris. debere 
te dicis. cui ? quando ? quo nomine ? lege syngra- 
pham, nomina creditorem ; accepti et expensi tabulae 
conferantur : videbis alio summae istius transire ra- 
tionem. tibi coepit deus debere pro nobis, quid 
autem mihi debes, gratissime imperator? patitur 
enim humanitas tua, ut praeter regias virtutes ])rivata 
appellatione lauderis. quid tu mihi debes ? et contra 
quid non ego tibi debeo ? anne quod docui ? hoc ego 
j)ossum verius retorquere, dignum me habitum, qui 
docerem ; tot facundia doctrinaque praestantes in- 
clinata in me dignatione praeteritos, ut esset quem 
tu matura iam aetate succinctum per omnes honorum 
gradus festinata bonitate proveheres ; timere ut vide- 
reris, ne in me vita deficeret, dum tibi adhuc aliquid, 
quod deberes jiraestare, superesset. 

V'l. Negat Cicero consularis ultra se habere, quod 

^ There is of course a pla}' on [irntixsimc and the Emperor's 
own name. 

232 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

miracle. "How have I deserved them," you ask ? 
I knovif of no grounds, except that you, most kindly 
Emperor, say that you owe a debt : and this Avord 
"owe" admits of very wide interpretation. Either 
you consider this debt to be the interest on the 
principal of your education ; or, apart from this 
interest, you seek after the renown which bounty 
earns ; or you are discharging yourself of the burden 
of a pledge which you have incurred ; or else with a 
heavenly loftiness of soul and without a trace of 
vanity you are imitating God's function. You say 
you owe a debt. To whom then ? Or when did you 
contract it ? On what account } Read the bill over : 
name the creditor : let the accounts for receipts and 
expenditure be laid before the court. When this is 
done you will see that the debit balance is not 
against you but against another. It is God who now 
begins to owe you a debt on my behalf. But what 
do you owe me, most gracious Emperor — for your 
kindly nature permits me to set aside your kingly 
qualities and use this familiar form of complimentary 
address ? ^ What do you owe me ? And on the other 
side, what do I jiot owe you .'' Is it because I was 
your tutor ? I can turn this about and say more 
exactly that I was deemed worthy to teach you ; 
that so many men superior to me in eloquence and 
learning were passed over ; that the honourable 
choice fell upon me, in order that you might have a 
man equipped with ripe years whom your impetuous 
generosity might advance through all the stages of 
a distinguished career ; and that you seemed to fear 
that my life might fail while there still remained 
imbestowed something which you ought to bestow. 
VI. Cicero, after his consulate, declared that he 

233 



AUSONIUS 

cupiat. ego autem iam consul et senex adhuc avidi- 
tatem meam fatebor. te videre saepius in hoc magi- 
stratUj Gratiane^ desidero, ut et sex Val. Corvini et 
septem C. Marii et cognominis tiii Augusti tredecim 
consulatus unus aequiperes. plures tibi potest aetas 
et fortnna tua praestare ; verum ego in numero par- 
cior, quia tu in munere Hberalior : ipsum enim te 
saepius hoc honore defraudas, ut et abis largiaris. 
scis enim, imperator doctissime (rursum enim utar 
laude privata), scis, inquam, septem ac decern Domi- 
tiani consulatus, quos ille invidia alios provehendi 
continuando conseruit, ita in eius aviditate derisos, ut 
haec eum pagina fastorum suorum, immo fastidiorum, 
fecerit insolentem nee potuerit praestare felicem. 
(|uod si principi honoris istius temperata et quae 
vocatur aurea debet esse mediocritas, quid privati 
status hominibus, quid aequanimis, quid iam senibus 
erga se oportet esse moderaminis ? ego quideni, 
quod ad honores meos pertinet, et vota saturavi : tu 
tanien, imperator optime, tu piissime, tu quem non 
fatigat liberalitas, nisi quando cessavit : tu, inquam, 
indulgentissime Gratiane, ut ad benefaciendum 
subito es necopinus ingenio, adhuc aliquid, quod hoc 
nomine mihi praestetur, invcnies. invenies ? sic, 
intellexere omnes, sic nobis ordinem ipse fecisti. 



' pro Plnnco. '2o. * cp. Suet. AmjuMus, 26. 

" See Suet. Doin. VA. 



234 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

had nothing more to long for.^ I for my part, though 
I am a consul and an old man to boot, will confess to 
a ravenous appetite. I long to see you, Gratian, 
holding this office so many more times that your 
total may equal the sum of the six consulships of 
Valerius Corvinus," the seven of Caius Marius, and 
the thirteen of Augustus, whose name you bear. 
Your youth and your exalted station can secure for 
you a still greater number ; but I am sparing in my 
estimate, because you are so generous in bestowing 
this honour. For too often you cheat yourself of it 
to lavish it upon others. You know, most learned 
Emperor (for once again I will use a personal mode 
of complimentary address), you know, I say, that the 
seventeen consulates of Domitian ^ which, in his 
jealousy of the advancement of others, he held in an 
unbroken series, brought down such ridicule upon 
his selfishness that this page of his annals, nay, rather, 
of his arrogance, made him overbearingly proud but 
could not make him happy. But if the Sovereign 
ought to observe a well-calculated and, as the saying 
goes, a golden mean in holding this dignity, what 
moderation ought men of private station, of calm 
judgment, and lastly, of advanced age to observe .'' For 
myself, I have sated even my desires, so far as my 
own distinctions are concerned ; but you, my most 
excellent, my most gracious Sovereign, you who never 
weary in your generosity except when you have no 
scope for it, you, I repeat, most bountiful Gratian, 
have such a quick and surprising inventiveness in 
conferring favours, that even now some addition to 
be conferred upon me under this head will be 
found. "Will be found ".^ Such a conviction have all 
men felt, in such wise have you yourself created this 

235 



AUSONIUS 

sic amicus deo es, ut a te iam impetratum sit, quod 
o])tatur, a quo et quod nondum optanius, adipiscimur. 
VII. Et rursum aliquis adiciet aut sermone libere 
aut cogitatione liberius : nonne olim et apud veteres 
niulti eiusdeni modi doctores fuerunt? an tu solus 
praeceptor Augiisti ? immo ego cum multis con- 
iunctus officio, sed cum paucissimis secretus exemplo. 
nolo Constantini temporum taxare collegas : Caesares 
docebantur. superiora contingam. dives Seneca, 
nee tamen consul, arguetur rectius quam praedica- 
bitur non erudiisse indolem Neronis, sed armasse 
saevitiam. Quintilianus consularia per Clementem 
ornamenta sortitus honestamenta nominis jiotius 
videtur quam insignia potestatis habuisse. quo 
modo Titianus magister, sed gloriosus ille, munici- 
palem scholam apud Visontionem Lugdunumque 
variando non aetate equidem, sed vilitate consenuit. 
unica mihi et amplectenda est Frontonis imitatio : 
quem tamen Augusti magistrum sic consulatus orna- 
vit, ut praefectura non cingeret. sed consulatus ille 
cuius modi ? ordinario suffectus, bimenstri spatio 
interpositus, in sexta anni parte consumptus, quae- 



^ Possibly T. Flavius Clemens, uncle of Domitian. Quin 
tilian appears to have been a "consul suffectus,"' appointed 
to fill a vacancy due to death or some other cause. 

* The tutor of the younger Maximin : cp. Episf. xii. 

•' M. Cornelius Fronto. of Cirta in Nuniidia, the tutor of 
Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus : r. 90-16S .a.i>. 

236 



rHANKSGIVlNG FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

rank, for me, such is your intimacy with the deity, that 
what we hope for is straightway granted by you, and 
what we have not yet hoped for is bestowed upon us. 
VII. But again someone will comment freely in 
speech, yet more freely in thought : " Were there 
not in the past and even in ancient times many such 
tutors ? Or are you the only maij who has had an 
Emperor for his pupil ? " No, indeed ! But while I 
am only one of many so far as my employment goes, 
1 stand apart with very few in virtue of this distinc- 
tion. I do not wish to cast reflections upon my 
fellows in this calling in the age of Constantine : 
there wei'e pi'inces and they were instructed. I will 
go back to earlier times. Fact proves more surely 
than words that Seneca, who for all his wealth was 
not a consul, did not discipline the nature of Nero, 
but merely gave arms to his cruelty. And though 
Quintilian obtained the consular distinction by grace 
of Clemens,^ he seems to have held an honorary 
title rather than the actual emblems of power. So 
too with the tutor Titianus ; - but for all his boastful 
assumption, while alternating between the provincial 
school of Visontio (Besan^on) and Lugdunum (Lyons), 
not through years but through light esteem he fell 
into a decline. The one and only precedent and one 
which I must frankly accept is the case of Fronto ; •■' 
and yet this tutor to an Emperor, though he had 
the distinction of a consulate, was never invested 
with the authority of a prefect. But what sort of a 
consulship was it which he held ? Acting as the substi- 
tute to an ordinary * consul, made to fill up a gap of two 
months, and dismissed in the sixth part of a year, this 

* The " consul ordiuarius "' is junior of the two, the senioi' 
{i.e. the first to be designated) giving his name to the year. 

237 



AUSONIUS 

rendum ut reliquerit tantus orator, quibus consulibus 
jjjesserit consulatuni. 

Ecce aliud, quod aliquis opponat : in tanti te ergo 
oratoris fastigium gloriosus attollis r cui talia requi- 
renti respondebo breviter : non ego me contendo 
Frontoni, sed Antonino praefero Gratianum. cele- 
brant equidem sollenines istos dies oinnes ubique 
urbes, quae sub legibus agunt. et Roma de more et 
Constantinopolis de imitatione et Antiochia pro luxu 
et Carthago discincta et donum fluminis Alexandria : 
sed Treveri principis beneficio et mox cum ipso 
auctore beneficii. loca inter se distant, vota con- 
sentiunt. unus in ore omnium Gratianus, potestate 
imperator, virtute victor, Augustus sanctitate, pon- 
tifex religione, indulgentia pater, aetate filius, pietate 
utrumque. 

Vlll. '■' Non possum fidei causa ostendere imagines 
maiorum meorum," ut ait apud Sallustium Marius, 
nee deductum ab heroibus genus vel deorum stemma 
replicare, nee ignotas opes et patrimonia sparsa sub 
regnis : sed ea, quae nota sunt, dicere potius, quam 
praedicare : patriam non obscuram, familiam non 



^ The connection of thought with the foregoiug seems to 
be : Giatiaii's unique position is proved by the affectionate 
popularity with which he is universally regarded. 

- In imitation of Herodotus' dictum that " Egypt is tlie 
gift of the Nile."' But Alexandria is not on a river. 

238 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

great orator has left us to find out for ourselves in 
which year he held the consulate. 

But here is another objection which may be 
raised : " Are you then so conceited as to exalt 
yourself to the height attained by that great orator?" 
To such a question I will answer briefly : No, I do not 
set myself up as Fronto's rival, but I rank Gratian 
before Antoninus. It is true ^ that all the world 
over, every city which lives under our governance 
observes these annual days of festival, Rome as a 
matter of custom, Constantinople out of imitation, 
Antioch out of love for indulgence, as also do 
degenerate Carthage and Alexandria, the gift of its 
river ^ ; but Treves is enabled to do this by the kind- 
ness of our prince, and will soon do so in company 
with the author of that kindness. All these places 
are far apart, but the prayers they offer up are all to 
one effect : one name is on the lips of all — the name 
of Gratian, Gratian who in virtue of his authority is 
styled Imperator ; of his courage, the Victorious ; ^ 
of his sacred person, Augustus ; of his devotion, 
Pontifex; of his tenderness. Father; of his age, a Son; 
and of natural affection, both one and the other. 

Vm. "I am not able to display portraits of my 
ancestors in proof of good faith," as Marius says in 
Sallust : * I cannot unroll a pedigree to show my 
descent from heroes, or that I am of the lineage of 
the gods : I cannot boast of uncounted wealth and 
ancestral estates dotted all over the kingdoms of the 
world : but I can mention without vaunting advan- 
tages which are less fabulous. I can mention my 
birthplace, a city not unrenowned ; my family, of 



■' For most of these titles cp. C.I.L. vi. i. 1175. 
•* Jjignrtka, Ixxxv. 29. 



239 



AUSONIUS 

paenitendanij domum innocentem, innocentiam non 
coactain, angustas opes, verumtamen libris et litteris 
dilatatas, frugalitatem sine sordibuSj ingenium libe- 
rale, animum non inlibei'alem^ victum, vestitum, 
supellectilem niunda, nun splendida : veteribus ut 
illis consulibus (excej)ta, quae turn erant, bellicarum 
conlatione virtutum) si quis me conferre dignetur, 
seponat opulentiam non derogatiirus industriam. 

Verum quoniam gratiis agendis iamdudum suc- 
cumbo materiae : tu orationi meae, Gratiane, succede. 
tu, Gratiane^ qui hoc nomen sic per fortunam adep- 
tus es, ut nemo verius ambitione quaesierit : neque 
enim iustius Metellus cognomento Pius patre revo- 
cato, qui esset impius exulante ; aut verius Sulla 
Felix, qui felicior ante, quam vocaretur ; quam tu, 
Gratianus : cui et hoc nomen est, et ilia Metelli 
Sullaeque cognomina. tu, inquam, Gratiane, qui 
hoc non singulis factis, sed perpetua grate agendi 
benignitate meruisti : cui, nisi ab avo deductum 
esset, ab omnibus adderetur : tu ipse tibi, inquam, 
pro me gratiam refer, tu tuaeque virtutes : bonitas, 
qua in omnes prolixus es, perpetuus in me ; pietas, 
qua orbem tuum temperas, quam in ulciscendo patruo 

2:^0 



THANKSGIVING FOH HIS CONSULSHIP 

which I have no need to be ashamed ; my unblem- 
ished home ; my life passed of my own free will 
without a spot ; my scanty means (though enriched 
with books and learning) ; my simple yet not stingy 
tastes ; my liberal intellect ; my not illiberal spirit ; 
the unostentatious refinement of my diet, my dress 
and the appointments of my house ; so that, if anyone 
should think me worthy of comparison with those 
famous consuls of past days (excluding from the com- 
parison those war-like qualities which then flourished), 
let him deny me their wealth without belittling my 
diligence. 

But in this expression of gratitude, my subject 
has long overpowered me : you, Gratian, must come 
to the help of my words. You, Gratian, who have 
received this name by chance, yet by so happy a 
chance that no one out of flattery has ever tried to 
find one more appropriate — for Metellus was less 
rightly surnamed the Dutiful when he recalled his 
father (since he would have been undutiful had he 
kept him in exile), and Sulla was less exactly called 
the Lucky (since he was luckier before he was so 
named), than you are named Gratian ; you, who 
besides this name also bear those titles of Metellus 
and Sulla, you, Gratian, I repeat, who have earned 
your name not by isolated deeds but by the continual 
kindliness of your gracious life, you who would have 
received this as a surname by general consent had 
you not inherited it from your grandfather, you, I 
repeat, must yourself render thanks to yourself on 
my behalf. It is a task for you and for your high 
powers : for that kindness, so frequently shown to all, 
and so continually to me ; for that natural affection 
with which you guide your subject world, and which 

241 



ALISON I us 

probas, tuendo in fratre cumulas^ ornando in prae- 
ceptore multi|)licas. agat gratias dementia^ quam 
humano generi impertis ; liberalitas^ qua ditas omnes ; 
fortitude, qua vincis, et mens ista aurea, quam de 
communi deo plus quam unus liausisti. agant et pro 
me gratias voces omnium Galliarum, quarum praefecto 
hanc honorificentiam detulisti. ultra progredior, et 
hoc quia debere te dicis : agat, quae optime agere 
potest, vox ista, quam docui. 

IX. lamdudum autem quam grati animi, tam ser- 
monis exigui, ut supra dictum est, succumbo materiae, 
neque adhuc ilia perstrinxi, quae ne infantissimus 
quidem, nisi idem impiissimus, eminentia per famam 
et omnium gaudiis testata supprimeret ; quae supra 
vires dicendi meas posita cunctor attingere, aut ingrati 
criniine arguendus aut tenierarii professione culpan- 
dus : tamen, alterum cum subeundum sit, audaciam 
quam malevolentiam malo reprehendi. tu, Auguste 
venerabilis, districtus maximo bello, adsultantibus tot 
milibus barbarorum, quot Danuvii ora praetexitur, 
comitia consulatus mei armatus exerces. tributa ista 
quod in urbe Sirmio geruntur, an, ut quod in pro- 
242 



THANKSGIVIXG FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

you proved by avenging your uncle s death, doubled 
by maintaining your brother, and redoubled by- 
raising your tutor to distinction. Let that indulgence 
which you vouchsafe to mankind render you thanks ; 
that generosity with which you enrich all ; that 
courage which enables you to conquer ; and that 
golden spirit which you have drawn more freely than 
any single man from the God of us all. So also let 
the voice of every province in the three Gauls render 
thanks on my behalf, since it is upon their prefect 
that you have bestowed this distinction. I go even 
farther — and this I add because you say you are in 
my debt : let that render you thanks which can best 
render it, I mean that voice which I have trained. 

IX. But grateful as my heart is, my words are all 
too feeble, and, as I have already said, I have long 
sunk under the theme. Moreover, I have not yet 
touched upon tliose matters which not even the 
sorriest speaker, unless he were likewise the most 
sacrilegious, would pass over, exalted as they are by 
fame and attested by universal delight — matters so 
far beyond my powers of speech that I hesitate 
to touch ujion them, and I must either be proved guilty 
on a charge of ingratitude, or be blamed for my rash 
pretensions. And yet since I must suffer one of these 
two things, I prefer to be censured for over boldness 
than for ill-will. You, most worshipful Emperor, 
amid all the distractions of a most serious war, 
amid the onslaughts of all those thousands of 
.savages who dwell along the shores of the Danube, 
held the elections for my consulate in full panoply. 
Shall I speak of them as elections by the people in 
tribes because they were held in the city of 
Sirmium f Or in centuries, because they were held 

243 



AUSONIUS 

cinctu, centuriati dicentur? an ut quondam ponti- 
ficalia vocabuntur, sine arbitrio multitudinis sacer- 
dotuni tractata collegio? sic potius, sic vocentur 
quae tu pontifex niaximus deo participatus habuisti. 

Non est ingenii mei, piissime imperator, talia com- 
minisci. verba sunt litterarum tuarum : quibus apud 
me auctoritatem summi numinis et tuae voluntatis 
amplificas. sic enim loqueris : cum de consulibus hi 
annum creandis solus mecuvi volutarem, 7if me nosli aUjue 
id foce.re debut et velle te scivi^ consilium meum ad deum 
retidi. eius auctorilaii obsecidus te const/lem designaii et 
declaravi et priorem nnncupavi. cuius orationis ordo 
lucidior? quae doctrina tam diligens propriis comi- 
tiorum verbis loqui nee vocabulis moris antiqui 
nomina peregrina miscere ? valete modo. classes 
populi et ui-banarum tribuum praerogativae et cen- 
turiae iui'e vocatae. quae comitia pleniora um- 
quam fuerunt quam quibus praestitit deus consilium, 
imperator obsequium ? 

X. Et nunc ego, piissime imperator, ne fastigium 
auditorii sacri, dictorum tuorum timidus interpres. 
ofFendam, divinitatis tuae pro ! levi cum piaculo 
verba transcurro. cum de consulibus, inquis, in annum 
creandis : erudita vox et cura soUemnis ! mecum 

^ The pontifices filled up vacancies in their college bj co- 
option until 102 B.C., when Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbu.s trans- 
ferred the right of election to the people. 

244 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

in the war-zone? Or shall we call them pontifical 
elections, as in old days/ since they were held, as 
elections to the priestly college were held, without 
reference to the people's will ? That is best, that 
is their right description, seeing that you, who 
presided over them, are the Pontifex Maximus and 
a participator in the designs of God. 

It is not a part of my character, most devout Em- 
peror, to invent such words as these. They are the 
words of your letter, in which you enlarge upon the 
authority of the Supreme Disposer and of your own 
will. This is what you say : When I was privalely con- 
sidering the appoiiitment of consuls for the year, I re- 
ferred my purpose to God, as you knoiv I do, and as I 
was hound to do, and as I knew you wished me to do. 
In obedience to his prompting I have designated you as 
consul, proclaimed you as such, and given your name 
the precedence. What speech could be more clearly 
arranged .'' What learned man more careful to use 
only the terms customary at elections, without 
mixing untechnical Avords with the time-honoured 
phrases ? No more of you henceforth, you classes 
of the people, you privileged city-tribes and 
centuries called up in due order ! What elections have 
ever been more adequately attended than these, 
where God furnished the design, and the Emperor 
gave it effect .'' 

X. And now, most devout Emperor, that I may not 
insult the majesty of this sacred Audience-Chamber 
by shrinking from interpreting your utterances, with 
the forgiveness of your godhead, though not without 
some slight sacrilege, I run over your words. When, 
you say, / was considering the appointment of consuls 
for the year. What a learned phrase ! What a 

245 



AUSONIUS 

vohdarcm : o prufundi altitudo secret! I habes ergo 
consiliatoreni et non metuis proditorem. id vie nnsti : 
quid familiarius, id J'accrc debui : quid constantius, id 
ve.llr tc scivi : quid dici blandius potest? consilitnn 
niciim (id dcuni retuli. et quemadmoduni solus, cui 
praesto est tarn grande consilium ? an plenius cum 
senatu, cum equestri ordine, cum plebe Romana, 
cum exercitu tuo et provinciis omnibus debberasses ? 
consilium vieum ad deum retuli. non ut, credo, novum 
sumeres, sed ut sanctius fieret, quod volebas. eius 
auctoiilati ohsecidus : scibcet ut in coiisecrando patre, 
in ulciscendo patruo, in cooptando fratre fecisti. te 
consiilem designavi et declaravi el priorem nuncupavi. 
quis baec verba te docuit ? ego tam propria et tam 
Latina nescivi. designavi et declaravi et nuncupavi. 
non fit hoc temere. habet moras suas dispertitis 
gradibus tam matura cunctatio. has ego Utteras tuas 
si in omnibus pilis atque porticibus, unde de piano 
legi possint, instar edicti pendere mandavero, nonne 
tot statuis honorabor, quot fuerint paginae libellorum ? 
XI. Sed ad blandiora festino. ab hac enim litte- 
rarum ad me datarum parte digressus, eo quoque 
descendisti, ut quaereres, qualis ad me trabea mitte- 
retur. omne largitionum tuarum ministerium solli- 
citudine fatigasti. non ergo supra consulatum mihi 

246 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

solemn task ! / was pondering inwardly. What depths 
to the secrets of your heart I You have, then, a 
counsellor without fearing betrayal. As you hiow I 
do : what could be more intimate ? As I was bound 
to do : what more uncompromising ? As I knew you 
wished : what more courteous phrase could be used ? 
/ referred my purpose to God : how, then, can you 
say privately when such vast wisdom is ready to aid 
you ? Could you have weighed the matter more 
thoroughly if the Senate, the Equestrian Order, and the 
People together with your army and all the provinces 
had been aiding you ? / referred my purpose to God. 
Not, I am sure, in order to gain some new plan, but 
to consecrate your own inclination. In obedience to his 
will : that is to say, as you have acted in canonizing 
your father, in avenging your uncle, in associating 
your brother with you. / have designated you as 
con.<iul, proclaimed you as such, and given your name the 
preference. Who taught you these words? 1 knew none 
so fitting, so thoroughly Roman. / have designated, 
proclaimed, and named you. This is no random 
writing. The ripe deliberation of these words with 
its pauses allows them to progress by well-marked 
degrees. If I have this letter of yours posted up like 
an edict on every pillar and in every portico where it 
could easily be read, shall I not have as many statues 
in my honour as there were placarded sheets .'' 

XI. But I hasten on to what is still more agree- 
able. For in your letter which was delivered to me, 
you diverged from this subject, and so far con- 
descended as to ask me what sort of robe should be 
sent me. With your anxiety you have worn out the 
whole staff of officials in charge of your bounties. 
Have I not then received over and above the con- 

247 



AUSONIUS 

est adhibitn per te cura tarn diligens, pro me cura 
tam felix ? in Illyrico arma quatiuntur : tu mea causa 
per Gallias civilium decorum indumenta dispensas, 
loricatus de toga mea tractas, in procinctu et cum 
maxima dimicaturus palmatae vestis meae ornamenta 
disponis : feliciter et bono omine. namque iste habi- 
tus, ut in pace consulis est, sic in victoria trium- 
phantis. parum est, si, qualis ad me trabea mittatur, 
interroges : te coram promi iubes. nee satis habes, ut 
largitionum ministri ex more fungantur : eligis ipse 
de multis et, cum elegeris, munera tua verborum 
honore prosequeris. palmatam, inquis, tibi rnisi, in 
qua divus Constantius parens ?io,ster intextns est. me 
beatum, cuius insignibus talis cura praestatur ! haec 
plane, haec est picta, ut dicitur, vestis, non magis 
auro suo quam tuis verbis, sed multo plura sunt in 
eius ornatu, quae per te instructus intellego. gemi- 
num quippe in uno habitu radiat nomen August). 
Constantius in argumento vestis intexitur, Gratianus 
in muneris honore sentitur. 

XII. Accessit tam inpenso beneficio tuo pondus 
quorundam sciscitatione cumulatum. interrogatus, 
quem priorem decerneres consulem, nee dnbitandum 

* fic. the son of Constantine the Great, father of Faustina 
and grandfather of Constantia, Gratian's wife. 

248 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

sulate an additional gift in these pains, which cost you 
so much trouble and caused ine so much happiness ': 
Swords are being drawn in Illyricum : for my sake, 
you distribute robes of civil dignities in Gaul : you, 
wearing your equipment, deal with the question of 
my gown ; while prepared for battle and on the 
verge of a supreme struggle, you make arrangements 
for the decoration of my palm-broidered garb. 
Yet the omen was happy and auspicious. For just as 
in peace time this apparel marks the consul, so in 
victory it distinguishes the conqueror in his triumph. 
But it is not enough for you to ask what kind of robe 
shall be sent me : you must have it produced before 
your eyes. You are not content that the officials of 
your largess should perform their ordinary duties : 
you choose one robe out of many with your own 
hands, and having chosen it, follow up your gift with 
words of compliment. You say : / have sent you a 
palm-broidered robe in 7vhick is worked a Jigure of the 
sainted Constantins ^ my ancestor. Happ}' am I that 
such pains should be bestowed upon my vestments ! 
It is, it most surely is, a broidered robe, as you say ; 
but embroidered more richly with your words than 
with its own threads of gold. But, since it is you 
who have invested me, I perceive that its enrichment 
means far more. For the light which flashes from 
this single garment bespeaks two imperial personages: 
Constantius is embroidered in the actual fabric of the 
robe ; but in the com}ilimentary nature of the gift, 
I feel the presence of Gratian. 

XII. To your favour, already so weighty, was 
added the weight which a question put by certain 
persons piled upon it. When they inquired whom 
you appointed senior of the two consuls, you replied 

249 



AUSONIUS 

esse dixisti tu, et qui tecum boiii sunt, dubitare 
non poterant. sed tamen ad hoc dictum erexerant 
animos, qui libenter clarissimum virum collegam 
meum, quern praesentem habebat occasio, praelatuni 
credidissent. fatigantes tamen, quod intellexerant, 
requirebant. hie tu, sicut mihi renuntiatum est, 
noto illo pudore tuo j)aulisper haesisti non rationis 
ambiguus, sed eorum dubitationem vultu et rubore 
condemnans, qui studium suum interpretationis 
errore palpabant. deinde ilHco subdidisti : quid dc 
duobus consulibus desigiiatis quueritis, quis ordo sil niin- 
ciipationis ? anne alius quam quern praej'edura consti- 
tuil ? o feHcem verecundiam tuam, cui ista popularis 
ratio tarn prudenter occurrit ! scisti aliud, Gratiane, 
quod diceres : sed propter quorundam verecundiam 
dicere noluisti. scopulosus hie mihi locus est et 
propter eam, quam numquam adpetivi, gloriam, re- 
cusandus. cum prior renuntiatus sim, satis est 
tuum tenere iudicium : interpretes valete meritorum. 
neque autem ego, sacratissime imperator, in tenui 
beneficio gradum nuncupationis amplector. non est 
haec gloria ignota Ciceroni : praetorem me, inquit, 
populus Romanus primum fecit, consulem priorem. 
ex ipsa eius sententia intellegitur commendabilius 
uni videri quam pluribus esse praepositum. nulla 



^ In Piaonem i. 2, 3. 
as© 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

that there could be 710 inicerlainly as In Uiat ; and the 
honourable men who surround you could not feel 
uncertainty. Nevertheless, this pronouncement 
aroused the expectations of those who would have 
been glad to think that the most distinj^uished man, 
who is my colleague, and who happened to be 
present at the time, had been awarded the precedence. 
At anv rate, they made themselves wearisome by 
seeking for that meaning which the}^ had read into 
your answer. Whereupon, as I am informed, your 
well-known modesty caused you for a while to hesi- 
tate, not through indecision as to your course, but to 
reprove with your flushed glance those who were 
Mattering their own hopes by their affected inability 
to understand. Then you replied outright : Whif do 
you ask in 7vhal order of precedence the two consuls 
designate are to stand ? Can they stand in any other 
order than that which the prefecture has already 
determined ? What happy modesty, so sagely to 
suggest that popular reason I You could have made 
another reply, Gratian, but refrained in order to 
spare the feelings of certain persons. But I find 
myself on dangerous ground and for the sake of that 
distinction which I never coveted, I must avoid it. 
Since I have been declared the senior, it is enough 
for me to keep to your decision : so farewell, you who 
would examine merits ! I do not, however, regard 
this honour of precedence as a trifling favour, my 
most gracious Sovereign. It confers a glory of which 
Cicero was fully conscious : " The Roman People," he 
says, "made me chief praetor and senior consul." ^ 
His very form of expression makes us clearly under- 
stand that it is more honourable to receive precedence 
over one person, than over many ; for while there is 

251 



AUSONIUS 

enim est equidem contumelia secundi, sed in duobus 
gloria magna {)raelati. 

Alexandri Macedouis hoc fertur, cum legissL't 
illos versus Homericos, quibus Hectore provocante 
de noveni ducibus, qui omnes pugnare cuf)iebant, 
unum deligi placeret sortis eventu, trepida ubi con- 
tentione votorum lovem optimum maximum totus 
])recatur exercitus, ut Aiacem vel Tydei filium aut 
ipsum regem ditium Myeenarum sortiri patiatur 
Agamemnonem : occiderem, inquit, ilium, qui me 
tertium nominasset. o magnanimitatem fortissimi 
viri ! nominari inter novem tertius recusabat ; ubi 
certe pluribus antecelleret quam subesset. quanta 
hie verecundia gravaretur posterior de duobus ? est 
enim in hoc numero arduae plena dignationis electio. 
cum universis mortalibus duo, qui fiant consules, 
praeferuntur, qui alteri praeponitur, non uni, sed 
omnibus antefertur. 

XIII. Expectare nunc aures praeseutium scio et 
eminere in omnium vultu intellego, quod desiderio 
concipiatur animorum. existimant enim, cum ea, 
quae ad grates agendas ])ertinebant, summatim et 
tenuiore filo, sicut dieitur, deducta libaverim, aliqua 
me etiam de maiestatis tuae laudibus debere per- 
stringere. quamquam me istam dixerim seposuisse 
materiam et in tempus aliud reservare ; nihilominus 
tamen, ut nunc aliqua contingam, nutu et prope mur- 
mure eohortantur. itaque faciam, quando cogunt 



1 H 161-180. ■•' Horace, Epv> ". i. 226. 

252 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

indeed no disgrace in taking the second place, the 
one of two who is preferred is signally distinguished. 

It is said of Alexander of Macedon that, after 
reading that passage in Horner^ relating the decision 
to select by lot one of the nine chiefs who were 
all eager to fight in answer to Hector's challenge, 
and how the whole host besought Jupiter the Best 
and Greatest with anxiously conflicting prayers to 
suffer Ajax, or the son of Tydeus, or even Agamem- 
non, the king of rich Mycenae, to be chosen ; he ex- 
claimed : " I would have killed the man who named 
nie third!" See the high sjnrit of the dauntless 
hero ! He scorned to be placed third in a list of nine 
persons, even though, of course, lie would have more 
below him than above him. How deeply ashamed 
he would feel if he were the second of two persons 
only ! For where there are two candidates, the choice 
of one is rich in high distinction. If the two who 
are made consuls are exalted over all mankind, then 
the one who has precedence over his colleague is set 
not above one only, but over all. 

XIII. I know that the ears of my audience are now 
eagerly waiting, I can read on every face the thought 
which springs from the longing of each heart. They 
think that now that I have touched on every topic 
which has reference to my Thanksgiving — however 
summarily, or, as our poet says,^ " spun out with 
meagre thread " — I am bound to touch upon the 
praises of your Majesty. Although I have said that 
I have put that subject on one side and am keeping 
it for another occasion, nevertheless they all urge 
with nods, nay, almost with protests, to make some 
reference to it now. 1 will do as they bid (for I 
welcome this compulsion), but I must lay aside the 

253 



AUSONIUS 

volentem, sed niaioribus separatis tenuiora memorabo. 
nulla spe rid plenum exequendi, sed uriiversi ut 
iiitellegant eoruni^ quae inter [familiaria] praedi- 
eanda sunt, a me poscendam esse notitiam, ab aliis 
dignitatem, nee excellentia, sed cotidiana tractabo. 
XI\'. Nullum tu umquam diem ab adulescentia 
tua nisi adorato dei numine et reus voti et illico 
absolutus egisti, lautis manibus, mente pura, inmacu- 
labili conscientia et, quod in paucis est, cogitatione 
sincera. cuius autem umquam egressus auspicatior 
fuit aut incessus modestior aut habitudo cohibitior 
aut familiaris habitus condeeentior aut militaris 
accinctior ? in exercendo corpore quis cursum tarn 
perniciter incitavit ? quis palaestram tani lubricus 
expedivit? quis saltum in tam sublime collegit ? 
nemo adductius iacula contorsit, nemo sjMcula crebrius 
iecit aut certius destinata percussit. mirabamur 
poetam, qui infrenos dixerat Numidas, et alterum, 
qui ita coUegerat, ut diceret in equitando verbera et 
praecepta esse fugae et praecepta sistendi. obscurum 
hoc nobis legentibus erat : intelleximus te videntes, 
cum idem arcum intenderes et habenas remitteres 
aut equum segnius euntem verbere concitares vel 
eodem verbere intemperantiam coherceres. qui te 
visi sunt hoc docuisse, non faciunt : immo qui visi 



' Virgil, Ae}i. iv. 41. 

- Nemesian, Cynaj. 268 : verbera sunt praecepta fugae, 
sunt verbera freni. 



IHANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

larger aspects of the subject and speak only of the- 
slighter ; and this not with any hope of according 
them adequate treatment, but to let all men know- 
that from me they are to expect a relation only of 
those personal qualities which deserve praise, and to 
look to others for an estimate of your higher 
virtues. I shall deal therefore not with your loftiest 
qualities, but those of your every-day life. 

XIV. From your boyhood you have never let a 
single day pass without worshipping God, without 
discharging your vows the moment that they became 
due, with clean hands and a pure heart, a stainless 
conscience, and — a rare quality— with undivided 
thoughts. Was there ever a prince whose going 
forth was attended with better auguries, whose pro- 
gress was less ostentatious, whose state was less 
extravagant, whose attire in private life was more 
seemly or in the field more severe .' In athletic pur- 
suits who ever matched your fleetness of foot, who so 
supple in disengaging at wrestling, who cleared so 
great a height in leaping ? No one ever launched a 
javelin with a more forceful swing, no one hurled 
darts with greater speed or struck the mark more 
surely. We used to wonder at the poet ^ when he 
spoke of Numidians who use no reins, and at that 
other who summed up by saying that in riding it is 
with the lash alone that they urge their horses to full 
speed or make them stand.- While we read we could 
not understand this, but we realized it when we saw 
you drop the reins and at the same time draw your 
bow, or urge on your horse with the whip when he 
slackened speed and check his exuberance likewise 
with the whip. Those who were supposed to instruct 
you in this do not do these things : nay, rather, 

255 



AUSONIUS 

sunt docuisse, nunc discunt. in fibis autem cuius 

sacerdotis abstinentior caerimonia ? in vino cuius 

senis mensa frugalior? operto conclavis tui nou 

sanetior ara VestaliS;, non j)ontifi(is cubile castius nee 

pulvinar flaminis tarn pudicuni. in officiis amicoruni 

111)11 dico paria reddis : antevenis et, quotiens in 

obsequendo praecedimus, erubescis pudore tain ob- 

noxio, quam in nobis esse deberet ab imperatore 

praeventis. in ilia vero sede, ut ex more loquimur. 

consistorii, ut ego sentio, sacrarii tui, nullus umquain 

superiorum aut dicenda pensius cogitavit aut con- 

sultius cogitata disposuit aut disposita niaturius 

expedivit. 

XV. Et aliqua de oratoriis virtutibus tuis dicerem^ 

nisi vererer mihi gratificari. non enim Sulpicius 

aerior in contionibus nee niaioris Gracchi connnenda- 

bilioi- niodestia fuit nee patris tui gravior auctoritas. 

(jui tenor vocis, cum incitata pronuntias ; quae inHexio, 

cum remissa ; quae temperatio, cum utraque dis- 

pensas ! (juis oratorum laeta iucundius^ facunda 

cultius, j)ugnantia densius, densata glomerosius aut 

dixit aut, quod est liberum, cogitavit ? vellem, si 

rerum natura pateretur, Xenophon Attice, in aevum 
250 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

those who are supposed to instruct you are now 
learning from you. Again, in the matter of foodj 
was ever a priest more self-denying on religious 
grounds ? Or in the matter of wine, was there ever 
an old man more sparing at table ? The altar of 
Vesta is not more hallowed than the pi-ivac}- of your 
bed-chamber, the couch of a priest is not more pure, 
the bed of a prophet not more chaste. In your rela- 
tions with your friends I do not say that you return 
like for like : you anticipate our services, or whenever 
we have the advantage in paying our duty to you, 
you flush up shyly with an embarrassment which we 
rather ought to feel when we have been anticipated 
by our Sovereign. In that place which we ordinarilv 
speak of as your Consistory, but which I regard as 
your sanctuary, none of your predecessors ever 
thought out more deeply what he had to say, or 
arranged his thoughts more skilfully, or delivered 
them, when so arranged, in a more masterly style. 

XV. I would also make some remarks on your 
excellence as a speaker, were I not afraid of flattering 
myself. Sulpicius was not more vehement in harangue, 
nor the elder Gracchus more deserving of praise for 
self-control, nor your own father more weighty, more 
impressive. How your voice rings out when you 
declaim some stirring theme ! How gentle in unim- 
passioned passages I How skilfully regulated when 
you deal with both ! Which of the orators either 
in speech or in the free domain of thought dealt 
with cheerful themes more charmingly, on eloquent 
themes more choicely, on the strenuous more in- 
tensely, on the intense more forcibly? Ah, Attic 
Xenophon, I would that it were possible in the 
nature of things for you to come to life again in 

'^57 



AUSONIUS 

nostrum venires^ tu, qui ad Cyri virtutes exequendas 
votum potius, quain historiam commodasti : cum 
diceres, non qualis esset, sed qualis esse deberet. 
si nunc in tempora ista procedereSj in nostra Giatiano 
cei'neres, quod in Cyro tuo non videras, sed optabas. 
atque ista omnia^ quae punctis quibusdam acuminata 
signavi, si facundia pro voluntate suppeteret^ quam- 
quani non copiosius^ exequerer, ubertatem stilo reruni 
magnitudine suggerente. sed nee huius diei nee 
huius ista materiae. qui dicturi estis laudes principis 
nostri, habetis velut seminarium, unde orationum 
vestrarum iugera compleatis. ego ista perstrinxi 
atque, ut sciunt omnes, possum videri familiaris 
notitiae secretus interpres domestica istaec non tarn 
praedicare quam prodere. 

Atque ut ista dixi de cognitis mihi atque intra 
aulam familiaribus, possem et foris celebrata memo- 
rare, nisi omnia omnes et separatim sibi quisque 
novisset. pcssem pari brevitute dicere, qua supe- 
riora : emendatissimi liri est pigcnda non facere : at 
tu numquam paenitenda fecisti et semper veniam 
paenitentibus obtulisti. puhhrim est indulgere timen- 
tihiis : sed tu perpetuae bonitatis edictis occurristi 
258 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

this age — you who celebrated the virtues of Cyrus 
by following the line of your own desires rather than 
his actual history, since you described him not as he 
was, but as he ought to have been. If you could 
take a stride forward into these present times, you 
would behold in our beloved Gratian not what you 
actually saw in your favourite Cyrus, but what you 
wished to see. All these qualities, the salient points 
of which I have sketched in a few dashes, I would 
describe in detail M^ere my powers of speaking pro- 
portionate to my will ; for however much I may lack 
fluency, the greatness of the subject would inspire 
my pen. But all that is appropriate neither to this 
occasion, nor to this subject. You, who hereafter 
shall pronounce the praises of our Sovereign have 
here, if I may call it so, a nursery-garden on which 
you can draw to fill out the acres of your own dis- 
courses. I have merely touched upon the subject, 
and being — as all are aware — the exponent of secrets 
known to me through my close intimacy, I may be 
thought merely to divulge rather than to belaud 
these personal virtues. 

And as I have spoken of mattei-s known to me 
and to all who share the inner life of the 
Court, I might also tell of those which are con- 
stantly spoken of beyond its precincts, were it not 
that they are all known to all men and individually 
to each. I could say in as few words as I have 
done above : a most perfect hero does nothing of 
which he need he ashamed; but you have never 
done anything which calls for repentance, while 
you have always extended pardon to those who 
repent. It is noble to he merciful to those who fear ; 
but so continual is your kindness that your edicts 

259 



AUSONIUS 

omnibus, lie Huierent. mngnijicuvi largtri Iwnorcs : 
tu honoratos et libernlitate ditasti. laudabile est un- 
peratorem faciles interpellantibus praebeie adiliis nee dc 
occupatione cuusari : tu confirmas adire cunctantes ; 
et iam querimoniis explicatis^ ne quid adhuc sileatur, 
interrogas. 

XVI. Celebre fuit Titi Caesaris dictum, perdidisse 
se diem, quo nihil bo/ii fecerat ; sed celebre fuit, quia 
Vespasiani successor dixerat, cuius nimia parsiraonia 
et austeritas vix ferenda miram fecerat filii lenitatem. 
tu Valentiniano genitus, cuius alta bonitas, praesens 
comitas, temperata severitas fuit, parto et condito 
Optimo I'eipublicae statu, intellegis posse te esse 
lenissimum sine dispendio disciplinae. neque vero 
unum aliquod bonum uno die praestas : sed indul- 
gentias singulares per singula horarum momenta 
multiplicas. vel illud unum cuius modi est de con- 
donatis residuis tributorum .'' quod tu quam cumu- 
lata bonitate fecisti I quis umquam imperatorum 
hoc pi-ovinciis suis aut uberiore indulgentia dedit, 
aut certiore securitate prospexit, aut prudentia con- 
sultiore munivit } fecerat et Traianus olim, sed par- 
tibus retentis non habebat tantam oblectationem 
concessi debiti portio, quanta suberat amaritudo 



1 Suet. Tifufi, viii. 

- Coins of Trajan bear references to this remission. 

260 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

I'emove all cause for fear. It is splendid to lavish dis- 
tinctions : you not only bestow distinctions, but also 
generously enrich the recipients. It is praisenorthij 
in an Emperor to grant petitioners easy access and not to 
refuse them on the pretext of engagements : you encourage 
those who hesitate to approach you, and when they 
have declared their complaints, you ask them whether 
they have left anything still unmentioned. 

XVI. The saying of Titus Caesar^ that he had lost 
that day in ivhich he had not performed a good action, 
has become famous ; but it has become famous because 
it was uttered by the successor of Vespasian, a man 
whose excessive economy and almost intolerable 
strictness made his son's easier rule seem remarkable. 
You, the son of Valentinian, whose kindness was so 
profound, whose affability was never lacking, whose 
sternness was so well controlled — you realize that, now 
that the State has gained and established a thoroughly 
sound condition, you can show all the gentleness of 
your nature without prejudice to good order. And, 
indeed, it is not just one good deed a day that you 
perform : every moment of every hour you increase 
the sum of your momentous favours. How shall we 
speak of that single measure by which the arrears of 
tribute were remitted ? What a wealth of generosity 
there was in this act ! What Emperor has ever granted 
such a boon to his subject provinces with a more 
generous consideration, or calculated its results with 
a surer confidence, or safeguarded it with more 
experience and wisdom ? Trajan - also did the same 
thing in past times ; but since he retained a claim to 
a certain amount of the arrears, the pleasure caused 
by that portion of the debt which he forgave was less 
than the underlying discontent left unremoved by 

261 



AUSONIUS 

servati. et Antoninus indulserat, sed imperii, non 
beneficii successor invidit, qui ex docunientis tabu- 
lisque populi condonata repetivit. tu argumenta 
omnia flagitandi publicitus ardere iussisti. videre in 
suis quaeque foris omnes civitates conflagrationem 
salubris incendii. ardebant stirpes fraudium vete- 
rum : ardebant semina futurarum. iam se cum 
pulvere favilla miscuerat, iam nubibus fumus se 
involverat : et adhuc obnoxii in paginis concrematis 
ductus apicum et sestertiorum notas cum substan- 
tiolae I'atione cernebant, quod meminerant lectum, 
legi posse metuentes. quid te, imperator Auguste, 
indulgentius, quid potest esse consultius ? quae bona 
praestas, efficis, ne caduca sint : quae mala adimis, 
prospicis ne possint esse recidiva. haec provin- 
cialibus indulgentiae bona, quid ilia nostro ordini ? 
([uid ilia militibus ? Antoninorum cognita fuit et 
iam ante Germanicorum in cohorte amicorum et 
legionibus familiaris lunnanitas. sed ego nolo 
benevolentiam tuam aliorum collatione praecellere 
abundant in te ea bonitatis et virtutis exempla, quae 
sequi cupiat ventura posteritas et, si rerum natura 
patei'etur, adscribi sibi voluisset antiquitas. 

XVII. Necesse est tamen aliquid comjiarari, ut 
possit intellegi, bona nostra quo praestent. Aegro- 

262 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

the amount which he retained. Antoninus, too, 
granted the same favour ; but he who inherited his 
throne but not his kindhness, grudged this remission 
of arrears and reclaimed from his people the full 
amount as entered in the schedules and registers. 
You gave orders for all these evidences of claim to be 
burned publicly. Every township beheld in its own 
mai'ket-place the blaze of the relieving fire. Burning 
were the roots of by-gone wrongs : burning were the 
seeds of those to come. Ali-eady the ashes had mingled 
with the dust, already the smoke had been absorbed 
in the clouds ; but still the debtors beheld in the 
charred pages the lines of lettering and the figures 
in the cash-column together with the valuation of 
their little propei'ties: still they feared that what 
they remembered to have heard read could even now 
be read. What then can there be which is more 
mei'ciful, more sagacious than you, most gracious 
Emperor.'' You give good gifts and make sure that 
they shall not be transitory : you remove ills, and take 
precautions against their revival. Such are the favours 
you have lavished upon the provinces ; but what of 
those conferred upon our own order ? Or upon the 
Army ? The personal interest taken by the Antonines, 
and even earlier by the Germanici, in their suite of 
friends and in their legions, was a recognized fact. 
But I do not care to extol your benevolences by com- 
paring others. You furnish a host of such instances 
of goodness and virtue as generations to come Avill 
long to imitate, and as ages past would have wished, 
did the nature of things allow, to have attributed 
to themselves. 

XVII. Nevertheless, some comparison must be 
made in order to make clear the superiority of our 

263 



AUSONIUS 

tantes amicos Traianiis visere solebat : hacteiius in 
eo comitas praedicanda est. tu et visere solitus et 
mederi praebes ministros, instruis ciboSj toinenta 
dispensas, sumptuni adicis niedellarum, consolaris 
adfectos, revalescentibus gratularis. in quot vias de 
una eius humanitate progrederis I legionibus uuiver- 
siSj ut in communi Marte evenit, si quid adversi 
aceiderat, vidi te circumire tentoria, "satin salvae? " 
quaerere, tractare vulnera sauciorum et^ ut salutiferae 
adponerentur medellae atque ut non cessaretur, in- 
stare. vidi quosdani fastidientes cibum te commen- 
dante sumpsisse. audivi confirmantia ad saluteni 
verba praefari, occurrere desideriis singulorum : huius 
sarcinas mulis aulicis vehere, his specialia iumenta 
praebere, illis ministeria perditorum instaurare lixa- 
rum, aliorum egestatem tolerare sumptu^ horum 
nuditatem velare vestitu, omnia agere indefesse et 
benigne, pietate maxima, ostentatione nulla, omnia 
praebere aegris, nihil exprobrare sanatis. inde 
cunctis salute nostra carior factus meruisti, ut haberes 
amicos obnoxios, promptos, devotos^ fideles, in aevum 
omne mansuros, quales caritas potius quam fortuna 
conciliat. 
= 64 



I 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

blessinn;s. Trajan was in the habit of visiting his 
friends when they were sick : so far we may grant 
that he had a considerate nature. Your practice is 
both to visit and to heal them : you provide them 
with attendants, you order their diet, you prescribe 
medicines, you fui-nish the cost of remedies, you 
comfort them in their pain, and you congratulate 
them on their recovery. See in how many ways you 
show advance beyond Trajan's single form of con- 
sideration ! With the legions one and all, whenever 
any regrettable incident had occurred, as is the 
fortune of war, I have seen you go round the 
men's lines, asking "How goes it ? ", attending to 
the wounds of casualties, giving strict orders that 
healing remedies should be applied and that there 
should be no delay about it. I have seen men who 
turned from their iood with loathing take it on your 
recommendation : I have heard you speak words 
which gave them heart to recover. You anticipated 
what each man sorely needed, causing this man's pack 
to be carried by the mules of the royal train, pro- 
viding special beasts for some to ride, furnishing 
others with servants in place of those whom they had 
lost : sometimes you would relieve the poorer soldiers 
out of your own purse, sometimes cover the naked- 
ness of the thinly clad. You would do all unweary- 
ingly and cheerfully, Avith the deepest charity and 
without a trace of display, bestowing everything 
upon the sick and claiming nothing from the cured. 
Thus it is that you have become dearer to us than 
our lives, and have deservedly gained friends who 
are obedient, ready, devoted, faithful — men who will 
stand by you for ever, since it is affection rather 
than accident which makes them yours. 

265 



AUSONIUS 

XVIII. Concludani deinceps orationem meam, 

piissime Auguste, sermonis magis fine, qiiam gratiae. 

namque ilia perpetua est et spatio non transmeabili 

terminum calcis ignorat. flexu tamen parvo, nee a 

te procul, convertar ad deum. aeterne omnium 

genitor, ipse non genite, opifex et causa niundi, 

prineipio antiquior, fine diuturnior, qui templa tibi 

et aras penetrabilibus initiatorum mentibus condi- 

disti, tu Gratiano humanarum rerum domino eius- 

modi semina nostri amoris inolesti, ut nihil in digressu 

segnior factus meminisset et relicti, illustraret absen- 

tem, praesentibus anteferret ; deinde quia interesse 

primordiis dignitatis per locorum intervalla non po- 

terat, ad sollemnitatem condendi honoris occurreret, 

beneficiis ne deesset officium. quae enim maiorum 

umquam memoria transcursum tantae celeritatis 

vel in audacibus Graecorum fabulis commenta est ? 

Pegasus volucer actus a Lycia non ultra Ciliciam 

permeavit. Cyllarus atque Arion inter Argos Ne- 

meamque senuerunt. ipsi Castorum equi, quod 

longissimum iter est, non nisi mutato vectore trans- 

currunt. tu, Gratiane, tot Romani imperii limites, 

tot flumina et lacus, tot veterum intersaepta reg- 

norum ab usque Thracia per totum, quam longum 

^ Possibly = tlie baptized. 

- For Cyllarus (the steed of Pollux), see Virgil, Otorg. iii. 
90 ; Arion is the famous horse of Adrastus. 

266 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

XV^III. After this I must bring my speech to a 
close, most Sacred Majesty : though it is my words 
I'ather than my gratitude which will end. For the 
latter is unending : its course can never be run, for 
it knows no stopping point. Yet I must make a 
slight digression and turn not very far from you to 
God. Eternal Begetter of all things, thyself un- 
begotten, Creator and Cause of the universe, more 
ancient than its beginning, outlasting its end. Thou 
who hast built thine own temples and altars in the 
inmost hearts of the initiated ^ worshippers : Thou 
hast implanted in Gratian, the lord of this world 
below, such seeds of love towards me that separation 
has not weakened his remembrance of me though 
parted from him. He has honoured me though I 
was no longer in his presence, he has preferred 
me above those who stand before him ; and further : 
because distance would not allow him to be present 
at the opening ceremony of my elevation, he has 
hastened to attend the solemnities of my laying down 
office, that his bounties might be completed by his 
courtesy. For what record is there, even in the 
daring fjibles of the Greeks, of a journey so swiftly 
accomplished ? Winged Pegasus starting from Lycia 
travelled no further than Cilicia : Cyllarus and Arion - 
grew old between Argos and Nemea. Even the 
steeds of a Castor do not accomplish that endless 
journey of theirs without changing their riders.-^ 
You, Gratian, speed across all those frontiers of the 
Roman Empire, all those rivers and lakes, all those 
barriers of old-established kingdoms, from distant 
Thrace and along the whole coast, through all its 

' Probably referring to the journej" of Castor and Polhix 
to and from the world below : cp. Virgil, A m. vi. 121 f . 

267 



AUSONIUS 

est, latus Illyrici, Venetiam Liguriamque et Galliam 
veterem^ insuperabilia Rhaetiae, Rheni vadosa, Se- 
quanorum invia, porrecta Germaniae, celeriore trans- 
cursu, quam est properatio nostri sermoniSj evolvis, 
nulla requie otii, ne somni quidem aut cibi nuinere 
liberali, ut Gallias tuas inopinatus illustres, ut con- 
sulem tuum, quamvis desideratus, anticipes, ut illani 
ipsam, quae auras praecedere solet, famam facias 
tardiorem. hoc senectuti meae, hoc honori a te 
datum, supremus ille imperii et consiliorum tuorum 
deus conscius et arbiter et auctor indulsit, ut sellam 
curulem, cuius sedem frequenter ornabis, ut prae- 
textani meam purpurae tuae luce fucatam, ut trabeam 
non magis auro suo quam munere tuo s{)lendidam, 
quae ab Illyrico sermonis dignitas honestavit, apud 
Gallias illustriora praestares, quaestorem ut tuum, 
praefectum ut tuo praetorio^ consulem tuum et, quod 
adhuc cunctis meis nominibus anteponis, praecep- 
torem tuum, quern pia voce declaraveras, iusta ratione 
praetuleras, liberali largitate ditaveras, Augustae 
dignationis ofiiciis consecrares. 

Finit s>'(iiianii)/ act to. 



268 



THANKSGIVING FOR HIS CONSULSHIP 

length, ot lUyricum, through Venetia, Ligiiria, and 
old Gaulj over the forbidding peaks of Rhaetia, across 
the fords of the Rhine, through the thick country 
of the Sequani and across the plains of Germany ; 
you speed across them, I repeat, swifter in your 
passage than my rapid speech, without stopping for 
rest, without indulging fully in sleep or in food ; and 
all to shed the unexpected light of your presence 
upon your favourite Gaul, to surprise (how welcome 
the surprise ! ) your own consul while still in office, 
to make even Rumour, who is usually swifter than the 
winds, a slower traveller than yourself. This was 
your tribute to my age, this to my dignity ! God, that 
supreme confidant, controller and author both of your 
throne and of your counsels, has graciously permitted 
that the curule chair (which you will often fill with so 
much grace), that my magisterial robe dyed with your 
glowing purple, that my consular apparel which is 
enriched less by its own gold than by your muni- 
ficence — that all these favours, which your noble 
letter from Illyricum made yet more honourable, 
should gain yet further in lustre by your presence in 
Gaul ; that your quaestor, your praetorian prefect, 
your consul, and — a name which you still rate above 
all my titles — your tutor, he whom you designated 
with your sacred lips, whom you named as senior 
consul on substantial grounds, whom you enriched 
with your generous bounty, should be hallowed by 
the condescension of your royal attentions. 

End of the Thanksgiving. 



2U) 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

This Appendix, corresponding to book XXII. of 
the Teubner edition, contains various poems of 
relatively ancient date which, though ordinarily 
edited with the works of Ausonius, are in fact 
anonymous. Two only of these woi'ks call for 
notice. 

The elegiac poem De liosis Xasceutibus (H.) is 
interesting — apart from some trace of naturalistic 
feeling in 11. 7 ff. — both as the humble source of 
Herrick's Gather ye Rosebuds (11. 49 f ), and as having 
once been attributed to Virgil himself. ^ It cannot, 
however, be regarded as earlier than the fourth 
century a.u., and was associated with the works of 
Ausonius by Aleander in the Paris edition of 1511. 

Sulpicia's Complaint on the State of the Common- 
wealth (V.) seems to belong to the same age and is 
not unreasonably considered a school-piece or liter- 
ary exercise. The real Sulpicia flourished in the 
later part of the first century a.d. and was famous 
for a series of amatory poems composed in a variety 
of metres {see 11. 4 ff.) and addressed to her husband 
Calenus. According to Martial {Epigr. x. 35. 1 ff.) 
her work was distinguished by its morality, though 
not perhaps by its delicacy (id. x. 38. 1 ff.), and 
Ausonius in his exculpatory address to Paulus at the 
close of the Cento Xiiptialis'^ alleges that prurire 
opiisculum Sulpiciae, frontem cape? are. The piece was 
first published in an edition of Ausonius by Ugoletus 
in 1496 A.D. 

^ See Ribbeck's Virgil, iv. p. 181 (Appendix Vergi/iann). 
- See vol. i. p. 390. 

271 



APPENDIX AUSONI ANA i 

I. — Septem Sapientum Sententiae 

(i) Bias Prieueiis 

QuAENAM summa boni est? mens semper eonscia recti, 
pernieies homini quae maxima ? solus homo alter, 
quis dives ? qui nil cu})iet. quis pau})er .'' avarus. 
quae dos matronis pulcherrima ? vita pudica. 
quae casta est ? de qua mentiri fama veretur. 5 

quod prudentis opus ? cum possis, nolle nocere : 
quid stulti proprium ? non posse et velle nocere. 

(ii) Piltaciis Mitylenaens 

Loqui ignorabitj qui tacere nesciat. 

bono probari malo quam multis malis. 

demens superbis invidet felicibus ; 10 

demens dolorem ridet infelicium. 

pareto legi^ quisque legem sanxeris. 

plures amicos re secunda compares : 

paucos amicos rebus adversis probas. 

1 = Peiper, Book XXII. 
272 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUSi 



I. — Sayings of the Seven Sages 

(i) Bias o/" Priene 

What is the sum of all good? A heart ever 
conscious of right. What is man's greatest bane ? 
His brother man alone. Who is the rich man ? He 
who will long for nothing. Who is the poor man i 
The miser. What is the fairest dowry wedded wives 
can bring ? A modest life. Who is the chaste 
woman ? She about whom scandal fears to lie. 
What deed marks a wise man ? To refuse to hurt 
another when he might. What is the fool's badge? 
To wish to hurt another though he cannot. 

(ii) PittacKs of Mitijlene 

He who cannot hold his tongue will not know 
how to speak. I would rather please one good man 
than many bad. A fool envies the proud man in 
prosperity, a fool laughs at the grief of the unhappy. 
Obey the law whoever you be who made the law. 
If Fortune smile, you gather many friends : if 
Fortune frowns, you find few true friends. 

* The following poems, formerly iiichided ii) tiie works of 
Ausoiiius, are by unknown authors. 

273 
VOL. n. T 



AUSONIUS 

(hi) C/eohi/li/s Linditis 

Quanto plus liceat, tani libeat minus. 15 

fortunae invidia est immeritus miser. 

felix criminibus non erit hoc diu. 

ignoscas aliis multa, nihil tibi. 

parcit quisque malis, perdere vult bonos. 

maiorum meritis gloria non datur : 20 

turpis saepe datur fama minoribus. 

(iv) Periandej- Cormlhiti.s 

Numquam discrepat utile ab decoro. 

plus est sollieitus magis beatus. 

mortem optare malum, timere peius. 

taxis, ut libeat, quod est necesse. 25 

multis terribilis caveto multos. 

si fortuna iuvat, nihil laboris : 

si non adiuvat, hoc minus laboris. 

(\) Solou Alheniensis 

Tunc beatam dico vitam, cum peracta fata sunt. 

par pari iugator coniunx ; quidquid inpar, dissidet. 30 

non erunt honores umquam fortuiti muneris. 

clam coarguas propinquum, quem palam laudaveris. 

pulchrius multo parari quam creari nobilem. 

certa si decreta sors est, quid cavere jjroderit? 

sive sunt incerta cuncta, quid timere convtnit? 35 

(vi) Chi/on Lacedacmoniu,s 

Nolo minor me timeat despiciatque maior. 
vive memor mortis, item vive memor salutis, 
tristia cuncta exsuperans aut animo, aut amico. 
tu bene si quid facias, nee meniinisse fas est ; 
274 



APPF.NDIX TO AUSONIUS 

(ill) Cleobulus of Lindos 

The greatei- your liberty, the less be your lusts. 
A just man suffering wi-ongfully is Fortune's 
indictment. A man may thrive on wrong, but not 
for long. Overlook much in others, nothing in 
yourself He who spares the bad, seeks to corrupt 
the good. The good deeds of the fathers bring no 
glory to their posterity ; but ill-repute is often 
inherited. 

(iv) Peiiaii(hr of Corinth 

The expedient and the honourable never disagree. 
The greater your fortune, the greater your cares. 
'Tis bad to wish for death, but worse to fear it. See 
that you do willingly that which you needs must 
do. If many dread you, then beware of many. If 
Fortune aids, no need for toil : if she aids not, so 
much the less toil.^ 

(v) Solon of Athens 

I only call a life happy after its fated course is run. 
Let like mate with like ; the ill-matched never 
agree. True fame will never be in Chance's gift. 
Rebuke a kinsman privately, but praise him openly. 
'Tis fairer far to win nobility than to be born to it. If 
our lot is certainly decreed, what profit is it to guard 
against it ? Or if all is uncertain, what is the use of 
fear. 

(vi) Chilon of Lacedaemon 

I hate when one below me fears me, and one 
above me despises me. Live and forget not death, 
but also live and forget not safety : let courage or the 
support of friends conquer all your griefs. If you 

' i.e. because you can do notliiiig to withstand her. 

275 
T 2 



ALISON I US 

(juae bene facta accipias, perpetuo memento. U) 

strata senectus homiiii, quae parilis iuventae : 
ilia iuventa est gravior, quae similis senectae. 



(vii) Anacharsix Scythes 

Turpe quid ausurus te sine teste time. 

vita perit, mortis gloria non moritur. 

quod facturus eris, dicere distuleris. 4o 

crux est, si nietuas, vincere quod nequeas. 

cum vere obiui'ges, sic inimice iuvas : 

cum tklso laudes, tunc et amice noces. 

nil nimium. satis hoc, ne sit et hoc nimium. 



II. — De Rosis Nasckntibus 

Ver erat et blando mordenti a frigore sensu 

spirabat croceo mane revecta dies, 
strictior eoos praecesserat aura iugales 

aestiferum suadens anticipare diem, 
errabam riguis per quadrua compita in liortis 

maturo cupiens me vegetare die. 
vidi concretas per gramina flexa pruinas 

pendere aut holerum stare cacuminibus, 
caulibus et teretes patulis conludere guttas 



10 



vidi Paestano gaudere rosaria cultu 
exoriente novo roscida lucifero. 

rara pruinosis canebat gennna fVutectis 
ad primi radios interitura die. 



' The poem On the Seren Sa(/c.< (Peiper, i. viii.), a tr.anslatioii 
of Anth. Pal. ix. 366, is omitted as spurious, being found 



276 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

confer a benefit, never i-emember it ; if you receive 
one, never forget it. Old age may be sweet, if it be 
made like youth ; but youth is burdensome if it be 
like old age. 

(vii) Anacharsis of Scythia 

When you would perpetrate some deed of shame., 
fear yourself even without a witness. Life passes, 
but a glorious death can never die. Avoid speaking 
of what you plan to do. True torment is to fear 
what you cannot overcome. A just reproof is an 
unfriendly help, feigned praise a friendly injury. Do 
nothing to excess. That is enough ; or precept too 
Avill run to excess.^ 

II. — Ox BuDDiNci Roses 2 

'TwAs sjn-ing-time, and day brought back by saffron 
morn Avas breathing with a pleasing influence after 
the biting cold. A shrewder air had run before 
Dawn's coursers, moving me to forestall heat-bringing 
Day. I was straying along the paths dividing the 
well-watered garden-plots, seeking to drink in the 
freshness of day's prime. I saw the hoar-frost 
hanging caked upon the bending grass or resting on 
the tops of garden herbs, and round drops rolling 
together upon the cabbage-leaves .... I saw 
such rose-beds as Paestum cultivates smiling all dewy 
at the new-risen harbinger of light. Upon the 
frosted bushes a white pearl glimmered here and 
there, to perish at the earliest rays of day. 'Twere 

in no MS. and appearing first in the edition of Ugoletus, to 
whom it is probably due. 

2 This poem is sometimes attributed in MSS. to Virgil. 

277 



AUSONIUS 

ambigeres, raperetne rosis Aurora ruborem 15 

an daret et flores tingueret orta dies, 
ros unus, c*olor unus et unum mane duorum ; 

sideris et floris nam domina una Venus, 
f'orsan et unus odor : sed celsior ille per auras 

diffluit : expirat proximus iste niagis. 20 

communis Paphie dea sideris et dea floris 

praecipit unius muricis esse habitum. 
Momentum intererat, quo se nascentia floruni 

germina conparibus dividerent spatiis. 
haec viret angusto foHorum tecta galero. 2o 

banc tenui folio purpura rubra notat. 
liaec aperit primi fastigia celsa obe-lisci 

mucronem absolvens purpurei capitis, 
vertiee colleetos ilia exsinuabat amictus, 

iam meditans foliis se numerare suis : .•() 

nee mora : ridentis calathi patefecit honorem 

prodens inclusi semina densa croci. 
baec modo, quae toto rutilaverat igne coniarum 

pallida conlapsis deseritur foliis. 
mirabar celerem fugitiva aetate rapinam 35 

et, dum nascuntur, consenuisse rosas. 
ecce et defluxit rutili coma puniea floris, 

dum loquor, et tellus tecta rubore micat. 
tot species tantosque ortus variosque novatus 

una dies aperit, conficit ipsa dies. 40 

Conquerimur, Natura, brevis quod gratia talis : 

ostentata oculis illico dona rapis. 
quam longa una dies, aetas tam longa rosjuinn : 

cum pubescent! iuncta senecta brevis. 
278 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

hard to say whether Aurora were stealing blushes 
from the rose, or lending them and risen da}^ were 
dyeing the flowers. One is the dew, one the tint, 
one the morn of both ; for Venus is the one queen 
both of the morning-star and of the flower. Perchance, 
too, one is their fragrance ; but that is diffused on 
the breezes far above us, this, near at hand, breathes 
forth a sweetness more perceptible. The queen of 
Paphos, goddess of the star and flower alike, bids 
both be habited in one ruddy hue. 

-3 The time was just at hand for the teeming buds 
to split in equal segments. One is close capped 
with a covering of green leaves ; another flecks her 
narrow sheath with ruddy purple ; a third is oj)ening 
the tip of her tapering spire and freeing the point 
of her crimson head. Another was disengaging at 
her peak her furled array, already planning to take 
count of herself with her petals. Then on a sudden 
she has laid open the glories of her smiling calyx 
displaying the close-packed saffron seeds which lie 
within. Another, which but late had glowed with 
all the fires of her bloom, now fades, abandoned by 
her falling petals. I marvelled at the swift ruin 
wrought by the fleeting season, to see the roses all 
withered even while they bloom. See, even while I 
speak, a glowing flower has shed the ruddy honours 
of its head, and earth gleams carpeted with crimson. 
These many forms, these various births and changes, 
one day brings forth and the same day ends. 

^1 Nature, we grieve that such beauty is short- 
lived : once displayed to our eyes forthwith you 
snatch away your gifts. As long as is one day, so 
long is the life of the rose ; her brief youth and 
age go hand in hand. The flower which the bright 

279 



AUSONIUS 

quam niodo nasceiitem rutilus conspexit Eons, 45 
banc rediens sero vespere vidit anum. 

sed bene, quod paucis licet interitura diebiis 
succedens aevum prorogat ipsa suiim. 

colbge, virgo, rosas, dum flos novus et nova pubes, 
et menior esto aevum sic properave tuum. 50 

III. — Nomina Musarum 

Clio gesta caiiens transaetis tempora reddit. 
dulciloquis calamos Euterpe flatibus urguet. 
comica lascivo gaudet sermone Thalia. 
Melpomene tragico proclamat maesta boatu. 
Terpsichore att'ectus citharis movet, imperat, auget. 5 
plectra gerens Erato saltat pede carmine vultu. 
Urania motusque jioli scrutatur et astra. 
carmina Calliope libris heroica mandat. 
signat cuncta manu loquiturque Polymuia gestu. 
mentis Apollineae vis has movet undique Musas : 10 
ill medio residens complectitur omnia Phoebus. 

IV. — 1)e SiGNi-s Caelestiuis 

Ad Boreae partes Arctoe vertuntur et Anguis. 
post has Arctophylax pariterque Corona, genuque 
prolapsus, Lyra, Avis, Cepheus et Cassiopeia, 
Auriga et Perseus, Deltoton et Andromedae astrum, 
Pegasus et Delphin Tehniique, .Aquila .\nguite- 
nensque. 5 



APPENDIX TO AUSOXIl S 

Morning Star beheld just being born, that, returning 
with late evening, he sees a withered thing. But 'tis 
well ; for though in a few days the rose must die, 
she springs anew prolonging her own life. Then, 
maidens, gather roses, while blooms are fresh and 
youth is fresh, and be mindful that so your life-time 
hastes awav.^ 

III. — The Namks of the Muses 

Clio, singing of famous deeds, restores times past 
to life. Euterpe's breath fills the sweet-voiced 
flutes. Thalia rejoices in the loose speech of comedy. 
Melpomene cries aloud with the echoing voice of 
gloomy tragedy. Terpsichore Avith her lyre stirs, 
swells, and governs the emotions. Erato bearing 
the plectrum harmonises foot, song and voice in the 
dance. Urania examines the motions of the heaven 
and stars. Calliope commits heroic songs to writing. 
Polymnia expresses all things with her hands and 
speaks by gesture. The power of Apollo's will enlivens 
the whole circle of these Muses : Phoebus sits in their 
midst and in himself possesses all their gifts. 

IV. — On the Heavenly Signs 

Towards the realm of Boreas the two Bears and 
the Snake turn in the sky. Next come the Bear- 
warden and the Crown together, the Kneeling Man, 
the Lyre, the Bird, Cepheus and Cassiopeia, the 
Charioteer and Perseus, the Triangle and Andromeda's 
constellation, Pegasus and the Dolphin and the 
' Lines 45-50 inspired Herrick's stanza : — 
'■ feather ye rosebuds while ye may : 
Old Time is still a-flying, 
And this same flower, that smiles to-day, 
To-morrow will be dving." 

281 



AUSONIUS 

Signifer inde subest, bis sex et sidera complent 
hunc : Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, 
Libra, Scorpius, Arquitenens, Capricornus et urnani 
qui tenet, et Pisces, post sunt in partibus Austri 
Orion, Procyon, Lepus, ardens Sirius, Argo, 10 

Hydrus, Chiron, Turibulum quoque Piscis et ingens 
hinc sequitur Pistrix simul P2ridani(jue fiuenta. 



V. SULPICIA yUlililTLK UE StaTU RkIP. Kl 

Temporibus Domitiani * 

MusA, quibus numeris heroas et arma frequentas, 

t'abellam j)ermitte mihi detexere paucis ; 

nam tibi secessi tecum penetrale letractans 

consilium, quare nee carmine curro Phalaeco, 

nee trimetro iambo, nee qui pede fractus eodem 5 

fortiter irasci didicit duce Clazomenio. 

cetei'a quin etiam, quot deinceps milia lusi 

primaque Romanes docui contendere Grais 

et salibus variare novis, constanter omitto 

teque, quibus princeps et facundissima calles, 10 

adgredior : precibus descende clientis et audi. 

Die mihi, Calliope, quid iam pater ille deorum 
cogitat .'• an terras et patria saecula mutat 
quasque dedit quondam marcentibus eripit artes ? 

' A hendecasyllabic metre. 

- Hipponax of Ephesus (flm: 546-520 u.c.) invented the 
variety of iambic metre known as "scazon" (limping), in which 

282 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

Arrow, the Eagle and the Snake-holder. Below these 
comes the Zodiac which twelve constellations occupy: 
the Ram, the Bull, the Twins, the Crab, the Lion and 
the Virgin, the Scales, the Scorpion, the Archer, 
Capricornus, and He who holds the Water-Jar, and 
the Fishes. Next, in the Southern Hemisphere are 
found : Orion, Antecanis, the Hare with fiery Sirius, 
Argo and the Water-snake, Chiron, the Censer (Ara) 
also and the Great Fish. After these together follow 
the Whale and the streams of Eridanus. 

\'.— sulpicia complains of the coxoition of the 
State and of the Times of Domitian 

Muse, suffer me to weave in few words my tale, 
using those numbers wherewith thou celebratest 
heroes and deeds of war ; for 'tis for thee I have 
retired, with thee pondering my inward purpose. 
Wherefore my song trips not to the measure of 
Phalaecus,^ nor to the iambic trimeter, nor to that 
which, limping on the last foot, learned under the 
guidance of him of Clazomenae boldly to be angry ! " 
Nay, and all those other innumerable measures with 
which I have trifled, and wherein I first taught 
Romans to vie with Greeks and season their vei*se 
with an array of new flavours, I firmly pass by : thee 
I approach in that metre in which thou hast the chief 
and richest skill. 

^■^ Tell me. Calliope, what ponders now that Father 
of the Gods ? Is he changing the whole earth 
and ages past, and is he snatching from our drooping 
hands the arts which he once gave us? Is it his 

the last foot is a spondee ( — ) or trochee (-w) instead of an 
iambus (^ -). This metre he used with effect in writing 
lampoons. 

283 



AUSONIUS 

nosque iubet tacitos et iam rationis egentes, 15 

non aliter, primo quam cum surreximus arvo, 

glandibus et purae rursus procumbere lyrnphae ? 

an reliquas terras conservat amicus et urbes, 

sed genus Ausonium Rutulique extirpat alumnos ? 

quid? reputemus enim : duo sunt, quibus extulit ingens 

Roma caput, virtus belli et sapientia pacis. 21 

sed virtus, agitata domi et socialibus armis, 

in freta Sicaniae et Carthaginis exulat arces 

ceteraque imperia et totum simul abstulit orbem. 

deinde, velut stadio victor qui solus Achaeo 25 

languet et immota sensim virtute fatiscit, 

sic itidem Romana manus, contendei'e postquam 

destitit et pacem longis frenavit habenis. 

ipsa domi leges et Graia inventa retractans, 

omnia bellorum terra quaesita marique 30 

praemia consilio et molli ratione regebat : 

stabat in his (neque enim poterat constare sine istis) : 

liaut frustra auctori mendaxque Diespiter olim, 

" Imperium sine fine dedi " ^ dixisse probatur. 

Nunc igitur qui rex Romanos imperat inter, 35 
non trabe, sed tergo prolapsus et ingluvie albus, 
et studia et sapiens hominum nomenque genusque 
omnia abire foras atque urbe excedere iussit ? 
quid fugimus Graios hominumque reliquimus urbes, 
ut Romana foret magis his instructa magistris, 40 
iam (Capitohno veluti turbante Camillo 

» Virgil. Aeti. i, 279. 
284 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

will that speechless and bereft of reason, even as 
when first we rose up out of the soil, we feed on 
acorns and again lap up unmixed water? Or does 
he kindly keep all other lands and cities in their 
former state, but roots out the Roman race and the 
sons of Latium ? What ? Let us but reflect. Two 
things there are whereby mighty Rome raised up her 
head, valour in war and wisdom in peace. But valour, 
exercised at home and in our Social Wars, travelled 
abroad against the fleets of Sicily and the towers 
of Carthage, pulled down those other empires and 
seized upon tlie whole world at once. Then, as an 
unmatched athlete on the Olympic course grows 
feeble and with unstirred mettle declines gradually, 
even so the might of Rome after it ceased to strive, 
and gave loose rein to peace. She also, pondering at 
home her laws and the discoveries of Greece, used to 
govern the prizes won by her wars on land and sea 
with wisdom and the gentle rule of reason : on these 
she used to stand (for indeed without them she could 
not have stood whole). Surely it was no vain or lying 
word when to the father of our race Jupiter said of 
old : " I have given you an Empire without bounds." 
3^ Has he, then, who now reigns as king amongst 
the Romans, bestial and dead-white through gluttony, 
ordered learning and the whole name and race of 
our philosophers to get gone and leave the city } ' 
Why do we flee the Greeks and have left the cities 
of mankind that Rome might the better be sup- 
plied 2 with such teachers, if now (as the Gauls fled 
leaving the sword and scales when Camillus, the old 

^ Dom'itian expelled all the philosophers from Rome and 
Ital}-. cp. Suet. Dom. x. 
- i.e. b}' our absence, which gives the Greeks a free Held. 

285 



AUSONIIIS 

ensibiis ^ et trutina Galli I'ugere relictaj 

si nostri palare senes adiguntur et ipsi 

ut ferale suos onus exportare libellos ? 

ergo Numantinus Libycusque erravit in isto 45 

Scipio, qui Rhodio crevit formante niagistro, 

ceteraque ilia manus bello facunda secundo ? 

quos inter prisci sententia dia Catonis ^ 

scire adeo magni fecisset, utrumne secundis 

an magis adversis staret Romana propago. 50 

scilicet adversis ! nam, cum defendier armis 

suadet amor patriae et caritui'a penatibus uxor, 

convenit, ut vespis, quarum domus arce Monetae, 

turba rigens strictis per lutea corpora telis ; 

ast ubi res secura redit, oblita furorum 55 

plebs rectorque una somno moriuntur obeso : 

Romulidarum igitur longa et gravis exitiura pax. — 

Hie fabella modo pausam tacit, optima, posthac, 
Musa, velim moneas, sine qua mihi nulla voluptas 
vivere : uti quondam, dum Smyrna Byblisque peribat, 
nunc itidem migrare vacat. vel denique quidvis ()1 
ut dea quaere aliud : tantum Romana Caleno 
moenia iucundos pariterque averte Sabinos. 

Haec ego. turn paucis dea me dignarier infit : 

^ So j3/.§»S'. : censibus, Ptiper. " Ensibus"' is a jocular allusion 
to the sword which Breniius cast into the scale. 
* cp. Horace, Sat. i. ii. 32. , 



' An allusion to the well-known deliverance of the Capitol 
when besieged by Gauls under Brennus in 390 B.C. 

286 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

hero of the Capitol, routed them ^) our old sages are 
forced to go a-wandering and to carry out their own 
books like the deadly burden borne by criminals. '-^ 
Was Scipio, then, misguided in this, the hero of 
Numantia and Libya" who prospered under the 
guidance of a Rhodian director * ; and the others 
of that company who joined eloquence with success 
in war? And among these, how important would 
old Cato with his heaven-sent prudence have held it 
only to know whether the Roman race stood firmer in 
prosperity or in adversity. Surely in adversity ! For 
when love of country and fear that their wives may 
lose their homes moves them to defend themselves, 
they muster ; even as the wasps whose home is in 
Moneta's stronghold, a swarm formidable with un- 
sheathed weapons upon their yellow bodies ; but 
when security returns, the commons and their ruler 
alike forgetful of their rage perish in full-fed sleep. 
Therefore a long, heavy peace is the ruin of the sons 
of Romulus. 

^^ Here now my tale must rest. Hereafter, sweetest 
Muse, without whom I find no pleasure in life, I fain 
would hear thy grave warnings : even as of old, while 
Smyrna and Byblis were perishing, so now there is yet 
time to go into other lands. Or, as a goddess ma}', 
find any other plan : only keep Calenus ^ from the 
walls of Rome and from the pleasant Sabine land. 

^* Such was my prayer. Then first the goddess 

* i.e. the cioss. Or, possibly, "as though their books 
were some noxious load " (which needed to be got rid of). 

" sc. Scipio Afrioanus Minor, who took Carthage in 146 B.C. 
and Numantia in 133 e.c. 

■* Panaetius, the Stoic of Rhodes, the intimate friend of 
Scipio and Laelius. 

* Calenus was the husband of Sulpicia. 

287 



AUSONIUS 

'' Pone inetus aegros, cultrix mea : summa tyraiino 65 
haee instant odia et nosti-o periturus honore est. 
nam laureta Numae fontisque habitamus eosdeni, 
et comite Egeria ridemus inania coepta. 
vive, vale ! manet hunc pulchruin sua fania dolorem : 
Musarum spondet chorus et Romanus Apollo." 70 

VI. — In Puerum Formosum 

DuM dubitat natura, niarem feceretne puellam : 
factus es, o pulcher, paene puella, puer. 

Yll. — Dk Matre Augusti 

Ante omnes alias felix tamen hoc ego dicar, 
sive hominem peperi femina sive viruni. 

VIII.— Dinoxi 

Infeli.x Dido, nulli bene nupta niarito : 
hoc pereunte fugis, hoc fugiente peris. 

IX. — Ai> Amicam 

EccE rubes nee causa subest. me teste pudicus 
iste tuus culpam nescit habere rubor. 



288 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

vouchsafed me these few words : " Cast off your 
anxious fears, my devotee : hatred for these crowning 
offences threatens to overwhelm the tyrant, and he 
shall perish to expiate the slight he put upon me. 
For I dwell in the laurel groves that Numa haunted 
and by the same springs ; and, with Egeria for mv 
companion, I laugh to scorn such vain attempts. 
Long life and farewell I So noble a grief shall find 
the fame that is its due ; and this the choir of Muses 
and Roman Apollo pro)nise thee." 

VI. To A GRACEFUL BoY 

While Nature was in doubt whether to make a 
boy or girl, thou didst become almost a girl, my 
handsome boy. 

^ II. — On the Mother ok an Emperor 

Yet for this cause ^ I shall be called happy above all 
others, whether I, a woman, have borne a man or 
hero. 

VIII.— To Dido 

Ah ! luckless Dido, unhappy in both husbands : 
this, dying, caused thy flight ; that, fleeing, caused 
thy death. 

IX. — To A Mistress 

See, thou dost blush ; and yet there is no secret 
cause. I can bear witness that this modest blush of 

' sc. because I am mother of an Emperor, whatever his 
qualities may be. This couplet appears to be a fragment 
from the end of an epigram. 



AUSONIUS 

et vice populeae frondis treniis, et vice lunae 
puniceani maculant lutea signa cutem. 

amplexus etiam nostros pudibunda vecusas 
et, si testis adest, oscula sueta fugis. 

X 

CoNsuETUDO oculis nil sinit esse novum. 



290 



APPENDIX TO AUSONIUS 

thine is innocent of guilt. Now like a poplar-leaf 
thou tremblest, now like the moon pale marks dapple 
thy rosy cheeks. Shamefast, thou dost shun even 
my embrace, and if a witness is at hand, thou fleest 
my wonted kisses. 

X 

Cltstom suffers naught to be strange to the eye. 



2gi 
V 2 



PAULINUS PELLiEUS 

THE EUCHARISTICUS 



INTRODUCTION 



Thk Authoh 

The auLlior of the Kiirharislicus is in some sense an 
elusive pei'sonage ; for while the one surviving MS. 
states that the woi-k is by an unknown writer 
(incerti mictoris), the editio princeps attributes it to 
St. Paulinus of Nola. This ascription was almost 
certainly found in the MS. (now lost) used by the 
first editor; and though quite impossible^ as it stands, 
it has so far been taken seriously by modern scholars 
that the poem is ascribed, not to the Saint, but to 
some other person of the same name. 

Paulinus, as we may therefore call him, makes 
certain allusions to his relatives which show at any 
I'ate to what family he belonged. In 11. 26 ff. he 
refei's to his father as vicarius of Macedonia, and 
again (1. 3-5) as proconsul of Africa : further on 
(1. 48 f.) he mentions a visit to Bordeaux in the same 
year in which his grandfather was consul, and finally 
(1. 332) alludes to Bazas as the native place of his 
forefathers. The chronology of the author's life 
leaves no room for doubt that the grandfather was 
Decimus Magnus Ausonius, the poet-rhetorician, 
who was consul in 379 a.d. But here our certainty 
ends. Was Paulinus the son of Hesperius (as Brandes 

^ The history of the author is entirely different from the 
known history of Paulinus of Nola. 

295 



INTRODUCTION 

argues), or of a daughter of Ausonius by Thalassius,^ 
as Seeck and Peiper maintain ? The complete 
arguments on either side are too minute and too 
complicated to be summarised here ; nor, after all, 
is the question important. All that need be said 
is that the author's references to Gaulish estates 
inherited from his grandfather (jes avitae, II. 422, 570) 
and to others in Macedonia left by his mother 
(inalenii census, 1. 414) strongly favour Brandes' view 
that Paulinus was a son of Hesjierius by a Mace- 
donian wife. 

We may now turn to the life history of the author. 
He was born at Fella in Macedonia in .376 a.d. and 
carried to Carthage nine months later on his father's 
promotion to the Proconsulship of Africa (11. 24-33). 
After eighteen months in this province he was taken 
first to Rome and then to Bordeaux, which he reached 
in 379 A.D. (11. 34-49). Here his education began. 
After passing through the elementary stage, he was 
advanced to read Plato, Homer and Virgil ; though, 
being used to converse in Greek and almost ignorant 
of Latin, he found the last-named a trying author 
(11. 65-80). It is worthy of notice that at this early 
])eriod he had a boyish ambition to be set ajiart — 
apparently for the monastic life (11. 92 ff.). Just as 
he was beginning to take an interest in study and to 
show some promise, he was struck down by an ague. 
Doctors recommended exercise and amusement, with 
the result that horses, hounds and hunting took the 
place of books (11. 113 fF.). 

The youth, now rapidly growing up, next developed 
a love of finery and general magnificence, succeeded 

* If so, "Paulinus" is really the grandson Au.sonius of 
Epist. xxi.-xxii. (Above, pp. 68 fl. ) 

296 



INTRODUCTION 

by indulgence in other amusements which he fol- 
lowed with a stronger sense of caution than of 
morality (11. 140-175). Hereupon parents intervened 
with the remedy of a marriage of convenience. 
Paulinus gained a wife, for whom he shows scant 
affection, but found an outlet for his energies in 
restoring to order the neglected estate which was 
her portion (11. 176 ff.). The independent means 
thus acquired were laid out in forming a comfortable 
and luxurious establishment, and Paulinus bade fair 
to settle down to an indolent, if blameless, life 
(11. 202 ff.). 

But this period of ease came to an abrupt end. In 
406 A.D. his father died almost at the same time that 
the barbarians burst into the Roman Empire(ll. 226ff.). 
The attempts of his brother to upset his father's will 
was the first and least of his troubles (11. 248 ff.) : 
Bordeaux was occupied by the Visigoths, who sacked 
the city ere they evacuated it in 414 a.d. Paulinus, 
absent at the time, had failed to take the precaution 
which might have saved his property ; and conse- 
quently his house was given up to plunder (11. 271 ff., 
308 ff.). To make matters worse, the puppet- 
Emperor Priscus Attalus inflicted on him the empty 
but apparently burdensome title of Count of the 
Private Largesses. Driven from his home which was 
burned, Paulinus fled with his family to Bazas, only 
to be besieged in the town, where he narrowly 
escaped assassination (11. 328 ff.). His attempts to 
extricate himself had the unexpected result of 
ending the siege by detaching the Alans from their 
Gothic allies (11. 343 ff.). 

His position, however, was now diflficult. Hostile 
Goths and dishonest Romans had made away with 

297 



INTRODUCTION 

all, or nearly all, of his inherited property. Natur- 
ally he thought of removing to Macedonia, where 
his mother's estates remained intact, but was thwarted 
in this by his wife's obstinate refusal to make the 
voyage (11. 404 ff., 480 ff., 494). 

Probably it was in desperation at his difficulties 
that Paulinas sought to abandon the world (and his 
family) by becoming a monk (11. 4o5 ff.) ; but from 
this purpose he was deterred by the advice of certain 
"holy men." A course of penance was imposed 
upon him, and at Easter, 421 A.n., he felt fitted to 
receive the Communion (11. 464-478). 

As years passed by, his position grew worse and 
worse ; his mother-in-law, mother, and wife (of 
whom he speaks with some bitterness) died one 
after another ; his sons left him to make their way 
at Bordeaux, where they too died (11. 492-515). 
His means, too, were now so small that he retired 
to Marseilles and there endeavoured to make a 
livelihood by working a very small property which 
he owned there. But this effort also failed and 
he returned to Bordeaux to live, apparently, in 
dependence (11. 520 ff.). 

But at length his continuous ill-fortune was re- 
lieved. His estate at Marseilles, though somehow 
embarrassed, was purchased by an unknown Goth 
who paid, if not the fair price, yet a sum sufficient 
to make him independent once more (11. 575 ff.). It 
is evident that Paulinas expects that the proceeds 
will suffice to support his remaining years; and we 
may therefore take it that the transaction was carried 
out not long before the Eucharisticiis was written, 
and that it was the last incident of importance in 
this stranjre life. 



INTRODUCTION 

The poem was composed when the author was in 
his eighty-third year (11. 12-14:), i.e. in 459 a.d. : in 
the nature of things his death must have followed 
not long after that date. 

The EucHARiSTicns as Literature 

Paulinus openly avows that his purpose in writing 
the Eucharisticus is to show how his whole life had 
been ordered and directed by Providence, and 
thereby in some measure to return thanks for such 
guidance. He is careful to disclaim both literary 
merit and literary ambition. And indeed in any 
strictly literary sense the value of the poem must be 
regarded as slight. 

It is probable that the nature of his subject — 
reflexions upon times long gone by — induced him 
to adopt a slow and deliberate style. Yet even 
if this is so, it cannot excuse the long and laboured 
periods in which he unfolds his experiences. In 
the tangle of absolute, temporal, and relative 
clauses, complicated by parentheses and conditions, 
the reader is often hard put to it to follow the 
trend of the author's thought ; sometimes (as in 
II. 1-19-153) a main verb is altogether lacking. A 
certain almost wilful ponderousness of expression 
(as in 11. 458 f. : " qui sibi servari consuetam indi- 
cere curam | posse viderentur "), and a habit of 
introducing sentence after sentence with a relative 
(11. 81, 85, 92) only increase the monotonous effect. 
It is not that Paulinus scorns any form of literary 
refinement and embellishment. He imitates such 
authors as were known to him — Virgil among the 
ancients, and Ausonius, Paulinus of Nola, Juvencus,- 

299 



INTRODUCTION 

Sedulius among the moderns. Moreover, as became 
a grandson of Ausonius, lie was by no means in- 
different to rhetorical and verbal effects, indulging 
largely in such antitheses as : " effectum . . . pro- 
fectum " (1. 6), or " officeret . . . succedente . . . ce- 
dente . . . sufficeret " (11. 137-14U). The note struck 
by one word is frequently repeated with some 
variation further on (as in 11. 4 f . : " placidus . . . 
|)lacita," or in 432-4 " complacuit . . . placatum "). 
Alliteration also was frequently though not regularlv 
brought into play ; thus in 11. 182 ff. we have 
'' possessa placeret | ad praesens posset" followed 
by " dudum desidia domini " ; in 1. 209 " pretio 
quam pondere praestans " ; in 1. 149 " vegetus veloci 
currere vectus ] equo." Sometimes, but more rarely, 
he indulges in such plays as " ponere finem | nescis 
et ignaris solis succurrere nosti " (1. 445). 

Of the metrical and rhythmic aspects of the 
Eucharisticus no adequate account can here be 
given. 1 Licences such as status (1. 194, genitive) 
and compertd (1. 197, ablative) may be due to the 
changes which Latin had undergone and was undei-- 
going ; but it is evident that Paulinus used the 
hexameter as a purely conventional mould into 
which his words were to be forced. As a result, his 
verses move as regardless of rhythm as a slow train 
over an ill-laid line. 

But though we must deny to Paulinus literarv 
precision, technical ease and grace,"^ his work pre- 
sents certain aspects which must not be ignoi-ed. 

' On this see the Prolegomena toBrandes' edition, § iii. 

* As Brandes observes, many of the blemishes in this 
work may be due to the interruption of the author's training 
ere he had attained an adequate knowledge of Latin. 

300 



INTRODUCTION 

Consciously or unconsciously he chose a subject which 
has something of the unity and regular development 
of a Greek tragedy. The varying phases of the first 
half of the author's life unfold themselves in an 
atmosphere of almost insolent prosperity seeming 
to invite the catastrophe or " reversal of fortune " 
which forms the central point. Misfortune after 
misfoi'tuiie follows until it seems likely that the 
"hero" will be overwhelmed; only towards the 
close is the picture brightened (as in the Samson 
Agonisles) by some measure of consolation. Here, 
moreover, as in Milton's drama, the pervading idea 
of continuous divine direction is an additional bond 
of unity. And lastly, if we seek for individual 
})assages, most will admit that the conclusion at 
least (11. 590 ff.) has a solemn and majestic dignity 
of its own. Paulinus lacks literary craftsmanship, but 
he has, what many literary craftsmen lack, sincerity 
and real experience of what he describes ; his poem, 
though essentially religious, is quite pure of the 
mendacious assumption of emotions never experi- 
enced which poisons so man}- "religious poems." 

HisTORic.M, Value ok the Poem 

When all allowance has been made, we must still 
admit that it is as an historical document that 
the Euc/iaristinis deserves to be read. Even here it 
is not the few concrete facts recorded (the sack of 
Bordeaux, the siege of Bazas and the like) which 
are chiefly important. The phrases "barbarian in- 
vasion," "collapse of the Roman power," and such 
like mean little unless their implication is under- 
stood ; and the Eucharisticus does indeed reveal in 
a single instance what these events implied for 

301 



INTRODUCTION 

thousands of happy and jirosperous homes. First 
the free, gay and luxurious life of the well-to-do 
is depicted ; then the storm breaks, and 

apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto. 

The surviving unfortunates struggle on for a time, 
catching at expedient after expedient, but always 
sinking deeper. If in the end certain of them found 
some ark of safety, they might well see in their 
preservation a token of divine mercy. 

Nor is the poem unimportant for social and moral 
history. The author's account of his youth and 
early manhood well illustrates the life led by a 
young provincial squire — set upon having the best 
that money could buy in the way of horses, hounds, 
and the like ; fond of hunting and a gallop across 
country, and withal, careful to be in the latest 
fashion. One passage at least (11. 160 fF.) is a 
remarkable commentary on ancient slaverj' aTid the 
curious moral distinctions based upon it. 

MS.S. AND Editions of the Poem 

Only two MSS. of the Knchaiisiicus are known to 
have survived into modern times: (1) An MS. (P) 
used by the first editor. Of the earlier and later 
history of this, nothing is known. (2) A ninth-cen- 
tury MS. (^B), now at Berne (No. 317), and showing 
corrections by three subsequent hands (distinguished 
as B--B^). Both MSS. were derived from a single 
archetype. 

The following have published editions of the 
Enchansticus : — 

(1) Marguarinus de la Bigne, in BihUolkeca Sanc- 
torum Patritm, Appendix (Vol. III.), Paris, 1579 
{Edilio Princeps). 
302 



INTRODUCTION 

(2) Caspar Barth, Animadversiones, Frankfurt, 1624 
(republished with considerable augmentations and 
an emended text (pp. 150 ff.) in Christian Daum's 
Paidinus Petricorius, Leipzig, 1681). 

(3) Colledio Pisaitretms, Vol. VI. (Pisauri, 1766). 

(4) Ludovicus Leipziger, Paii/ini Carmen Euchar- 
usticum, Wratislau, 1858. 

(5) VVilhelm Brandes, in Poetae Ckrisliani Minores, 
Pars I., Vienna, 1888. (^Corpus Srriptonun Ecclesias- 
ticoriim Lalinoruni, Vol. XXVI.) 

The text of the present edition is that of Brandes 
with a few negligible changes in punctuation. 

There appears to be no English translation of the 
poem, and none in a foreign language is known to 
me. In the present version, intended as it is to 
stand side by side with the original, I have judged 
it better for the most part not to attempt to break 
Op the author's long sentences. However desirable 
that process may be, it is calculated to perplex the 
reader who desires help in following the original 
rather than an independent version. 



303 



SANCTl PAULINP ETXAPISTIKON 

Praefatio 

(1) Scio quosdam inlustrium viroruin pro suaruni 
splendore virtutuni ad perpetuandani suae gloriae 
dignitatem ephemeridem gestorum suorum propi-io 
sermone consei'iptam memoriae tradidisse. a quo- 
rum me praestantissimis meritis tarn longe profecto 
quam ipsa temporis antiquitate discretum non utiqiie 
ratio aequa consilii ad contexendum eiusdem prope 
materiae opusculuin provocavit, cum mihi neque ulla 
sint gesta tam splendida, de quibus aliquam possini 
captare gloriolam, nee eloquii tanta fiducia ut facile 
audeam cuiusquam opera scriptoris aemulari, (2) sed, 
quod non piget confiteri, iamdudum me in peregri- 
natione diuturna aerumnosi otii maerorc marcescen- 
tem misericordia, ut confido, divina ad luiiusmodi me 
solacia afFectanda pellexit, quae simul et bene sibi 
consciae senectuti et religioso proposito convenirent 
— ut, qui me scilicet totam vitam meam deo debere 
meminissem, totius quoque vitae meae actus ipsius 
devotos obsequiis exhiberem eiusdemque gratia con- 
cessa mihi tempora reeensendo eucharisticon ipsi 
opusculum sub ephemeridis meae relatione contexe- 
rem, (3) sciens profecto et benignae ipsius miseri- 

' P : Incerti auctoris EuxapitrTiK6s, B^' ••. 
304 



THE THANKSGIVING OF 
ST. PAULINUS 

The PriEFACE 

I KNOW that among famous men there have 
been some who, in right of their briUiant qualities 
and to immortalise the eminence of their renown, 
have handed down to posterity a memoir of their 
doings compiled in their own words. Since I am of 
course as far removed from these in their outstanding 
worth as in point of time, it is certainly no similar 
reason and design which has induced me to put 
together a little work almost identical in subject ; 
for I have neither any such brilliant achievements 
whereby 1 might hope to snatch some little gleam 
of fame, nor so great a confidence in my powers of 
expression as lightly to dare to challenge the work 
of any author. But — I am not ashamed to avow it — 
I, who in my lengthy pilgrimage have long languished 
in the misery of care-fraught idleness, have been led 
on, as I surely believe, by divine mercy to seek such 
consolations as befitted alike a good conscience in 
old age and a devout purpose ; I mean that I, who 
indeed felt that I owed my whole life to God, 
should show that my whole life's doings also have 
been subject to his direction ; and that, by telling 
over the seasons granted me by his same grace, I 
should form a little work, a Thmiksgiving to him, in 
the guise of a narrative memoir. For I know indeed 
botli that the care of his kindly mercy was about 



PA ULIN us PFXL.EUS 

cordiae circa me fuisse, quod indultis humano generi 
temporariis voluptatibus etiam ipse prima mea aetate 
non carui, et in hac quoque parte curam mihi provi- 
dentiae ipsius profuisse, quod me udsiduis adversi- 
trttibus moderanter exercens evidenter instruxit nee 
inpensius me praesentem beatitudinem debere dili- 
gere quam amittere posse me scirem, nee adversis 
magnopere terreri, in quibus subvenire mihi posse 
misericordias ipsius adprobassem. 

(4) Proinde si quando hoc opusculum meum in 
cuiusquam manus venerit, ex ipso libelH titulo prae- 
notato evidenter debet advertere me hane medita- 
tiunculam meam, quam omnipotenti deo dedico, otio 
meo potius quam alieno negotio praestitisse, magis- 
que id meorum esse votorum, ut hoc qualecumque 
obsequium meum acceptum deo sit, quam ut carmen 
incultum ad notitiam perveniat doctiorum. (5) At- 
tamen si cui forsitan magis curioso tantum otii ab re 
sua fuerit, ut laboriosum vitae meae ordinem velit 
agnoscere, exoratum eum cupio ut, sive aliquid seu 
torsitan nihil in gestis vel in versibus meis quod 
possit probare rej)pererit, ea tamen ipsa quae ele- 
gerit oblivioni potius inculcanda deleget quam 
memoriae diiudicanda commendtt. 



€YXAPICTIK0C Deo sun EpHKMRiunis meaf 
I'extu. 

Ekarhaiie parans annorum lapsa meorum 
tt-mpora et in seriem deducere gesta dieruni 
ambigua exactos vit.ie (juos sorte cucurri. 

306 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

me, because in my early life I lacked not even the 
fleeting pleasures natural to mankind ; and that in 
this part of it also the care of his providence has been 
before me, because, while reasonably chastening me 
with continual misfortunes, he has clearly taught me 
that 1 ought neither to love too earnestly present 
prosperity which I knew I might lose, nor to be 
greatly dismayed by adversities wherein 1 had found 
that his mercies could succour me. 

Therefore, if ever this little work of mine should 
come into the hands of any, from the very title 
prefixed to the book he ought clearly to understand 
that this my little musing, which 1 consecrate to 
God Almighty, is a gift to my leisure, rather than to 
another's pleasure ; and that my prayer is rather that 
this my service, such as it is, may be accepted by 
God, than that my uncouth poem should win its wa}' 
to the attention of the learned. Nevertheless, if 
someone perchance more inquisitive than ordinary 
should have so much leisure from his own affairs 
as to seek to learn the toilsome progress of my life, 1 
wish to beg him— whether he find anything, or perhaps 
nothing, in my doings or in my verses which he can 
praise — yet to elect for the trampling of oblivion 
those very features whicli he has selected, rather 
than to commend them to the discernment of 
posterity. 

A Thanksgiving to God in thk Form of mv 
Memoirs 

Now as I make ready to tell o'er the bygone 
seasons of my years and to trace out the succession 
of past days through whicli I have sped with 

307 



PAULINUS PELL^.US 

te, deus omnipotens, placidus mihi, deprecor, adsis 

adspiransque operi placita tibi coepta secundes, 5 

effectum scriptis tribuens votisqiu- profectum, 

lit tua te merear percurrere dona iuvante. 

Omnia namque meae tibi debeo tempora vitae, 

auram ex quo prinium vitalis luminis hausi, 

inter et adversas iactatus saepe procellas 10 

instabilis mundi te protectore seneseens 

altera ab undecima annorum currente meonim 

hebdomade sex aestivi flagrantia soHs 

solstitia et totidem bnimae iani frigora vidi 

te donante^ deus, lapsi qui temporis annos IH 

instaurando novas cursu revolubilis aevi. 

Sit mihi fas igitur versu tua dona canentem 

pangere et expressas verbis quoque pendere grates, 

quas equidem et clausas scimus tibi corde patere, 

ultro sed abrumpens tacitae penetralia mentis 20 

fontem exundantis voti vox conscia pi'odit. 

Tu mihi lactanti vires in corpore inerti 
ad toleranda viae j)elagique incerta dedisti, 
editus ut Pellis inter cunabula quondam 
regis Alexandri prope moenia Thessaloniees '2^ 

patre gerente vices inlustris praefecturae, 
orbis ad alterius disci'etas aequore terras 
j)erveherer trepidis nutricum creditus ulnis, 
ninguida perque iuga et sectas torrentibus Alpes 



> Literally "success to my writings and fulfilment to my 
prayers"; but it is desirable to reproduce the play oil 
ejfectimi . . . profrctum. 

308 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

changeful fortunes, thee I implore, Almight}' God, 
favourably to be nigh me and, breathing on my 
work, to prosper a design favoured by thee, in 
granting me sustainment in my task, attainment in 
my prayers,^ thai by thy aid I may be worthy to run 
o'er the list of thy gifts. For all the seasons of my 
life I owe to thee ever since I drew in the breath of 
enlivening light, and, though oft tossed amid the 
storms of this inconstant world, under thy protection 
I grow old and in the course of my twelfth hebdomad 
of years have now seen six scorching solstices of the 
summer sun and as many winters' frosts — this 
through thy gift, O God, who venewest the years of 
bygone time in repairing the course of the circling 
Ages.2 Be it permitted me, therefore, singing to re- 
cord thy gifts in verse, and in setting forth of words 
also to pay thanks which, indeed, even when shut 
Avithin the heart, we know are open to thee, but the 
fraught voice unbidden breaks through the barriers 
of the silent mind and reveals a fount of out-gushing 
prayer. 

Thou in my infancy didst give my helpless frame 
strength to endure the hazards of travel by land and 
sea, that I — born at Pella, the nursery of King 
Alexander of old, near Salonika's walls, where mv 
father was vicegerent '^ of the illustrious Prefect — 
might be conveyed to the shores of another world, 
cut off by sea, entrusted to my nurses' trembling- 
arms, and so across snowy ridges and toi-rent-riven 
ranges, across the main and the waves of the 

- The reference is to the cycle of ages : cp. Virgil, Kc/. 
iv. 5. 

' i.e. Vicariiis (deputy of the Prefect) of Macedonia. But 
possibly the rendering may be merely " performed the 
functions of the illustrious Prefect." 



PAULINOS PELL.i:US 

Oceanumque fretum Tyrrheiii et gurgitis undas 30 

moenia Sidoniae Carthaginis usque venirem, 

ante suum nouo quam menstrua luna recursu 

luce novata orbem nostro compleret ah ortu. 

lUic, ut didici, ter senis mensibus aetis 

sub genitore nieo proconsule rursus ad aecjuor 35 

expertasque vias revocor, visurus et orbis 

inclita culminibus praeclarae moenia Romae : 

quae tamen liaud etiam sensu agnoscenda tuentis 

subiacuere milii, sed post eomperta relatu 

adsiduo illorum quibus haec tarn nota fuere, 40 

propositum servans operis subdenda putavi. 

Tandem autem exacto longarum fine viarum 
maiorum in patriam tectisque adve(;tus avitis 
Burdigalam veni, cuius speciosa Garunma 
moenibus Oceani refluas maris invehit undas 4r) 

navigeram per portam, quae portum s})atiosun) 
nunc etiam muris spatiosa includit in urbe. 
Tunc et avus primum illic fit mihi cognitus, anni 
eiusdem consul, nostra trieteride prima. 
Quae postquam est expleta mihi firmavit et artus oO 
invalidos crescens vigor et mens conscia seusus 
adsuefacta usum didicit cognoscere rerum — 
quidquid iam . . .^ potui meminisse, necesse est 
ipse fide propria de me agnoscenda retexam. 

Sed quid ego ex nostris aliud puerilibus annis, 5') 
quos mihi libertas ludusque et laetior aetas 
conciliare suis meritis potuisse videntur, 

' A word in lost. 
310 



THE KUCHARLSTICUS 

Tyrrhenian flood, might come to the far walls of 
Sidonian Carthage, ere yet the monthly moon in 
her ninth orbit since my birth filled her disk with 
renewed light. There, as I have learned, when 
thrice six months were passed under the proconsul- 
ship of my father, I was called back again to the sea 
and paths already tried, soon also to behold the famed 
bulwarks of all-glorious Rome on the world's heights.^ 
All this which passed befoi-e me, though not even to 
be comprehended by my sense of sight but later 
learned through the careful report of those to whom 
these matters were well known, I have deemed 
worthy of mention in accordance with the purpose 
of my work. 

But at length, the end of my long journeying 
reached, I was borne into the land of my forefathers 
and to my grandfather's house, coming to Bordeaux 
where beauteous Garonne draws Ocean's tidal waves 
within the walls through a ship-traversed portal 
which even now enfolds a roomy port within the 
roomy city's barriers. Then also my grandfather, 
consul in that same year, was there first known to 
me in my first triennium. And after this period was 
outgrown, and when waxing power strengthened my 
feeble limbs and my mind, aware of its faculties, 
learned through wont to know the properties of 
things— so far as now ... I can remember, I myself 
with due truth must needs narrate what is to be 
known concerning me. 

But what else in my boyish years, which free- 
dom, play, and blithesome youth seemed to have been 
able to commend to me by their own virtues, shall I 

' i.e. "on the heights which dominate the world." But 
the expression is very obscure. 



PAULINUS PELL.4-:US 

\ el magis ipse libens recolam, vel dignius ausim 
inserere huic nostro, quern vei-su cudo, libello 
quam pietatis opus studiumque insigne parentum 60 
permixtis semper docta exercere perituni 
blanditiis gnaramque apto nioderamine curani 
insinuare mihi inorum instrumenta bonorum 
ingenioque rudi celerem conferre profectuni — 
ipsius alphabet! inter prope j)rinia elementa 65 

nosse cavere decern specialia signa amathiae 
nee minus et vitia vitare aKoivovorjTa ? 
Quarum iam duduni nullus vigeat licet usus 
disciplinarum^ vitiato scilicet aevo, 
me Romana tamen^ fateor, servata vetustas 70 

plus iuvat atque seni propria est acceptior aetas. 

Nee sero exacto primi mox tempore lustri 
dogmata Socratus et bellica plasmata Homeri 
erroresque legens cognoscere cogor Ulixis. 
Protinus et libros etiam transire Maronis 75 

vix bene conperto iubeor sermone Latino, 
conloquio Graiorum adsuefactus famulorum, 
quos mihi iam longus ludorum iunxerat usus ; 
unde labor puero, fateor, fuit hie mihi maior, 
eloquium librorum ignotae apprehendere linguae. 80 

Quae doctrina duplex sicut est potioribus apta 
ingeniis geminoque ornat splendore peritos, 
sic sterilis nimium nostri, ut modo sentio, cordis 
exilem facile exhausit divisio venam. 
Quodinnic invito quoquemehaec mea pagina prodit,85 
inconsulta quidem, quam sponte expono legendam, 
sed mihi non rebus, quantum confido. pudenda, 
quarum notitiam scriptis contexere conor : 
namque ita me sollers castorum cura parentum 
a puero instituit, laedi ne quando sinistro 90 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

more gladly dwell u})on or more fitly dare to set in 
this little book which I fashion in verse, than affec- 
tion's work and my parents' noble pains, skilled to 
season learning with mingled enticements, and their 
wise care, exercising due control, to instil into me the 
means of good living and on my untrained mind to 
bestow speedy development — almost along with my 
first steps in the alphabet itself to learn to shun the 
ten special marks of ignorance and equally to avoid 
vices anathematised r And albeit this discipline has 
long since fallen out of use through the corruption, 
doubtless, of the age, yet, I declare, the antique 
Roman fashion 1 observed delights me more, and the 
life natural to an old man is more tolerable therefor. 

Full early, when the days of my first lustrum 
were well-nigh spent, I was made to con and learn 
the doctrines of Socrates, Homer's wai'like fantasies, 
and Ulysses' wanderings. And forthwith I was 
bidden to traverse Maro's works as well, ere I well 
understood the Latin tongue, used as I was to the 
converse of Greek servants with whom long pui'suit 
of pla}' had made me intimate ; whereby, I affirm, 
this was too heavy a task for me, a boy, to grasp the 
eloquence of works in an unknown tongue. 

This double learning, as it is suited to more 
powerful minds and decks those skilled in it with 
a two-fold radiance, so its wide range soon drained 
dry the vein of my mind — too barren, as I now 
understand. So much now even despite me this 
my page reveals — a page ill-judged, indeed, which 
I unasked set forth to be read, yet, as I hope, not 
disgracing me in the matters whereof I seek to form 
a written record ; for so my chaste parents careful 
taught me from my boyhood, lest some day the 

313 



PAULINUS PELL.EUS 

cuiusquani sermone mea se fama tinieret. 

Quae licet obtineat propriiim bene parta decoreni, 

hac potiore tamen turn nie decorasset hoiiore, 

consona si nostris primo sub tempore votis 

hac in parte etiam mansissent vota parentum, 95 

perpetuQ^ ut pueruni servarent me tibi, Christe, 

rectius banc curam pro me pietatis babentes, 

earnis ut inlecebris breviter praesentibus expers 

aeternos caperem venture in tempore fructus. 

Sed quoniam nunc iam magis hoc me credere fas est lOU 

conduxisse mihi, quod te voluisse probasti, 

omnipotens aeterne deus, qui cuncta gubernas^ 

culpato renovando mihi vital ia dona, 

hoc nunc maiores pro me tibi debeo grates, 

maiorum quanto erroruni cognosco reatum. 10") 

Namque et, incautus quidquid culpabile gessi 

inlicitumque vagus per lubrica tempora vitae, 

te indulgente mihi totum scio posse remitti 

ex quo me reprobans lapsum ad tua iura refugi, 

et, si ulla unquam potui peccata cavere, 110 

quae mihi maiorem parerent commissa reatum, 

hoc quoque me indeptum divino munere novi. 

Sed redeo ad seriem decursaque illius aevi 
tempora, (juo studiis intentus litteraturae 
ultro libens aliquem iam me mihi ipse videbar 1 15 
votivum inpensi operis sentire profectum, 
Argolico pariter Latioque instante magistro, 
cepissemque etiam forsan fructum quoque dignum, 
ni subito incumbens quarterna acerba meorum 
conatus placitos studiorum destituisset 120 

vix impleta aevi quinta trieteride nostri. 
Consternata autem pro me pietate parentum. 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

malignant tongue of any man might endanger my 
repute. And though this repute, well earned, still 
keeps the lustre due to it, yet with this higher 
grace would it then have adorned me, if with my 
hopes in early life my parents' hopes had continued 
to agree in this respect, namely, that forever they 
should keep me as thy child, O Christ, moi'e rightly 
making this the aim of their love for me — that by 
brief sacrifice of the present joys of the flesh 1 
might win endless reward in the world to come. 
But — since I now am bound to believe that this has 
more profited me which thou, O God, almiglity, 
everlasting, hast shown to have been thy will by 
renewing to me, though sinful, thy gifts of life — so 
much the greater thanks I now owe thee on my behalf, 
as I perceive the greater guilt of my transgressions. 
For both I know that — whatever deed blameworthy 
or act unlawful I have unwarily committed, straying 
through life's treacherous seasons — thou in thy 
mercy canst wholly forgive, ever since scorning my 
fallen self I fled back to thy obedience ; and, if ever 
I have been able to shun any sins which, committed, 
would bring me greater guilt, this too I feel that I 
have gained through Heaven's bounty. 

But I return to my course and to the seasons I 
passed through at the time when, wrapt in study 
and in learning, I gladly fancied to myself that 
already I felt some of the desired outcome of my 
pains lavished under the constant care of Greek and 
Latin tutors both, and I should also have gained, 
perchance, a meet return, had not a sharp quartan 
fever, suddenly falling upon me, defrauded my 
willing eflbrts in learning, when the fifth triad of 
my life was scarce completed. But when my 
parents' love for me was stricken with alarm at this 



PAULINUS PELL.^US 

quippe quibus potior visa est curatio iiostri 
corporis invalidi quani doctae instructio linguae, 
primitus hoc medicis suadentibus, ut inihi iugis \2') 
laetitia atque animo grata omnia perspicerentur ; 
quae pater in tantum studuit per se ipse })arare, 
deposits ut nuper venandi attentius usu — 
causa equideni sola studioruni c|ui})pe meoruui, 
neve his ofliceret, sibi me ad sua ludicra iungens, 130 
neu sine me placitis umquam solus frueretur — 
me propter rui'sus cura maiore resumens 
eiusdem ludi cuncta instrumenta novaret, 
ex quibus optatam possem captare salutem. 
Quae protracta diu longi per temjiora niorbi loO 

invexere mihi iugem iam deinde legendi 
desidiam, oflficeret durans quae postea sano 
succedente novo mundi fallacis amore 
et tenero nimium affectu cedente parentum. 
sufficeret quibus ex nostra gaudere salute. 1 40 

Qua ratione auctus noster quoque crevit et error, 
rtrmatus facile ad iuvenalia vota sequenda, 
ut mihi pulcher equus falerisque ornatior esset, 
strator procerus, velox canis et speciosus 
accipiter, Romana et nuper ab urbe petita 14") 

aurata instrueret nostrum sphaera concita ludum, 
cultior utque mihi vestis foret et nova saepe 
(juaeque Arabi muris leni fragraret odore. 
Nee minus et vegetus veloci currere vectus 
semper equo gaudens quotiens evasero casus 150 

abruptos, recolens — Christi me munere fas est 
credere servatum, quod tum nescisse dolendum est, 
scilicet inlecebris urgentibus undique mundi. 
316 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

— seeing they deemed more urgent the recovery of 
my enfeebled body than the training of my tongue 
in eloquence, and as physicians from the first advised 
that continual gaiety and amusement should be 
devised for me — my father was so eager by his own 
efforts to secure this end that, though of late he 
had laid by his wont of hunting zealously ('twas 
indeed for my studies' sake alone, that he might 
not hinder them by making me the companion of 
his pastimes, nor without me ever enjoy his 
delight alone), on my account he returned to it 
with greater interest, renewing all means this 
sport affords, in hope that thereby I might 
woo health. These pursuits, long continued during 
the slow period of my sickness, caused in me 
a distaste for study, thenceforward chronic, which 
persisting afterwards in time of health, harmed me 
when love of the false world made way and the too 
pliant fondness of my parents gave way, charmed 
with delight at my recovery. 

Wherefore, as my growth, so my waywardness 
increased, readily settling down to the pursuit of 
youthful desires — as to have a fine horse bedecked 
with special trappings, a tall groom, a swift hound, 
a shapely hawk, a tinselled ball, fresh brought from 
Rome, to serve me in my games of pitching, to 
wear the height of fashion, and to have each latest 
novelty perfumed with sweet-smelling myrrh of 
Araby. Likewise when 1 recall how, grown robust, 
I ever loved to gallop riding a racing steed, and how 
many a headlong fall I escaped, 'tis right I should 
believe I was preserved by Christ's mercy ; and pity 
'tis that then I knew it not by reason of the world's 
thronging enticements. 

317 



PAULINUS PELL^EUS 

Quas inter fluitans interque et vota parentum 
iugiter in nostram tendentia posteritatem, 155 

iani prope sero calens aevi pro tempore nostri 
in nova prorupi iuvenalis gaudia luxus, 
quae facile ante puer rebar me posse cavere. 
Attamen in quantum lasciva licentia eauto 
stricta coherceri j)otuit moderamine freni, 1 00 

congererem graviora meis ne crimina culpis, 
hac mea castigans lege incentiva repressi ; 
invitam ne quando ullam iurisve alieni 
adjieterem carumque memor servare pudorem 
cedere et ingenuis oblatis sponte caverem, 1G5 

contentus domus inlecebris famulantibus uti, 
quippe reus culpae potius quam criminis esse 
praeponens famaeque timens incurrere damna. 
Sed neque hoc etiam mea inter gesta silebo^ 
unum me nosse ex me illo in tempore natum, 170 
visum autem neque ilium turn, quia est cito functus, 
nee queniquam, fuerit spurius post qui mens, umquam 
cum mihi lascivae inlecebris sociata iuventae 
libertas gravius quisset dominando nocere, 
ni tibi, Christe, mei iam tunc quoque cura fuisset. 1 75 

Talis vita mihi a ter senis circiter annis 
usque duo durans impleta decennia mansit 
donee me invitum, fateor, pia cura parentum 
cogeret invectum blanda suetudine ritum 
deserere atque novum compelleret esse maritum 180 
coniugis, antique) potius cuius domus esset 
nouunc magiiifica. quam (piae possessa placere 



i8 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

As I was wavering betwixt such interests and 
my parents' wishes which were set constantly upon 
the renewal of their line through me, at length, 
late for my time of life, I felt new fires and broke 
out into the pleasui*es of youthful wantonness whicli, 
as a boy, 1 used to think I could easily avoid. How- 
beit, so far as wilful wantonness could be curbed and 
bridled with prudent restraint, lest I should heap 
heavier offences on my faults, I checked my passions 
with this chastening rule : that I should never seek 
an unwilling victim, nor transgress another s rights, 
and, heedful to keep unstained my cherished 
reputation, should beware of yielding to free-born 
loves though voluntarily offered, but be satisfied with 
servile amours in my own home ; for I preferred to 
be guilty of a fault rather than of an offence,^ fear- 
ing to suffer loss of my good name. Yet even this 
also among my doings 1 will confess : one son I know 
was born to me at that time — though neither he 
then (since he soon died), nor any bastard of mine 
afterwards, Avas ever seen by me — when freedom, 
allied with lusty youth's allurements, might by gain- 
ing mastery have more gravely harmed me, hadst 
not thou, () Christ, even then had care for me. 

Such was the life I led from about my eighteenth 
year, and so continued until my second decade's 
close, when my parent's anxious care forced me, 
unwillingl)-, I admit, to give up this state, grown 
easy through soft custom, and drove me by way of 
change to mate with a wife, whose pvo{)erty was rather 
glorious for its ancient name than for the present 
a portion potent to please, because of the sore 

' Cii/p(i is a transgression of moral, rriiiifn of statutor}-, 
law. 



PAULINUS PELL.?iUS 

ad praesens posset nimiis obnoxia curis, 

dudum desidia domini neglecta senili, 

parva cui neptis functo genitore superstes 185 

successit, taedisque meis quae postea cessit. 

Sed semel inpositum statuens tolerare laborem, 

sufFragante animi studiis fervore iuventae 

vix paucis domus indeptae exercere diebus 

gaudia contentus, malesuada otia curis 190 

mutare insolitis, cito meque meosque eoegi, 

quos potui exemplo proprii invitando laboris, 

quosdam autem invitos domini adstn'ngendo rigore. 

Atqiie ita suscepti status actibus inpiger instans 

protinus et culturam agris adhibere refectis, 1 9") 

et fessis celerem properavi inpendere curani 

vinetis conperta mihi ratione novandis 

et, quod pi-aecipue plerisque videtur amarum, 

ultro libens primus fiscalia debita certo 

tempore persolvens, propere mihi fida paravi 200 

otia privatae post inpendenda quieti. 

Quae et mihi cara nimis semper tuit ingenioque 

congrua prima meo mediocria desideranti, 

proxima deliciis et ab ambitione remota, 

ut mihi compta domus spatiosis aedibus asset 205 

et diversa anni per tempora iugiter apta, 

mensa opulenta nitens, plures iuvenesque ministri 

inque usus varios grata et numerosa supellex 

argentumque magis pretio quam pondere praestaiis 

et diversae artis cito iussa explere periti 210 

* i.e. the house was to be equipped witli summer and 
winter «(uarters— tho latter lioated by hyixicausts such as 

■^20 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

anxiety it involved^ as long uncared for through the 
lethargy of its aged lord, to whom, surviving her 
own father's death, a young grandchild succeeded — 
she who afterwards acceded to wedlock with me. 
But once I was i-esolved to bear the toil laid upon 
me, youth's zeal seconding my mind's desire, in 
but few days I was content to enjoy the pleasures 
of the estate thus gained, and soon forced both 
myself and my thralls to exchange seductive idleness 
for unwonted toils — inciting such as I could by the 
example of my own labour, but compelling some 
against their will with a master's sternness. And so, 
tirelessly bent upon the pursuits of the condition I 
had adopted, forthwith I hastened to bring fallowed 
lands under tillage, and promptly to lavish pains in re- 
newing the exhausted vineyards in the manner 1 had 
learned, and also — though to many a one this seems 
especially vexatious — by voluntarily paying down out- 
right my taxes at the appointed time, I rapidly 
earned for myself an assured leisure to lavish after- 
wards upon my own relaxation. This was ever too 
much prized by me, and though at first it was 
conformable with my nature which then sought 
but moderate satisfaction, later it became luxurious 
and estranged from high purj)ose, only concerned 
that my house should be equipped with spacious 
apartments and at all times suited to meet the 
varying seasons of the year,^ my table lavish and 
attractive, my servants many and those young, 
the furniture abundant and agreeable for various 
purposes, plate more preeminent in price than 
poundage, workmen of divers crafts trained promptly 

may be seen in the existing remains of the more important 
Roman houses. 

321 



PAULINUS PELL.*: US 

artifices stabula et iumentis plena refectis^ 

tunc et c^'pentis evectio tuta decoris. 

Nee tamen his ipsis attentior aniplificandis, 

quam conservandis studiosior et neque census 

augendi cupidus nimis aut ambitor honoruni, 215 

sed potius^ fateor, sectator deliciarum, 

si qua tamen minimo pretio expensaque parari 

et salvo famae possent constare decore, 

ne nota luxuriae studium niacularet honestum. 

Quae niihi cuncta tamen grata acceptaque fruenti 220 

cara magis pietas superabat magna parentum, 

obstringens sibi me nexu dominantis amoris, 

maiore ut parte anni ipsis praesentia nostra 

serviret, paribus perdurans consona votis 

communemque parans per mutua gaudia fructum. 225 

Cuius vitae utinani nobis prolixior usus 
concessus largo mansisset munere Christi, 
persistente simul priscae quoque tempore pacis ! 
Multimodis quisset nostrae prodesse iuventae 
consulti patris adsidua conlatio verbi 230 

exemplisque bonis studiorum instructio crescens. 
Sed transacta aevi post trina decennia nostri 
successit duplicis non felix cura laboris, 
publica quippe simul clade in commune dolenda 
hostibus infusis Romani in viscera regni 235 

privata cum sorte patris de funere functi : 
ultima namque eius finitae tempora vitae 
temporibus ruptae pacis prope iuncta fuere. 

322 



THE E UCHA RISTICUS 

to fulfil my behests, my stables filled with well- 
conditioned beasts and, withal, stately carriages to 
convey me safe abroad. And yet I was not so much 
bent on increasing these same things as zealous in 
preserving them, neither too eager to increase my 
wealth nor a seeker for distinctions, but rather — I 
admit — a follower of luxury, though only when it 
could be attained at trifling cost and outlay and 
without loss of fair repute that the brand of prodi- 
gality should not disgrace a blameless pursuit. But 
while I found all these things sweet and pleasant to 
enjoy, my great affection for my parents, dearer still, 
outweighed them, so binding me to them with the 
stronger bands of overmastering love that for the 
most part of the year my visits put me at their 
service — visits which passed their length accordant 
with our prayers, 1 winning througli mutual joys a 
general gain. 

Of this life would tiiat the enjoyment granted 
by Christ's rich bounty had continued longer for 
us, the foi'mer times of peace enduring likewise ! 
In many ways could my youth have profited by 
frequent application of my father's spoken counsel 
and by the growth in my training won from his 
good example I But after the third decade of my life 
was passed, there followed hopeless sorrow caused 
by a double burden — a general grief at public 
calamity, when foes burst into the vitals of the Roman 
realm, together with ])ersonal misfortune in the 
end and death of my father ; for the last days which 
closed his life were almost continuous with the days 

' i.e. these visits, though long, passed without an}' friction 
arising to disturb the relations between Paulinus and liis 
parents. 

y 2 



PA U LIN US PELL^:US 

At mihi damna domus populantem inlata per hostem, 

per se magna licet, multo leviora fuere 240 

defuncti patris immodico conlata dolori, 

per quern cara mihi et patria et domus ipsa fiebat : 

tamque etenim fido tradentes mutua nobis 

offieia affectu conserto viximus aevo, 

vinceret aequaevos nostra ut concordia amicos. 245 

Hoc igitur mihi subtracto inter prima iuventae 

tempora tam caro socio et monitore fideli, 

ilico me indocilis fratris discordia acerba 

excepit, validum genitoris testamentum 

solvere conantis specialia commoda matris 250 

inpugnandi animo, cuius mihi cura tuendae 

hoc quoque maior erat, quo iustior, et pietatis 

non minor affectus studium firmabat honestum. 

Insuper adversis me pluribus exagitandum 

laeva facultatum prorumpens fama meorum 255 

exposuit blandas inter vanae ambitionis 

inlecebras gravibus coniuncta et damna periclis. 

Quae meminisse licet pigeat transactaque duduiji 

oblivione sua malim sopita silere, 

invitant adversa tamen per nostra tuorum 260 

cognita donorum solacia, Christe, bonorum 

emensis indepta malis tua munera fando 

prodere et in lucem proferre recondita corde. 

Namque et quanta mihi per te conlata potentum 

gratia praestiterit, facile experiendo probavi, 265 

saepe prius claro procerum conlatus honori 

ignorans, proprio quam praeditus ijise potirer, 



324 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

when peace was broken. But for me the havoc 
wrought on my home by the ravage of the enemy, 
though great in itself, was much Hghter when 
compared with boundless grief for my departed 
father, who made both my country and my 
home itself dear to me. For, indeed, by rendering 
kindness to each other in genuine affection, we so 
knit in one our uneven ages, that in our agreement 
we surpassed friends of even ages. He, then, so 
dear a comrade and trusty counsellor, was with- 
drawn from me in the early season of my youth ; and 
straightway succeeded bitter disagreement caused 
by my wilful brother, who sought to overthrow our 
father's valid will, desiring to annul the special 
benefits therein granted to my mother ; and to safe- 
guard her caused me concern the greater as it was 
natural, my just endeavours being strengthened by 
the yet greater impulse of affection. Besides, luck- 
less rumour of my means being spread abroad exposed 
me to be tossed by yet more misfortunes amid the 
enticing lures of empty ambition and its forfeits 
close-linked with sore dangers. And though their 
memory irks me, and I would fain leave these 
passages of long ago silently buried in their due 
oblivion, yet the comfort of thy good gifts 
realized through my misfortunes, call upon me, 
O Christ, to reveal them and to bring them forth to 
light from the depths of my heart, in declaring thy 
bounty gained after full measure of ills. For I soon 
learned through expei-ience both what advantage the 
favour of the powerful, bestowed on me through 
thee, afforded, when ofttimes I was accredited 
unconsciously with my ancestor's bright distinctions, 
ere yet I myself acquired such attributes of my own ; 

325 



PAULINUS PELL/EUS 

quantum et e contra vi impugnante maligna 

ipsa patronarum mihi ambitiosa meorum 

obfuerint studia et nostri evidenter honores. 270 

Ac milii ante omnes specialiter, altera cuius 
pars orientis erat patria, in qua scilicet ortus 
possessorque etiam non ultimus esse videbar, 
iniecere manum mala, sed mihi debita dudum, 
quod me et invitum protracto errore tenerent 275 
agminis ipsa mei primum molitio pigra, 
dissona et interdum carorum vota meorum, 
saepius et propriis certans mens obvia votis, 
ambigui eventus quotiens formido recurrens 
tardabat coepto sorte obsistente paratus ; 280 

allicerent et contra animum suetudo quietis, 
otia nota, domus specialia commoda plura, 
omnibus heu I nimium blandis magnisque refertae 
deliciis cunctisque bonis in tempore duro, 
hospite tunc etiam Gothico quae sola careret ; 285 
quod post eventu cessit non sero sinistro, 
nuUo ut quippe domura speciali lure tuente 
cederet in praedam populo permissa abeunti : 
nam quosdam scimus summa humanitate Gothoruni 
hospitibus studuisse suis prodesse tuendis. 290 

Sed mihi ad sortem praefatae condicionis 
addita maioris nova est quoque causa laboris, 
ut me, conquirens solacia vana, tyrannus 

^ Prisons Attahis was an Ionian and oiiginally a Pagan. 
He was a Senator and Praefect of the city at the second 
siege of Rome. He was set up as a puppet Kniperor by the 
(ioths, but deposed in 410 a.d. He remained in the company 
of Ataulf the Uotli, at whose wedding with Placidia he per- 

326 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

and on the other hand what hindrance in the 
assaults of ill-will my patrons' own ambitious aims 
and my own distinctions surely presented. 

And on me particularly above all, who had 
a second country in the East — where indeed I 
was born and was also held to be an owner 
of great consequence— did misfortunes lay hold, 
yet such as were long my due ; because, albeit 
reluctant, I was kept absent on a journey pro- 
longed, first by the mere sluggish effort of my 
train, sometimes also by the conflicting wishes 
of my dear ones, and too often by the struggle of 
their resolves with my own wishes whenever their 
returning dread of an uncertain issue delayed by some 
perverse chance preparations already begun ; and 
on the other hand because my nature was enticed 
by my habits of .ease, my wonted repose, the many 
special comforts of my home — too full, alas ! with all 
great and pleasant luxuries and every blessing in 
those rough days, and which alone at that time 
lacked a Gothic guest. This circumstance was 
followed not long afterwards by a disastrous result, 
namely that, since no particular authority protected 
it, my house was given up to be pillaged by the 
retiring horde ; for I know that certain of the Goths 
most generously strove to serve their liosts by pro- 
tecting them. 

But on me, besides my lot in the condition 
just described, a fresh cause of greater trouble was 
also imposed ; namely that in his general groping 
after empty consolations, the tyrant Attalus ^ bur- 
formed as a musician. During the revolt of Jovinus he was 
again set up as a rival Emperor, but was soon abandoned, 
and in 416 a.d. was banished by Honorius to Lipari. On 
Attalus see Gibbon (ed. Bury), iii. .31S tf. 

327 



PAULINUS PELL/EUS 

Attalus absentem casso oneraret honoris 

nomine, privatae comitivam largitionis 295 

dans mihi, quam sciret nullo subsistere censii 

iamque suo ipse etiam desisset fidere regno, 

solis quippe Gothis fretus male iam sibi notis, 

quos ad praesidium vitae praesentis habere, 

non etiam imperii poterat, per se nihil ipse 300 

aut opibus propriis aut ullo milite nixus. 

Unde ego non partes infirmi omnino tyranni, 

sed Gothicam fateor pacem me esse secutum, 

quae tune ipsorum consensu optata Gothorum 

paulo post aliis cessit mercede redempta 305 

nee penitenda manet, cum iam in re publica nostra 

cernamus plures Gothico florere favore, 

tristia quaeque tamen perpessis antea multis, 

pars ego magna fui quorum, privatus et ipse 

cunctis quippe bonis propriis patriaeque superstes. 310 

Namque profecturi regis praecepto Atiulfi 

nostra ex urbe Gothi, fuerant qui in pace recepti, 

non aliter nobis quam belli iure subactis 

aspera quaeque omni urbe inrogavere cremata : 

in qua me inventum comitem tum principis eius, 315 

imperio cuius sociatos non sibi norant, 

nudavere bonis simul omnibus et genetricem 

iuxta meam mecum, communi sorte subactos, 

uno hoc se nobis credentes parcere captis, 

quod nos immunes poena paterentur abire, 320 

^ Alaric's brother-in-law, who brought reinforcements of 
Goths and Huns to aid Alaric in 409 a.d. In 410 he became 
King of the Visigotlis on the death of Alaric. Later he 

328 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

dened me in my absence with an empty title of 
distinction, making me Count of Private Largesses, 
although he knew that this office was sustained by 
no revenue, and even himself had now ceased to 
believe in his own royalty, dependent as he was 
upon the Goths alone of whom already he had had 
bitter experience, finding with them protection at 
the moment of his life but not of his authority, 
while of himself he was supported neither by re 
sources of his own nor by any soldiery. Wherefore 
'twas by no means the cause of that tottering tyrant, 
but, I declare, peace with the Goths that I pursued 
— peace which, at that time desired by the general 
consent of the Goths themselves, was soon after 
granted to others and, though purchased at a price, 
remains unregretted, since already in our state we 
see full many prospering through Gothic favour, 
though many first endured the full range of suffering, 
not least of whom was I, seeing that I was stripped 
of all my goods and outlived my fatherland. For when 
about to depart from our city at the command of 
their king Ataulf,i the Goths, though they had 
been received peaceably, imposed the harshest treat- 
ment on us, as though subdued by right of war, by 
burning the whole cit3\ There finding me — then a 
Count of that Prince, whose allies they did not 
recognise as their own — tliey stripped me of all my 
goods, and next my motlier also, both of us over- 
taken by the same lot, for this one grace considering 
that they were showing us, their prisoners, mercy — 
that they suffered us to depart without injury ; 

married Placidia, sister of Honorius, and was murdered at 
Barcelona (see Gibbon, ed. Bury, iii. 313, 318 fF.). The 
name Ataulf survives in the modern Adolf. 



PAULINUS PELL.EUS 

cunctaruinque tamen comitum.siniul et famulariim, 

eventum fuerant nostrum quaecumque secutae, 

inlaeso penitus nullo adtemptante pudore, 

me graviore tamen relevato suspicione 

munere divino, iuges cui debeo grates, 325 

filia ut ante mea per me sociata marito 

excedens patria commiini clade careret. 

Nee postrema tamen tolerati meta laboris 
ista fuit nostri, quem diximus. Ilico namque 
exactos laribus patriis tectisque crematis '530 

obsidio hostilis vicina excepit in urbe 
Vasatis, patria maiorum et ipsa meorum, 
et gravior multo circumfusa hostilitate 
factio servilis paucorum mixta furori 
insano iuvenum [nequam ^j licet ingenuorum, 335 
armata in caedem specialem nobilitatis. 
Quam tu, iuste deus, insonti a sanguine avertens 
ilico paucorum sedasti morte reorum 
instantemque mihi specialem percussorem 
me ignorante alio iussisti ultore perire, 340 

suetus quippe novis tibi me obstringere donis, 
pro quis me scirem grates debere perennes. 

Sed mihi tam subiti concusso sorte pericli, 
quo me intra urbem percelli posse viderem, 
subrepsit, fateor, nimium trepido novus error, 345 
ut me praesidio regis dudum mihi cari, 
cuius nos populus longa obsidione premebat, 

' Suppl. Dvandex. 



THE EUCHARISriCUS 

howbeit, of all the companions and handmaidens 
who had followed our fortunes none suffered any 
M'rong at all done to her honour, nor was any assault 
offered, yet I was spared more serious anxiety by the 
divine goodness, to which I owe constant thanks, 
because my daughter, previously wedded by me 
to a husband, was spared the general calamity by 
her absence from our country. 

But not even this was the extreme limit of the 
sufferings we endured, as I have said : for when we 
were driven from our ancestral home and our house 
burned, straightway siege by the enemy overtook us 
in the neighbouring city of Bazas, which also was 
my forefathers' native place,' and, far more dan- 
gerous than the beleaguering foe, a conspiracy of 
slaves supported by the senseless frenzy of some few 
youths, abandoned though of free estate, and armed 
specially for the slaughter of the gentry. From 
this danger thou, O rigliteous God, didst shield the 
innocent blood, quelling it forthwith by the death of 
some few guilty ones, and didst ordain that the 
special assassin threatening me should without my 
knowledge perish by another's avenging hand, even 
as thou hast been wont to bind me to thee with 
fresh gifts for which I might feel I owed thee 
endless thanks. 

But in my alarm at the hap of so sudden a 
danger by which I saw I might be stricken down 
within the city, there entered into me — too fearful, 
I admit — a new error of judgment, leading me to 
hope that under the protection of the king,- long 
since my friend, whose people were afflicting us with 

' cp. Ausonius, EpireAion 1. 4 (Vol. I. pp. 42 f.), where 
Julius Ausonius (Paulinus' great-grandfather) declares that 
Bazas was his native place. '^ i.e. Ataulf. 

Z2>^ 



PAULINUS PELL^.US 

urbe a obsessa sperarem abscedere posse 
agmine carorum magno comitante meorum, 
hac tamen hos nostros spe sollicitante paratus, 350 
quod scirem imperio gentis cogente Gothorum 
invitum rcgem populis inciimbere nostris. 
Explorandi igitur studio digressus ab urbe 
ad regem intrepidus nullo obsistente tetendi, 
laetior ante tamen^ primo quam affarer amicum 355 
alloquio, gratumque magis fore queni»mihi rebar. 
Perscrutato autenij ut potui, interius viri voto 
praesidium se posse mihi praestare negavit 
extra urbem posito, nee tutum iam sibi prodens, 
ut visum remeare aliter pateretur ad urbem, 360 

ipse nisi inecum mox susciperetur in urbe, 
gnarus quippe Gothos rursum mihi dira minari 
seque ab ipsorum cupiens absolvere lure. 
Obstipui, fateor, pavefactus condicione 
proposita et nimio indicti terrore pericli, 365 

sed miserante deo, afflictis qui semper ubique 
imploratus adest, paulo post mente resumpta 
ipse licet trepidus, sed adliuc nutantis amici 
consilium audacter studui pro me ipse fovere, 
ardua dissuadens, quae scirem omnino neganda, 370 
praestanda quae autem, quam mox temptanda 
perurgens. 
Quae non sero probans vir prudens ipse secutus, 
ilico consultis per se primatibus urbis 
rem coeptam adcelerans una sub nocte peregit 
auxiliante deo, cuius iam munus habebat, 375 



33-' 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

the long siege, I might be able to escape from the 
besieged city together with the large train of my 
dear ones : and yet this hope induced this attempt 
of mine, because I knew that 'twas by the constrain- 
ing will of the Gothic host that the king reluctantly 
oppressed our folk. So, purposing to investigate, I 
set out from the city and hastened to the king, no man 
withstanding me, yet with greater cheer before I 
addressed my first words to the friend who, I 
thought, would be more favourable to me. But 
when I had closely examined as best I might the 
inwardness of the man's intent, he declared he could 
not afford me protection if dwelHng outside the city, 
avowing that it was no longer safe for him, having 
once seen me, to suffer me to return to the city on 
other terms than that he himself should presently 
be admitted with me into the city — for he knew 
that the Goths again meant me mischief, and he 
himself desired to break free from their influence. I 
was dumbfounded, I admit, with alarm at the terms 
proposed and with exceeding fear at the danger 
threatened, but by the mercy of God who always and 
everywhere is with them who beseech his aid, 1 pre- 
sently regained my faculties and, albeit quaking, 
boldly set myself to foster in my interest the design 
of my still wavering friend, discouraging difficult con- 
ditions which I knew must be utterly rejected, but 
strongly pressing for instant attempt to secure the 
attainable. 

These the far-siglited man speedily approved 
and adopted. Straightway, when he had for him- 
self conferred with the leaders of the city, he so 
hastened on the business in hand as to complete it 
in a single night through the help of God, whose 

333 



PAULINUS PELL.*;US 

quo nobis populoque suo succurrere posset. 

Concurrit pariter cunctis ab sedibus oninis 

turba Alanarum annatis sociata maritis. 

Prima uxor regis Romanis traditur obses, 

adiuncto pariter regis caro quoque nato, 380 

reddor et ipse meis pactae inter foedera pacis, 

communi tamquam Gothico salutatus ab hoste, 

vallanturque urbis pomeria milite Alano, 

aeceptaque dataque fide certare parato 

pro nobis, nuper qiios ipse obsederat hostis. 385 

Mira urbis facies cuius magna undique muros 

turba indiscreti sexus circumdat inermis 

subiecta exterius ; muris haerentia nostris 

agmina barbarica plaustris vallantur et armis. 

Qua se truncatam parte agminis baud medioeri ^ 390 

circumiecta videns populantum turba Gotborum, 

ilico diffidens tuto se posse niorari 

hospite intestino subito in sua viscera verso. 

nil temptare ausa ulterius properanter abii'c 

sponte sua legit. Cuius non sero secuti 395 

exemplum et nostri, quos diximus, auxiliares 

discessere, fidem pacis servare parati 

Romanis, quoque ipsos sors oblata tulisset. 

Atque ita res [ingens"] temere a me coepta benigno 

uaxilio domini eventu est expleta secundo, 400 

eiroremque meuni deus in nova gaudia vertit 

nuiltorum pai'iter mecum obsidione levata, 

^ Suggested bj' Braiides : inediocris, BP. 
* Suppl. Braiides. 

334 



THE EUCHARISriCUS 

bounty he now enjoyed^ thereby to help us and his 
own people. The whole throng of Alan women 
Hocks together from all their abodes in company 
with their warrior lords. ^ First the king's wife is 
delivered to the Romans as a hostage, the king's 
favourite son also accompanying her, while I myself 
am restored to my friends by one of the articles of 
peace, as though I had been rescued from our 
common enemy the Goths : the city's boundaries are 
fenced round with a bulwark of Alan soldiery pre- 
pared for pledges given and received to fight for us 
whom they, lately our enemies, had besieged. 
Strange was the aspect of the city, whose unmanned 
walls were compassed on every side with a great 
throng of men and women mixed who lay without ; 
while, clinging to our walls, barbai-ian hosts were 
fenced in with waggons and armed men. But when 
they saw themselves thus shorn of no slight portion 
of their host, the encircling hordes of ravaging 
Goths, straightway feeling they could not safely 
tarry now that their bosom friends were turned to 
mortal enemies, ventured no further effort, but chose 
of their own accord to retire hurriedly. And not long 
after our allies also, above named, followed their 
example and departed, though prepared to maintain 
loyally the peace made with the Romans wherever 
the chance which befell might have carried them. 
Thus did a great business, rashly commenced by me, 
result in a happy issue through the Lord's kindly 
aid, and God turned my misjudgment into fresh 
joys in the deliverance of many from the siege 

' The army besieging Bazas was partly of Goths and 
partly of Alans. The latter, headed by Ataulf, went over 
to the Roman side and prepared to defend the city against 
the Goths. 

335 



PAULINUS PELL.^^:US 

adcrescunt quae cuncta mihi simul ad referendas, 

Christe, tibi grates, quas inpos solvere verbis 

parte rependo aliqua semper debere professus. 405 

Sit tanien ista satis super his me esse profatum, 
inter barbarieas longo quae tempore gentes 
expositus gessi. Quorum mihi jihirima saepe 
adversa experto rursum suasere moranti 
linquendas patriae sedes quantocius esse — 410 

quod fecisse prius fuerat magis utile nobis — 
ilia ut contento peteremus litora cursu, 
pars ubi magna mihi etiamnunc salva manebat 
materni census, complures sparsa per urbes 
Argivas atque Epiri veterisque novaeque ; 415 

per quas non minima numerosis farta colonis 
praedia diffusa nee multum dissociata 
quamvis profusis dominis nimiumque remissis 
praebere expensas potuissent exuberantes. 
Sed nee sero mea est proventus vota secutus, 420 
ut vel migrare exoptata hinc ad loca possem, 
vel mihi pars aliqua ex rebus superesset avitis 
inter barbarieas hostili iure rapinas 
Romanumque nefas, contra omnia iura licenter 
in mea grassatum diverso tempore damna. 425 

A quo se exuere admisso nee nomina possunt 
cara mihi, maior nostri est quae causa doloris, 
cum mihi damna rei damnis cumulentur amoris, 
quem scio me fidum primis debere proj)inquis, 
quamlibet offensum, nee fas non reddere duco. 430 
Sed bene si sapio, gratanda haec nunc mihi sors est, 
quae tibi conplacuit, multo potiora parante 
iani te, Christe, mihi, quam cum securior ipse 

336 



THE EUCHARISTJCUS 

along with me — all which things increase niv debt 
of thanks to thee, O Christ ; which knowing not how 
to discharge, I repay in some measui-e in words 
by declaring my continual indebtedness. 

But let it suffice that I have said so much on 
what I did during the long period when I was ex- 
posed amid barbarous peoples. Through them I 
suffered so numerous reverses as again convinced 
me, lingering still, that I should leave my country 
witli all speed possible (and to have done so earlier 
had been more profitable for me), to make my way 
directly to that land where a large part of my 
mother's pi'operty still remained intact, scattered 
among full many states of Greece and Epirus the 
Old and New ; for there the extensive farms, well- 
manned by numerous serfs, though scattered, were 
not widely separated and even for a prodigal or 
a careless lord might have furnished means abun- 
dant. But not even at this stage did success follow 
my hope, either to be able to depart hence to the 
land I longed for, or to recover some part of my 
grandfather's property dispersed partly through the 
ravages of barbarians acting by the laws of war and 
partly through the iniquity of Romans, proceeding 
wantonly and in defiance of all laws to my hurt at 
various times. Of this guilt even persons dear to 
me cannot rid themselves; and 'tis the chief cause 
of my pain, since upon hurt to my substance is 
heaj)ed hurt to that affection which I feel I owe 
inviolate, however slighted, to my nearest kin, and 
which 1 deem it sinful not to render. But if 1 am 
truly wise, I should now rejoice in this lot of mine 
which thou, O Christ, didst approve, since thou dost 
prepare for me far better things now than when, 

337 



PAULINUS PELL.EUS 

placatum rebar nostris adsistere votis, 

cum mihi laeta domus magnis floreret abundans 435 

deliciis, nee pompa minor polleret honoris 

instructa obsequiis et turbis fulta clientum. 

Quae peritura cite illo me in tempore amasse 

nunc piget et tandem sensu meliore senescens 

utiliter subtracta mihi cognosco fuisse^ 44:0 

amissis opibus terrenis atque caducls 

perpetuo potius mansura ut quaerere nossem — 

sero quidem, sed nil umquam, deus, est tibi serum, 

qui sine fine manens miserandi ponere finem 

nescis et ignaris solis succurrere nosti 445 

praeveniendo prior multorum vota precantum 

et supra quam petimus bona nobis prospiciendo 

ambiguisque etiam, quid pro se quisque precetur, 

plura petita negas, magis apta his dare paratus, 

qui sapiunt tua dona suis praeponere votis. 450 

Namque et me moresque meos quanto j^rior ipso 

me melius nosses, in me prodendo probasti, 

quem maiora meis audentem viribus ante 

prospiciens melius per te mihi consuluisti 

conatus inhibendo meos nimis alta petentes, 455 

auderem ut monachi perfecto vivere ritu, 

cum mihi plena domus caris affectibus esset, 

qui sibi servari consuetam indicere curam 

posse viderentur, filii, mater socrus, uxor 

338 



THE EUCHARIST ICUS 

more free from care, I fancied that tliy approval 
furthered my hopes ; when my house was gay and 
prosperous in the great abundance of its luxury ; 
and when the pageantry of my rank flourished no 
less in its setting of deferential crowds and throngs 
of supporting clients. That in those days I loved 
such things, quicklv doomed to perish, I now regret, 
and with perception improving with old age I recog- 
nise at last that to my profit they were withdrawn 
from me, that by the loss of eai-thly and failing 
riches I might learn to seek rather those which will 
endure for ever. 'Tis late, indeed, but nought, O 
God, is ever late with thee who, continuing without 
end, knowest not how to make an end of pity, 
and knowest how to aid those who unaided 
know not how, by anticipating the prayers of 
many ere they ask, and by providing good things 
for us beyond what we seek — and who to the mis- 
guided ^ also, whatso each one prays for himself, 
dost refuse full many a request, though ready to 
grant things more expedient to those wise enough 
to prefer thy gifts to their own wishes. For how 
much better than I myself thou didst know me and 
my character thou didst prove in preventing me 
when, foreseeing that I was venturing on a task 
beyond my strength, thou of thyself didst take 
better measure for me by thwarting my designs 
which aimed too high in venturing to live after the 
perfect pattern of a monk, though my home was full 
of dear i-elatives who seemed to have the right to 
claim for themselves continuance of my wonted 
care — sons, mother, wife's mother, wife, with 

' i.e. those who pray for what they themselves desire, but 
which is not for their ultimate good. 

339 



PAULINUS PELL.i<:US 

cum grege non miniino famularum quippe suarum, 460 

quern totum jiariter peregrinae exponere terrae 

nee ratio aut pietas mens aut religiosa sinebat. 

Sed tua magna manus divina et provida virtus 

consilio sanctorum cuncta operando peregit, 

suadentum mihi tum morem servare vetustum, 4G5 

quern semel invectum maiorum traditione 

nunc etiam servans ecclesia nostra teneret ; 

confessusque igitur, penitenda quae mihi noram, 

proposita studui constrictus vivere lege^, 

non digno fortasse j)ians commissa labore, 470 

sed rectam servare fidem non inscius ipse, 

errorum discendo vias per dogmata prava, 

quae reprobans sociata aliis nunc respuo cul{)is. 

Post autem, exacta iam ter trieteride quinta, 

rite recurrente statuto tempore Pasclia 475 

ad tua, Christe Deus, altaria sacra reversus 

te miserante tua gaudens sacramenta recepi 

ante hos ter decies super et bis i quatttior annos — ■ 

salvo tunc etiam propriae domus ordine, nuper 

qui fuerat, linqui et quam iam non posse probarem 480 

nee retinere tanien peregrino iugiter esset 

possibile adstricto iam censu ; quominus autem 

rem propriam expeterem, cuius meritumque situmque 

anteriore loco iam me exposuisse recordor, 

obstabat flecti ad eonimunia commoda coniunx 485 

indocilis nimioque metu navigare recusans, 

quam Jiec invitam trahere usquam fas mihi rebar 

l)arque nefas esset subtractis linquere natis. 

» Barth (accepted by Braiules) : his, BP. 
340 



THE EUCHARIST ICUS 

the considerable company of their attendants : for 
to expose all these together to the strangeness 
of a foreign land neither reason^ nor affection, nor 
religious feeling would allow. But thy mighty 
hand divine and foreseeing power directed all things 
through the counsel of the saints, who then urged 
me to follow the ancient custom which, once intro- 
duced by the tradition of our forefathers, our 
Church still retained and held. So when I had con- 
fessed such deeds as I knew needed repentance, I 
set myself to live under the discipline of a set rule — 
not, as it chanced, atoning for my sins by any meet 
penance, but, though of myself not without know- 
ledge to keep the right faith, by learning the paths 
of error through corrupt doctrines,'- which now I 
reject and repudiate along with my other faults. 
But afterwards, when now I had passed thrice five 
Iriennia, and Easter duly came round at its appointed 
season, to thy holy altar, Christ my God, I retui'ned, 
and through thy mercy joyfully received thy Sacra- 
ment — thrice ten and twice four years ago. Then 
also stil! unbroken were the ranks of my own family 
which I now found I could not leave and yet could 
not continually maintain, now that my foreign in- 
come was curtailed. But from seeking out my own 
property — whose value and position, I recall, was set 
forth by me in a previous passage — I was hindered 
by my wife who stubbornly refused to yield for our 
general good, refusing from undue fear to make the 
voyage ; and I held it right for me not to tear her 
away anywhere against her will, and no less wrong 
to leave her, tearing her children from her. 

' Paulinus passed a season in performing some form of 
penance. How he came to lapse into " <>nirupt doctrine" 
(pos.<iibly Arianjsm) is not clear. 

34t 



PAULINUS PELL.EUS 

Atque ita frustratus spe iam meliore quietis 
in rebus propriis post plura ad versa fruendae 490 

perpetuum exilium diversa sorte dierum 
exigo, iam dudum cunctis affectibus expers, 
primo socru ac matre, dehinc et eoniuge functa, 
quae mihi cum fuerit rectis contraria votis 
officiente metu, fuit et defuncta dolori, 495 

turn subtracta, meae potuisset cum magis esse 
apta senectuti iunctae ad solamina vitae ; 
quae mihi iam derant natis abeuntibus a me, 
non equidem paribus studiis nee tempore eodem, 
succensis pai-iter sed libertatis amore, 500 

quam sibi maiorem contingere posse putabant 
Burdigalae, Gothico quamquam consorte colono. 
Quod licet invito me illos voluisse dolerem, 
sic compensandum tamen hoc ipsum mihi I'ebar, 
commoda ut absentis pi-aesentum cura iuvaret, 505 
fructus quippe rei nostrae, quicumque fuissent, 
sponte sua mecum paulatim participando. 
Sed cito praereptus iuvenis iam presbyter unus 
morte repentina hictum mihi Hquit acerbum, 
summa autem rerum, tenuit quascumque,mearum 510 
tota erepta mihi multis fuit una rapina. 
Insuper ipse etiam, velut ad solacia nostra 
qui superest, actu simul eventuque sinistro 
inter amicitias regis versatus et iras 
destituit prope cuncta pari mea commoda sorte. 515 



342 



THE EUCHARLSTICUS 

Thus disappointed in my brightening hopes of 
enjoying repose on my own property after so many 
misfortunes, I now spend my days in perpetual exile 
with varying fortunes, long since deprived of all my 
dear ones. For first my wife's mother and my 
mother died ; then my wife also, who, when she 
lived, thwarted my natural hopes through the 
hindrance of her fears, and in her death caused me 
grief in being reft from me at a time when her life, 
if continuous with mine, might have been more 
serviceable in affording my old age consolations 
which now it lacked, as my sons left me. These 
went, not with like aims, indeed, nor at the same 
time ; but both alike were fired with the desire for 
freedom which they thought they could find in 
greater measure at Bordeaux, albeit in company 
with Gothic settlers. And though I grieved that 
their desires thus ran counter to my own, yet I 
thought that this same thing would so be made up 
to me that their care while present in Bordeaux 
would advance the interests of their absent father, 
namely, by gradually sharing with me of their own 
will the income of our property, such as it might 
be.^ But soon was one — a youtli, yet already a 
})riest — hurried off" untimely by a sudden death, 
leaving me bitter sorrow ; while all such of my 
possessions as he held were wholly torn from me by 
the single act of many robbers. Moreover, he also, 
who was left as though to console me, ill-starred 
alike in his course and its consequence, experienced 
both the king's friendship and his enmity, and after 
losing almost all my goods came to a like end 

^ i.e. he hoped that his sons living in Bordeaux might be 
able to recover some of the wreck of his property. Paulinus 
himself seems to have feared to reside in the city. 

343 



PAIKJNUS PELL.EUS 

Atquc it;i subtrac-ta spe omni solacioruin, 
quae mihi per nostros rebar contingere posse, 
cunctaque sero probans a te magis esse petenda, 
quae cupimus, dens alme, subest cui summa potestas, 
Massiliae demum paulisper consistere legi, 520 

urbe quidein in qua plures sancti essent mihi cari, 
parva autem census substantia faniiliaris 
nee spes magna novis subitura ex fructibus esset, 
non ager instructus propriis cultoribus ullus, 
non vineta — quibus solis urbs utitur ipsa 525 

onine ad j)raesidium vitae aliunde paranduni — 
sed tantuni domus urbana vicinus et hortus 
atque ad perfugium secret! parvus agellus, 
non sine vite quidem vel pomis, sed sine terra 
digna coli ; verum exigui iactura laboris 530 

suasit et in vacuum culturae inpendere curam 
vix plena exesi per iugera quattuor agri 
et fundare domum summa in crepidine saxi, 
ne quid de spatio terrae minuisse viderer. 
Porro autem expensas, vitae quas posceret usus, 535 
conductis studui ex agris sperare paratas, 
donee plena magis servis mansit domus et dum 
maiores melior vires mihi praebuit aetas. 
At postquam in peius pariter mutavit utraque 
condicio instabilis semper generaliter aevi, 540 

paulatim, fateor, curis evictus et annis 
exul inops caelebs [caris] facile in nova versus 
consilia et varia multum ratione vacillans, 
Burdigalam revocare gradum conducere duxi. 
Xeo tamen effectus nostra est incepta secutus, 545 
utilitas cum vota sibi coniuncta iuvaret ; 

344 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

When thus all hope of that solace, which I 
thought I might gain through my family, was with- 
drawn, finding, though late, that all things we 
desire are rather to he sought of thee, O bounteous 
God, with whom all power rests, I chose at length 
to settle awhile at Marseilles, a city where indeed 
were many saints dear to me, but only a small 
property, part of my famil}^ estate. Here no fresh 
revenues were like to give rise to great hopes — no 
tilth tended by appointed labourers, no vineyards 
(on which alone that city relies to procure from 
elsewliere every necessary of life), but, as a refuge 
for my loneliness, only a house in the city with a 
garden neai*, and a small plot, not destitute of vines, 
indeed, and fruit-trees, but without land worth 
tillage. Yet the outlay of a little toil induced me 
to lavish pains in tilling the vacant part — scarce 
four full acres — of my exhausted land, and to build 
a house upon the crest of the rock, lest I should 
seem to have reduced the extent of soil avail- 
able. Further, for the outlay which the needs of 
life demand, I made it my hope to earn them by 
renting land, so long as my house remained well 
stocked with slaves, and while my more active years 
furnished me with undiminished strength. But 
afterwards, when my fortunes in a world generally 
ever variable changed for the worse in both these 
respects, by degrees, I admit, I was broken down 
by troubles and by age : so as a wanderer, poor, 
bereaved of my loved ones, I readily inclined to new 
designs, and, greatly wavering betwixt various pur- 
poses, thought it profitable to return to Bordeaux. 
Yet my efforts did not attain success ; though ex- 
pediency seconded my prayers allied with it. 

345 



PAULINUS PELL.EUS 

quod mihi firmandae fidei, quantum puto, causa 
a te provisum fas est me credere, Cliriste, 
ut, praestare mihi quantum tua gratia posset, 
prolixo paulatim usu experiendo probarem, 550 

plurima subtracto cum per dispendia censu 
perdurare mihi speciem domus et renovatas 
saepius expensas te prospieiente viderem. 
Pro qua sorte quidem vitae scio me tibi grates 
immodicas debere, deus, pro me tamen ipse 555 

nescio, si salvo possim gaudere pudore — 
sive quod ipse adhuc propriae specie domus utens, 
seu quod divitibus contentus cedere natis 
omnia quae possunt etiamnunc nostra videri, 
expensis patior me sustentai-i alienis — 560 

ni mihi nostra fides quae nil proprium docet esse, 
subveniat, tam tuto aliena ut nostra putemus, 
quam nos nostra aliis debemus participanda. 

Nee tamen hoc ipso vitae me in ordine passus 
ambiguum nutare diu, velociter ultro 565 

solari es dignatus, deus, nostramque senectam 
invalidam variis diverso tempore morbis 
iugiter adsuetus blandis palpare medellis, 
nunc quoque sic ipsi iuvenascere posse dedisti, 
ut, cum iam penitus fructus de rebus avitis 570 

sperare ulterius nullos me posse probasses, 
cunctaque ipsa etiam, quae iam tenuatus habere 
Massiliae potui, amissa iam proprietate 
conseripta adstrictus sub condicione tenereni, 

' i.e. the house was only his by courtesy. 
* Yet his sons (11. 498 tf.) had died previously. Possibly 
tliese are younger sons ignored in the earlier passage. 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

This I may lawfully believe to have been ordained 
by thee, O Christ, for the strengthening of my 
faith, as I suppose, that by prolonged experience I 
might gradually find out how far thy favour could 
avail me, when, though deprived of means through 
countless losses, I still saw the semblance^ of a house 
always remained to me, and my means ofttimes re- 
plenished by thy providence. For this lot, indeed, 
I know I owe thee boundless thanks, O God ; yet 
on my own account I know not whether I can 
rejoice with full self-respect — because, whether in 
occupying a house in semblance still my own, or in 
contentedly resigning to my wealthy sons - all that 
can still be thought of as my own, I suffer myself to 
be supported at others' charges^ — did not our faith 
come to my aid, teaching that nothing is our own ; 
so that we may as surely consider othei's' goods to 
be ours, as we are bound to share our own with 
others. 

Yet in this same state of life thou didst not 
suffer me long to drowse in doubt, but unasked, 
O God, didst speedily deign to comfort me ; and — 
ever wont to soothe with gentle remedies my old 
age weakened at various times with divers sick- 
nesses — now also thou didst enable it to grow young 
again. For when thou hadst shown I could no 
longer hope for further profit from my grand- 
father's property ; and when all that also which in 
my poverty I was able to hold at Marseilles was 
retained by me under the terms of a written contract, 
the freehold now being lost — thou didst raise up for 

^ The use of the present tense here suggests that 11. 564 ff. 
(in which he tells of his improved fortunes) were subsequently 
added. 

347 



PAULINOS PEI.L.^:US 

emptorem milii ignotum de gente Gothoruin 575 

excires, nostri (juondam qui iuris agellum 

mercari cupiens pretiiim transmitteret iiltro, 

haut equidem iustimi, verumtamen accipienti 

votivum^ fateor, possem quo scilicet una 

et veteres lapsi census fulcire ruinas 580 

et vitare nova cari niihi damna piidoris. 

Quo me donatum praestanti munere gaudens 
ecce novas, deus omnipotens, tibi debeo grates, 
exuperent quae paene alias cumulentque priores, 
quas contestatus tota haec mea pagina praesens 585 
continet ; et quamquam spatiis prolixior amplis 
evagata diu claudi se iam prope poscat, 
nostra tamen iiigis devotio ponere finem 
nescit ad explenda tibi debita munia, Christe, 
hoc unum ipse bonum statuens,hoc esse tenendum 590 
conscius, hoc toto cupiens adquirere corde. 
omnibus usque locis et tempore iugiter omni 
te praefando loqui, te [et'] meminisse silendo. 
quo circa et totum tibi me, deus optime, debens 
ciinctaque quae mea sunt, opus hoc abs te, deus, 

orsus 595 

nunc quoque concludens tibi desino teque precatus 
saepius attente nunc multo inpensius oro, 
ut — quia vita in hac, qua nunc ego dego, senili 
ipsa morte magis plura [haut ^] agnosco timenda, 
nee mihi, quid potius cupiam, discernere promptum 

est— 600 

(juamcumque in partem tua iam sententia vergit, 
(la, precor, intrepidam contra omnia tristia mentem 
constantemque tuae virtutis munere ])raesta, 
ut, qui iam dudum placitis tibi vivo dicatus 
legibus et sponsam conor captare salutem, 605 

' 8uppl. Brandr.i. 

34« 



THE EV( HA lUSTlCUS 

me a purchaser among the Goths who desired to 
acquire the small farm, once wholly mine, and of his 
own accord sent me a sum, not indeed equitable, yet 
nevertheless a godsend, I admit, for me to receive, 
since thereby I could at once support the tottering 
remnants of my shattered fortune and escape fresh 
hurt to my cherished self-respect. 

Rejoicing in my enrichment with this exceeding 
gift, to thee, Almighty God, I owe fresh thanks, 
such as may almost overwhelm and bury all those 
preceding, whereof each page of mine holds record. 
And although my constant devotion, grown too 
lengthy, has o'erspread its wide limits this while 
past, and almost calls upon itself to halt ; yet it 
knows not how to make an end of dwelling on the 
gifts I owe to thee, O Christ. This I make my only 
good, this I feel must be held fast, this with my 
whole heart 1 long to secure — in all places every- 
where and at all times continually, in utterance to 
tell of thee, and in silence to remember thee. 
Wherefore— owing all myself to thee, O God most 
excellent, and all things that are mine— as I began 
this work from thee, so in finishing it I end to 
thee ; and while I have often prayed thee earnestly, 
now much more fervently I beseech thee — seeing 
that in this decre})it age which I now spend I see 
nought more to be feared but death itself, and 
cannot readily descry what further I can desire — 
whichever way thy will inclines,^ grant me, I pray, 
a heart unflinching in the face of any sorrow, and 
make it steadfast by the gift of thy power ; that I 
who long have lived obedient to the laws approved 

1 it. whether sorrows are or are not to be my lot. 

349 



PAULINUS PELL.5iUS 

nee vieina magis pro eondicione seneetae 

tempora plus metuam mortis, cui subiacet omnis 

aetas, ambiguae nee me discrimine ^ vitae 

suspectum exagitent varii formidine easus, 

vitari quos posse, deus, te praesule ndo, 610 

sed, quaecumque manet nostrum sors ultima finem, 

mitiget hane spes, Christe, tui conspectus et omnem 

discutiat dubium fiducia eerta pavorem, 

me, vel in hoc proprio mortali corpora duin sum, 

esse tuum, cuius sunt omnia, vel resolutuni 615 

corporis in quacumque tui me parte futurum. 

^ Brandcs : diacrimina, B^, P. 



35° 



THE EUCHARISTICUS 

of thee, and seek to win thy promise of salvation, 
may not too greatly dread the hour of death — now 
nearer by reason of my advanced age, though every 
season of life is subject to him. And at the crisis of 
my changeful life may no idle chances — for these, I 
trust, may be avoided under thy leadership, O God 
— distress me with misdoubtful fears ; but whatever 
lot awaits me at my end let hope of beholding thee, 
O Christ, assuage it, and let all fearful doubts be 
dispelled by the sure confidence that alike while I 
am in this mortal body I am thine, since all is 
thine, and that when released from it I shall be in 
some part of thy body. 



351 



INDEX 



[Note. — Fictitious names are distinguisiied by an asterisk (•). Tiie 
abbreviations Aus., Mt., R. stand for Ausonius, Mountain, River.] 



Abydos, li. 15 

Acliaeans, The, l. 155, 279 

Acliaemenian (Persian), ii. 189 

*Achilas, II. 169. 

Achilles, taught by Cheiron, I. 5 ; 
143, 151, 155, 299; II. 75; 
spear of, 107, 171 

Acilinus of Bordeaux, I. 135 

*Acindynus, ii. 191 

Actium, Battle of, i. 241 

Adam, I. 19, 37 

Adoneus (Bacchus), II. 187 

Adonis, I. 209, 213, 299 ; II. 49. 193 

Adour (R. Aturrus), I. 263 

Aeacus, I. 5, 143, 145, 151, 299 ; 
II. 171 

Aeas of Salamis, I. 209 

Aedui, I. 3, 63, 123 

Aeliiis (see Hadrian) 

Aemilia Aeouia (mother of Aus.), 
I. viii, 61 

Aemilia C'orinthia Maura (grand- 
mother of Aus.), I. ix, 65, 67, 123 

Aemilia Dryadia (aunt of Aus.), 
I. 91 

Aemilia Hilaria (aunt of Aus.), 

I. 67 

Aemilius (Asper), I. 5 

Aeneas, I. 149, 151 ; sons of, 185, 

331, 337 ; II. 41, 187 
Aesculapius, I. 335 
Aesop, II. 7, 39 
Aetna, II. 49 
Afranius, Thais of, I. 287, 371 ; 

II. 203 

.\frica. Province of, II. 295, 296 
Agamemnon, I. 141 ; II. 253 
Aganippe, I. 261 
Agathocles of Sicily, II. 157 
Agen (Aginnum), ii. 105 



AUSONIUS II. 



Agenor, Bull of, I. 191 

Aglaus, I. 319 

AgriciTis, Censorinus Atticus (a 

grammarian), II. 119 
Aisne (R. Axona), I. 261 
Ajax, 1. ] 43 ; II. 253 
Alamanni, Expedition against, I. 

X, xvi 
Alamannicus (Title of Gratian), ii. 

225 
Alani, Alans, I. 29, 51 ; II. 297, 335 
Alba, II. 41, 43 
Alban Sow, II. 55 
Alcaeus, I. 5, 195 
Alcides (Hercules). Ii. 185 
Alcinous, I. 153 ; ii. 15 
♦Alcon, II. 203 
Alectryon, I. 316 and note 
Alethius, Lattnus Alcimus, I. ix, 

101 
Alethius Minervius (rhetorician), 

I. 109 

Alexander the Great, l. 217, 271 ; 

II. 35, 103, 239, 253, 309 
Alexandria, Character and site of, 

I. 271 ; n. 239 
Alisontia (R. Elz), I. 255 
Allobroges, The. I. 281 
Alps, The, II. 107 
Amazon, I. 201 ; il. 171 
Ambivius (actor), ii. 5 
Aminaea (wine of), ii. 45 
Ammon, Libyan Oracle of, II. 211 
Ammonius (grammarian), I. 115 
Amphimachu<, I. 151 
Amphitryo, ii. 75 
Amphrysian (Sibylline) Oracles, 

II. 55 

Amyclae, Silence at, i. 121 ; ii. 115 
Ana (R. Guadiana), II. 105 

353 



INDEX 



Anaballianus, I. 125 

Anacharsis, II. 277 

Anastasius (grammarian), i. 115 

Anchorets, II. 135 

Andromache, l. 299 

Andromeda (constellation), II. 281 

Anicia, Gens, II. 37, 39 

Annii, The, II. 37 

Annianus (writer of fescennine 

verse), I. 391 
Antecanis (constellation), il. 283 
Anthedon, I. 245 
Ajiticyra, ii. 51 

Antilochus (s. of Nestor), i. 145 
Antioch, i. 271 : ii. 239 
AntiphUa, l. 309, 327 
Antoninus Pius, I. 343 ; II. 239, 
263 (see also Caracalla, Helioga- 
balus) 
Aonia, Aonides, I. 261, 363 ; II. 

113, 187 
Aphrodite, I. 185 (see also Venus) 
Apollo, I. 169 ; games of, 197, 323 ; 
II. 45 ; slays the dragon, 91, 105, 
125, 167, 169, 213, 281, 289 
Aponus (Bagni d'Abano), i. 285 
Apuleius, I. 391 
Aquarius (constellation), i. 203 ; 

II. 107, 283 
Aquileia, Maximus slain at, I. 275 
Aquitaine, I. 261, 277, 279, 281 ; 

II. 105 
Ara (constellation), ii. 283 
Arabia, ll. 317 
Arabs, II. 103, 187 
Arborius, Aem. Magnus, i. ix, 61 f., 

79, 81, 123, 129 
Arborius, Caecilius Argicius, I. viii, 

63 
Arcadia, Terence buried in, ii. 43 
Arcadian God (Mercury), ii. 91 ; 

— herd (asses), 159 
Archemorus, i. 193, 195 
Archer, The (constellation), i. 191, 

203 ; II. 283 
Archimedes, i. 247 and note; 

puzzle of, 395 
Architects, The Seven, l. 247 
Arelate : see Aries 
Arethusa, Legend of, i. 270 
Argicius, I. 123 
Argo (constellation), II. 283 
Argos, Argives, I. 145, 149 ; ii. 267 
Ariadne, I. 211 
Arianism, II. 34 

354 



Arion (steed of Adrastus), I. 161 ; 
II. 267 

Aristarchus (Homeric critic), i. 
119, 311 ; II. 45 

Aristides, l. 87, 255 

Aristippus, I. 33 

Aries (Arelate), "two-fold," l. 263; 
described, 277 ; li. 105 

Arrow, The (constellation), n. 233 

Arsaces, ii. 103 

Arsinoe, I. 249 

Ascra, Sage of (Hesiod), Ii. 37 

Asia, I. 149, 153, 301 ; II. 83 

Asper, Aemllius, I. 5 ; II. 45 

Astyana.x, I. 149 

Ataulf (King of the Goths), II. 329, 
331, 333 

Athens, I. 167, 277, 313 

Atlantic, The, i. 235 ; II. 141 

Atlas, Teacher of Hercules, i. 5 ; 
II. 75, 141 

Atreus, I. 141. 143, 145 ; II. 35 

Atropos, I. 77 

Attains, Priscus (Puppet-Emperor), 
II. 297, 327 

Attic Colonization of Ionia, l. 297 

Attusia Lucana Sabina : see Sabina 

Attusia Lucana Tallsia (relative 
of Aus.), I. 85 

Attusius Lucanus Talisius (f. -in- 
law of Aus.), I. 69 

Aturrus : see Adour 

Augeas, Stables of, l. 201 

Augustus : see Gratian, Octavian, 
Theodosius, Yalentinian 

Aurora, ii. 279 

Ausci (Auch), I. 129 

Ausonian, II. 141, 189 

Ausonius (s. of the poet), i. ix, 73 

.A usonius (grandson), II. 69, 73 

Ausonius, D. Magnus, I. vii ; life of, 
viii ff. ; as a Christian, xii ti. ; 
his literary work, xiv ; his 
classical reading, xxix ; effect 
of rhetoric on, xxx ; place as a 
poet, xxxiv ; textual hist, of his 
works, xxxiv ; ancient editions 
of, xx.xvi ; MSS. of, xxxvii 
3, 7, 9, 39, 49 ; Consulship of, 51 
and passim, 53, 73, 103, 259, 261, 
265, 311, 331, 349 ; Consulslup 
of, 351, 371 ; II. 3, 7, 13, 25, 27, 
31, 39, 45, 53, 57, 63, 67, 69, 71 ; 
experience as teacher, 79 ; career 
of, 31, 37, 93, 105, i;9, 125, 131, 



INDEX 



135, 155 ff. : Consulship of, 219 
fl. libique ; 271 It'.; grandfather 
of Paulinus Pellaeus. 295 ; imi- 
tated by Paulinus, 299, 311 

*Auxilius, II. 159 

Avelis (Numidian King), II. 83 

Avernus, I. 241 

Avitianus (brother of Aus.), I. 77 

Axona : see Aisne 



Bacchanals, l. 391 

Bacchus, I. 185, 189, 227, 235, 363 ; 

II. 187 
Baiae, i. 253 ; oysters of. It. 15, 55 
Balbus. I. 315 
Bambola : see Birbillis 
Barbel (in the Moselle), l. 231 
Barcelona, n. 87 ; Punic, 105, 107, 

141 
Bassianus ; sec Caracalla 
Bayeux Baiocassium, i. 105 
Bazas (Cossio Vasatum), I. 3, 43, 

89 ; II. 55, 219, 295 ; besieged, 

297, 301, 331 f. 
Bears, The two (constellations), II. 

281 
Bearwarden, n. 281 
Belcae, I. 281 
Belenus (a Celtic god), I. ix, xxxii, 

105, 115 
Belgae, I. 227, 229, 257, 259, 261 
Bellerophon, Madness of, II. 119, 

135, 137 
Beneventum, II. 201 
Betis (R. Guadalquivir), II. 141 
Bias of Priene, l. 315, 325; II. 

273 
BibUs, II. 287 
Bigone, II. 23, 141 
Bingen : see Vincum 
Birbilis (Bambola), II. 117, 139, 141 
Bird, The (constellation), Ii. 281 
Biscayan, ii. 117 (see Vasconia) 
Bissula, I. xvii, 217, 219 ff. 
Blavia (Blaye), II. 19 
Bleak (fish in the Moselle;, i. 235 
Boeotian, I. 307 
Boii, The, li. 141 • 
Bootes, I. 203 
Bordeaux (Burdigala), i. \iii f., 3, 

43, 69 ; Senate of, 79 ; scholars 

at, 115, 125, 127 ; professors at, 

141 ; described, 243, 285 ; II. 

13, 15, 105, 107, 141, 219, 295 f. ; 



sacked by Goths, 297 f., 301, 311, 

343 
Boreas, II. 281 
Braga (Bracara), I. 277 
Briton, Britons, I. 229, 257; II. 

215 If. 
Bromius, I. 263 
Bull, The (constellation), I. 201 ; 

II. 283 
Byrne, Miss, I. xxii (note), xliii 
Byrsa ( = Carthage), I. 269 
Byzantium, Byzantine, l. 123, 269 : 

oysters of, Ii. 17 
Byzyges (patron of bailiffs), n. 99 



Cadmus, Daughters of (letters), 

II. 51, 57 
Cadurca (Cahors), l. 125 
Caenis, i. 209 : II. 199 
Caesar (Gaius), I. 331, 333 ; 

(Gratian), II. 171 and passim ; 

(JuUus), I. 331, 333, 335 
Caesares, The, Double edition of, 

I. xxiii, 331 

Calagorris (Calahorra), I. 97 ; II. 

117, 139, 141 
Caledonian Tides, i. 179, 229 ; n. 

15 
Calends, The, l. 187, 189 ; ii. 83 
Calenus, II. 271, 287 
Caligula (Gaius Caesar), l. 331, 333, 

337 
Calliope, II. 281, 233 ■ 
Callipio (JuUus), I. 69 
Calpe, II. 81, 141 
Calpurnia, Gens, I. 87 
Calydonian Boar, The, II. 47 
Camenae (Muses), II. 17, 19, 73, 

125 
Camillus and the Gauls, II. 285 
Campania, l. 273 ; ii. 201 
Campus Martins, The, I. 313 ; 

II. 227 

Canace, i. 211 ; Ii. 167 

Cancer, Tropic of, l. 169, 189, 191, 

201 ; II. 283 
Cannae, Battle of, i. 225 
Capaueus, ll. 165 
Capitol, The, Kestorations of, I. 

281 ; II. 287 
Capri, I. 333, 337 
Capricornus, Tropic of, l. 169, 189, 

203 ; II. 283 
Caprotine Nones, I. 197 



355 



INDEX 



Oapua, Ambition and fall of, I. 273, 

275; n. 3 
Caracalla (Emperor), I. 347 
Carautonus (K. Charente), 1. 261 
Caranus, Founder of Macedonian 

Kingdom, li. 83 
Carians, Character of, i. 301 
Carpathian Sea, The, l. 245 
Carthage, I. 269, 275 ; ii. 117, 239, 

296, 311 
*Carus, I. 161 

Cassiopeia (constellation), ii. 281 
Castalian (Muses), II. 131 
Castor, i. (Hero), I. 161 ; ii. 195, 

267 : ii. (Historian), I. 133 ; 

iii. (Flctitio\is), il. 201 
Catalepta or Catalecta of Virgil, I. 

307 
Catamitus (Ganymede), ii. 193 
Catana, Legend of, I. 279 
Cataphronia, Julia (aunt of Aus.), 

I. xxxii, 91 
Catiline, Conspiracy of, ii. 79 
Cato, M. Porcius, i. 87, 255 ; ii. 

287 
Catullus, I. 163, 353 
Catulus, I. 281 ; Consulship of, ii. 

79 
Caucasus, Prometheus on the, i. 

165 
Cecrops, Cecropian, I. 305 ; ll. 103 
Celbis (B. Kyll), I. 253 
Celtic words in Virgil, I. 307 
Censor (Severus — Julianus), I. 87, 

95 
Cento, The Nuptial, I. xvi, xxxiv. 

371 ; composition of, 373, 375, 

377 
Cephalus, l. 209 
C^epheus (constellation), ii. 281 
Cerberus, l. 159, 201, 361 
Ceres, l. 9, 217, 361, 379 ; II. 99 
Cevennes, The (Cebennae), i. 279, 

281 
Chaerea assassinates Caligula, i. 333 
Chalcedon, I. 247 
Chalcidian, ii. 85 
Chamaves, The, r. 259 
Chance (Fors), II. 75 
Charente : see Carautonus 
Charioteer, The (constellation), ii. 

281 
Cheiron (Chiron), teaches Achilles, 

I. 5 ; II. 75, 205 ; (constellation), 

283 



Chilon, I. 315, 321 ; II. 275 
Chimaera, I. 369 ; li. 91 
Chinese ("Chink"), I. 301, 303 
Chios, II. 45 
Choaspes, JR., I. 285 
Choerilus (poet), n. 36 
♦Chrestus, ii. 191 
Christ, I. 35, 39 ; II. 121, 125, 127, 

129, 133, 135 ff., 145 ff., 315 If. 

(pas Htm) 
Chromius (Mysian Hero), i. 153 
Chub, The. found In the Moselle, 

I. 231 

Cicero, M. TulUus, I. 133, 309, 391 ; 

II. 3, 7, 35, 95, 121, 175 ; Con- 
sulship of, 231, 251 

Cicero, Quintus, Verses ascribed to, 

1.201 
Cicones, The, i. 151 
Cilicia, ll. 267 
Cineas of Epirus, I. 121 
Cinyras, li. 49, 193 
Circe, i. 245 

Circus, Factions in, i. 173 
Citarius (grammarian), I. 119 
Cithaeron, l. 363 
Claranus, li. 45 
Clarentius of Xarbonne, I. 127 
Clarian Muses, ii. 171 
Claros, I. 195 

Claudius (Emperor), l. 331, 333, 337 
Clazomenae, ii. 209, 283 
Cleanthes the Stoic, I. 121 
Clemens, T. Flavins, il. 237 
Clementinus (poet), ii. 45 
Cleobulus of Lindos, I. 317, 323 ; 

II. 275 
Cleonae, Lion of, I. 199 
Clio, II. 281 
Clytemnestra, I. 141 
Cnidos, II. 51, 57 ; Venus of, n, 

196 
Colossus of Rhodes, i. 367 
Commodus (Emperor), i. 345 
Communion, ii. 298, 341 
Concordius (grammarian), I. ix, 116 
Condate, II. 61, 143 
Consistory, The Imperial, II. 257 
Constaiitine (Emperor), I. Jx, 

brothers of, 123; II. 237 
Constantinople, I. ix, 63, 97, 123, 

269 ; II. 239 
Constantius (Emperor), II. 249 
Constellations, The, I. 201 ; li. 281, 

283 



356 



INDEX 



Consus. Feast of, i. 199, 277, 297 ; 

n. 199 
Contemtus, Clemens, I. 69 
Cordova (Corduba), I. 277 
Corinth, Gaines at, I. 195 
Corinthius (grammarian), I. ix, 111 
Corrector (Spanish official), I. 91 
Corvinus, Val., II. 235 
Corydon, ii. 187 
Cos, I. 303 

Cossio Vasatum, I. 89 : see Bazas 
Crab (constellation) : see Cancer 
Crates (Homeric critic), ll. 45 
Crebennus, ii. 25, 29 
Cretan Bull, The, i. 201 .—legend, 

211 
*Crispa, n. 203, 207 
Crispns (grammarian), I. 131 
Crocus, I. 209 

Croesus, I. 157, 315, 319, 321 
Crown, The (constellation), II. 281 
Cumae, i. 133, 241, 247, 253 ; 

Sibyl of, II. 181 
Cupid, Crucified, I. 207, 215 ; II. 

207 
Cures, Priest at, i. 133 
Curia, i. 313 
Curius, I. 391 
Cybele, I. 197 note 
Cydonian, ii. 191 
Cynic, Cynics, ii. 157, 185 
Cynosema, i. 155 
Cynthia, I. 51 ; ll. 55 
Cypris ^Venus), ii. 195 
Cyrus and Croesus, I. 319 ; ii. 259 
Cythere (Venus), ii. 189, 195, 213 
Cytherea, i. 385 



Daedalus, l. 211, 247, 301 ; II. 85, 

197 
Dalmatius, i. 125 
Damon, li. 103 
Danaans, The, I. 147, 153 
Danube, R., I. 51, 221 ; li. 171, 

173 ; Frontier of, 223, 243 
Daphne, ii. 213, 215 
Dardanus, i. 135 ; il. 55 
David, I. 23 

Dax (Aquae Tarbellae), i. viii, 3, 65 
Deiphobe (a Sibyl), ii. 181 
Deiphobus, I. 149 
Delos, II. 91 
Delphi, I. 105 ; centre of the 



earth. 147 ; oracle at, 169; 

299 ; Solon's Maxim at, 315 
Delphians. I. 195 
Delphic God (Apollo), i. 317, 321 ; 

II. 127 
Delphirtius, Attius Tiro (rhetori- 
cian), I. ix, xxxii, 105 
Demosthenes, I. 99 ; II. 7 
Deo, II. 49 

Diana, Feast of, I. 197 ; II. 189 
Didius Julianus (Emperor), I. 345 
Dido, II. 289 : see Elissa 
Dindymus, II. 115 
Dinochares, I. 249 
*Diodorus, II. 203 
Diogenes, I. 33, 157 ; ii. 185 
Diomedes. I. 145, 147 ; horses of, 

201 ; II. 101 
Dione, Star of, I. 185 ; II. 207 
Dionysiac Games, I. 199 
Dionysus, I. 377 ; II. 187 
Dis, I. 297, 309 ; II. 159 
Divona (spring at Bordeaux), I. 

285 
Dodona, ii. 115 
Dodra (a drink), ii. 165 
Dog-star, il. 177 
Dolphin, The (constellation), ii. 

281 
Domitian, I. 333, 335, 341 ; ii. 235, 

283 fit. 
Don, R., I. 267 
Dordogne, I. 261 
Draco, Code of, I. 133 
Dragon, The (constellation), I. 203 
Drahonus (R. Thron), I. 253 
Drepanius : see Pacatus 
Dromo (Terentian character), I. 327 
Druentia (R. Durance), t. 263 
Druids, I. ix, 105, 115 
Druna (R. Drome), I. 263 
Dryadia, Aemilia (aunt of Aus.), 

I. 91 
Dryadia, Julia (sister of Aus.), I. 

75, 87, 89 



Eagle, The (constellation), II. 83 

Easter, I. 35 ; It. 13, 19, 298, 341 

Ebora. II. 15 

Ebro, The, II. 141 

Echo, I. 247; ii. 119, 175, 213 

Eelpont, The (found in the Moselle), 

I. 233 
Egeria (nymph), ll. 289 



357 



INDEX 



Egypt, I. 267; Eayptians, ii. 187 

Elias, I. 19 

Elissa (Dido), I. 211, 269 ; ii. 167 

Elysium, l. 143 

Endymiou, Legend of, I. 13, 211 

Ennius, I. 307, 309 

Ennomiis, i. 153 

Enoch, I. 19 

Ephemeris, The, Date of, I. xxi f. 

xxxix 
Ephesup, I. 249 
Ephyra, I. 327 
Epicedion. The, Double edition of, 

I. xxiii, xxvi, xxxv f., xxxix, 

41 ff. 
Epicurean, ii. 169 
Epinaenides, II. 99 
Epirus, Old and K^ew Provinces, ii. 

317 
Epitaphia, The, Double edition of, 

I. xxiii, xxix, 141, 161 
Equina, Festival of, I. 199 and 

note 
Equites, Order of, I. 369 ; li. 227, 

247 
Erasinus, I. 219 
Erato. II. 281 

Eridanus (constellation), ii. 283 
Erigone, I. 157 
Erinyes, I. 369 
Eriphyle, I. 211 
Eros, II. 205 
Erubris (R. Ruwar), Stone sawmills 

on, I. 253 
Erymanthus, Boar of, i. 201 ; Ii. 47 
Ethiopians, I. 295 
Euboea, i. 301 : Euboean 

( = CHmaean), i. 241, 247, 253 
Eiicharisticus, The, authorship of, 

n. 295 ; literary character of, 

299 f. ; historical value of, 301 f. : 

MSS. and editions of, 302 f. : 305 
Euchrotia, executed as a Pris- 

cillianist, I. 107 (note) 
Euclio (in Plautus), i. 353 
Eumenides, II. 211 
•Eumpina, II. 157 
*Eunomus, Ii. 157, 159 
•Eunus, II. 203, 205 
Euphemus (chief of the Cicones), 

I. 151 
Euphorbus, ii. 201 
Euripus ( = aqueduct), i. 283 
EuroDQius (Val. Latinus), i. 77 
Europe, ii. 83 



Euryalus, i. 147 : ii. 101 
Eusebius, I. 81 
Euterpe, Ii. 2S1 
Euxine Sea. li. 173 
Eve, I. 19, 37 
Evenus, l. 391 



Fates, The, I. 361. 385 : II. 69, 75, 

157, 181 
Father, God the, l. 17 ff., 37 ; 

II. 109, 145, 149 
Fauns, i. 237 
Februa (Festival), i. 183 and note, 

185 
Fescennine Songs. I. 387, 391 
Fish. The Great (constellation), il. 

283 
Fishes (constellation), i. 191, 201 ; 

II. 283 
Flaccus : see Horace 
Flavia, Gens, I. 341 
*Fla\inus, i. 135 
Floralia (Feast of Flora), i. 199 
Franks, I. 51, 259 
Fronto, M. Cornelius, II. 237, 239 
Frugi, epithet of L. Calpumius 

Piso, I. 87 



•Gaius. II. 157 

Gains Caesar : see Caligula 

Galba (Emperor), i. 333, 335, 339 

•Galla, II. 175 

Rallius, I. 313 

Callus (Alectryon). I. 361 

Ganges, bird of (Phoenix), i. 361 ; 

II. 87 
Ganymedes, II. 193 
Gargara, II. 115 
Garonne, R.. I. 237, 263, 279 ; 

II. 19. 27, 97, 311 
Garum (a sauce), ii. 89 
Gaul, Prefecture of, l. 5, 47 ; II. 

173, 243, 249 : Old Gaul, 269 
Gaurus, i. 237, 241 
Gedippa, II. 47 

Oenethliacos, The. I. xxi ; II. 69 
Genoni, The, II. 15 
German, Germiins, Germany, i. x, 

259, 263 : II. 225, 269 
Germanici, The. II. 263 
Germanicus (title of Gratian^, n. 

225 



358 



INDEX 



Gervones, l. 201, 369 ; li. 43, 55 

Gestidius, ll. 149 

Getae, l. 51, 301 

Getic Mars, II. 171 

Glabrio, Acilius (grammarian), I. 

135, 137 
Gladiatorial Shows at Funerals, I. 

363 
•Glaucias, II. 193 
Glaucus, Legend of, I. 245 
*Glycera, ii. 181 
God. I. 15 ff., 365, 369 ; II. 109, 127, 

129, 267, 307 ff. (passim) 
Gorgons, The, i. 369 
Gortyn, l. 247 
Goths, Gothic, l. 51, 301 ; II. 171, 

173, 297 ; piUage Bordeaux, 

327, 329, 333, 335, 343, 349 
Gracchus, the Elder, II. 257 
Graces, The, I. 361 ; II. 89 
Gradivus, I. 51 
Gratian (Emperor), taught by Aus., 

I. ix, xi ; dedication of Epi- 
grams tc), xxxviii ; 5, 39, 41 ; 

II. 79, 81 ; as poet-warrior, 169, 
171, 219 ff. (passim) 

Grayling in the Moselle, I. 231 
Greece, II. 285, 337 and passim. 
Greek Rules for drinking, I. 355 ; 

— credit, li. 21, 97 ; — fables, Ii. 

267 ; — invasion of Rome, 285 ; 

— tutors, 315 
Gregorius Proculus, I. xxxv, 207, 

349, 351 
Grivhus, The, I. x. xxviii, xxxiv, 

353 ff. 
Gudgeon in the Moselle, i. 235 
Gunes (hero), l. 147 



Hades, i. 167 

Hadrian, I. 34,) 

Haemus, l. 283 

Hamadryad Kymphs, l. 175, 299 

Hannibal, Relations with Capua, 

I. 275 ; death of, 301 ; II. 117 
Hare, The (constellation), ii. 283 
Harmonia, I. 211 
Harmonius (grammarian), ii. 45 
Harpies, The, i. 369 
Hebromagus (estate of Paulinus 

of Nola), II. 91, 95, 99, 109 
Hecate, l. 361 ; ii. 71 
Hector, l. 149, 151. 153 



Hecuba, l. 155 

Helen, l. 141 ; origin of, 361 ; II. 

195 
Helicon, n. 45 
Heliogabalus (Emperor), i. xix, 

347 
Helle, I. 247 
Helvius : see Pertinax 
Herculanus, Pomponius Maximus 

(nephew of Aus., grammarian), 

I. 81, 117 

Hercules, taught by Atlas, I. 5 ; 

birthday of, 199 ; 363 ; II. 201 
Herculeus (sc. Maximian), Baths of, 

at Milan, I. 273 
Hermaphroditus, II. 199, 213 
Hermes Trismegistus, I. 357 
*Hermione, ii. 211 
Herodotus, I. 129 ; Works of, in 

library of Aus., il. 31 
Herrick, Debt to poem de Rosis, 

II. 271, 281 and note 

Hesiod, I. 173, 203 (note) ; II. 37 
Hesperides, Apples of, I. 201 
Hesperius (s. of Aus.), I. ix, xix, 
xxxv, xxxvi, 75, 331, 349; II. 
61, 67, 71, 91, 295, 296 
Hesperus, I. 239 
Hiberus (R. Ebro), II. 141 
Hippocratas, I. 303 
Hippocrene, II. 45, 91 
Hippolytus, Fate of, I. 165 ; 
= Virbius, 373; significance of 
his name, li. 181 
Hlpponax of Ephesus, II. 283 note 
Hippothous (Trojan War hero), I. 

153 
Hispalis : see SevUle 
Homer, I. 131, 143 ; work of 
Zenodotus and Aristarchus on, 
311 ; II. 43 ; his scattered verses 
collected by Zenodotus (sic), 45 
and note ; read in schools, 77 ; 
171, 231 ; used in schools, 296, 
313 
Horace, imitated by Aus., i. xxix, 
15: 131, 217, 355; read in 
schools, II. 77 
Huns, I. 51 ; II. 171 
Hyacinthus, I. 209 
Hyades, Ii. 43 
Hybla, Bees of, II. 115 
*Hylas, II. 209. 211 
Hylas and the Nymphs, ii. 211 
Hyperion, l. 241 

359 



INDEX 



Iambus, l. 15 ; ii. 91 

*Iapyx, H. 181 

Iberian (Spanish), I. 277, 270 : 

II. 79, 83, Ul 
Icarian Sea, ii. 85 
Icarus, I. 247 ; II. 85 
Ictinus tlie Architect, I. 249 
Iculisma (Angoulfime), II. 31 
Idalia, Julia (cousin of Aus.), I. 93 
Ides, The, l. 187, 189, 197; an 

auspicious day, ii. 71 
*Idmon, II. 181 
Ilerde, li. 117, 139 ; see also 

Lerida 
Iliad, The, read in schools, II. 77, 

313 
Ilithyia, i. 181 
Ihum, I. 149, 2.55 
Illibanus (an unknown king), ii. 83 
Illyricum, Illyria, etc., Prefecture 
of, I. xi, 47, 233, 275 ; II. 171, 
249, 269 
Indians and Dionysus, Ii. 187 
lo, Wanderings of, I. 299 
Ionia colonised from Attica, I. 279 
Isis, Feast of the Bark of. I. 199 ; 

Sistra of, II. 115 
Ismarus, I. 237 
Isocrates, ii. 7 
Ister (R. Danube), I. 233, 259 : 

see also Danube 
Isthmian Games, The, l. 195 
Italy, Prefecture of, I. xi, 5, 47, 

257, 275 
Itys, II. 205 
lulus, II. 41 
Ixion, I. 299 (note) 



Janus, I. 49 ff., 183, 185, 189, 191, 

333 ; II. 83 
Jocasta, I. 363 (note) 
Jordan, 11., I. 39 
Jove : see Jupiter 
Jovinus, II. 47 

Jucundus (grammarian), I. 113 
Judgment, The Last, II. 145 
Juhan (Emperor), i. 101 
Julian (? a freedman), XI. 11 
Julius : see Caesar 
Juniadae (sons of Junius Brutus), 

I. 363 and note 
Juno, I. 185, 189, 361, 385 
Jupiter, Jove, l. 149, 165, (Planet) 

175, 183, 193, 195, 205, 297, 301 ; 



Stygian Jove (Dis), 307, 361 ; 

Pheidias' statue of, ii. 175 ; 

Jove and Ganymedes, 193, 195, 

203 
Juturna, i. 165 
Juvenal ((noted by Aus., i. 391 
.luvencus, ii. 299 
Juventa, i. 185, 299 



Lacedemon, Armed Aphrodite at, 
II. 193 

Lachesis, I. 133 

Laconian : see Spartan 

Laelius, II. 103 

Laertes, i. 143, 147 ; son of — : see 
Ulysses 

Luevius, Erotopaegnia of, I. 391 

*Lais, II. 179, 181, 195, 205 

Laodamia, I. 211 and note 

Lapith (Ixion), i. 299 

Lar, I. 297 

Larissa, I. 143 

Larunda, I. 297 

Lascivus : see Leoutius 

Latium, l. 275 ; II. 77, 28.5 

Latmus, I. 211 

Laverna, Ii. 53 

Leda, ii. 195 

Leman, Lake, i. 281 

Leo (constellation), I. 49, 157, 

203 ; II. 283 
Leontius Lascivus (grammarian), 

I. Ill, 113 
Lepidus, II. 79 
Lerida (Herda), I. 135; II. 117, 

139, 141 
Lesura (R. Lieser), I. 253 
Leto, II. 71 
Leucus, I. 211, 241 
Libanus, Mt., I. 303 
Liber Pater (Bacchus), I. 199, 217, 

241 ; II. 187 
Libs (S.W. wind), l. 297 
Libya, l. xi, 5, 47, 91, 309 ; n. 

83, 287 
Libyan Amraon, ii. 211 ; — Sea, 

281, 299 
Liger (R. Loire), l. 261 
Liguria, II. 267 

Ligurians, Character of, i. 301 
Livy, I. 129 
Locriaus, The, i. 133 
Love, I. 211 tf. 



360 



INDEX 



Lucaniacus (villa of Au3.), I. Ill 

and note ; ii. 61, 95, 99, 143 

(Lucanus), 187 
Lucanian Oxen (elephants), II. 31 

and note 
Lucifer, I. 383 
Lucilius, I. 33; ii. 61, 201 
Lucina, I. 187, 385 
Luciolus (rlietorician), I. 103 
♦Lucius, I. 159; nickname for the 

pike, 233 
Lucretia, II. 137 
Lugudunum (Lyons), I. 63 ; ii. 

237 
Luna, I. 211 ; U. 59, 81 
Lupodunum (? Ladenburg), Battle 

of, I. 259 
Lyaeus, I. 237 ; ii. 17 
Lycia, ii. 135, 267 
Lycian (Sarpedon), I. 149 
*Lycus, II. 209, 211 
Lydia, Lydians, I. 301, 319 
Lygos ( = Byzantium), l. 260 
Lyre, The (con.stellation), ii. 281 
Lyrna, Hydra of, l. 201 



Macedonia, Province of, II. 295, 

296. 298 
Macrinus (grammarian), i. ix, 115: 

Opilius — , 347 
Maeander, R., I. 305 
Maenad, ll. 215 
Mantua, Birthplace of Virgil, I. 

255 
Manuscripts of Ausonius, their in- 
terrelation, xxxvii, xli. 
Marcellus (grammarian), I. 217 
*Marcius, I. 159 

Marcus ( = M. Ter. Varro), I. 247 
•Marcus, n. 159, 165, 167, 201, 203 
Marcus Aurelius (Emperor), I. 343 
Mareotic ( = Egyptian), n. 115 
•Marius, i. 159 ; G. — , II. 235, 239 
Marne, R. (Matrona), I. 261 
Maro : see Virgil 
Maroialum (Bagueres de Bigorre), 

II. 141 
Mars, I. 9, 151, 165, 183, 185, 189, 

205, 281, 291, 297, 361, 367 ; 

horses of, ii. 101, 171, 185 ; 

— Gradivus, 195 
Marseilles (Massilia), Oysters of, ii. 

15 ; Paulinus Pell, at, 298, 345, 

347 



Martial, I. 391 ; li. 271 
Matrona : see Marne 
Maura, Aemilia Corinthia (grand- 
mother of Aus.), I. ix, 67 
Maximus (Pretender), i. xi f., 
xxii, 107 and note : slain at 
Aquileia, 275 ; II. 67 (note) 
May, Etymology of, I. 183, 185 
Medes, Median, i. 285 ; II. 103 
Medoc (Meduli), Oysters of, it. 15, 

45, 47, 55, 59 
Megalesia (festival), I. 197 
3Iegentira (niece of Aus.), I. 87 
Melanla, Aemilia (sister of Aus.), 

I. 93 
Meleager, il. 47 
Meliboean purple, I. 381 
Melicertes, I. 195 (note) 
Melo ( = Egypt), Ii. 51 
Melpomene, Ii. 281 
Memphian ( = Egyptian), I. 251 
Menander, I. 391, 393 ; read in 

schools, II. 77 
Menecrates (architect), I. 249 and 

note 
Menelaus, I. 131, 143 ; II. 231 
Menestheus (grammarian), I. Ill 
Mercury, I. 183 ; festival of, 197 ; 

patron of thieves, 203, 303 ; 

festival of, Ii. 71. 175, 213 
Merida, II. 105 

*Meroe, II. 181 ; city in Nubia, ib. 
Metanoea (regret), Ii. 77 
Metellus, i. 159 ; n. 241 
Metiscus (charioteer of Turnus), 

II. 29 

Meton of Athens, Cycle of, II. 67 

Midas, I. 35 

Milan (Mediolanum), Buildings of, 
I. 273 

Milton, John, Ii. 301 

Minerva, Citadel of (the Acropolis), 
I. 249 ; II. 169, 189, 197 

Jlinervius, Tib. Victor (rhetori- 
cian), I. 97 

Minos, I. 133, 211, 303; II. 199 

Mirmillo (gladiator), I. 303 

Mitylene, l. 327 ; II. 273 

Mnemosynae (sic, = Muses), I. 
363 ; II. 25, 49 

Moneta, Temple of, n. 287 

Moon, The, I. 183, 205, 211 ; see 
also Luna 

Moselle, R., I. xvii f., xxxi, 227 ff. : 
fish of, 231 tf. ; vineyards of. 



361 



INDEX 



235 ff . ; scenery on, 237 f. ; aqua- 
tic sports on, 239 f. ; fishing on, 
243 f. ; country-houses by, 245 
ff. ; tributaries of, 253 ff. ; 
the Mostlie praised by Sym- 
machus, 265, 267; 271 ; II. 67 

Muraena, Theatre of, I. 313 ; 
Augurship of, 355 

Muses, The, l. 361 ; II. 27, 73, 87, 
91, 119, 131, 155, 167, 169, 171, 
187, 189 ; names of, 281 ; 289 

Mycenae, II. 253 

Mylae (=Mj'lasa), Battle of, i. 
241 and note 

•Myron, ii. 179 ; — the sculptor 
(Heiffer of), II. 195 fT. 

Mysja, I. 153 



Naiads, u. 211 

Xar (R. Nera), I. 297 

Narbonne, Province of, i. 63 : citv 

of, 127, 129, 277 ; described, 28i; 

II. 15, 105 
Narcissus, I. 209, 299 : II. 211, 213 
Naso : see Ovid 

Nastes (hero of Trojan War), I. 151 
Xava (R. Nahe), I. 225 
Nazarius (rhetorician), I. 121 
Nealces (arti.st), I. 355 
Nechepsos (Egyptian king), II. 85 
Nemausus (NJmes), I. 285 
Nemean Games, I. 195 ; II. 267 
Nemesa (R. Nims), I. 253 
Nemesis, I. 53, 255 ; li. 79 : wor- 

sliipped at Rhamnus, 103 : 107, 

183, 195 
Nepa ( = Scorpio), I. 203 
Nephela, i. 247 
Nepos, Chronicles of, ii. 33 
Nepotianus (grammarian), I. 121 
Neptunalia, I. 199 
Neptune, I. 9 ; builder of Trov, 

149, 195, 199 
Nereus, I. 245 

Nero, I. 331, 333, 335, 337 ; II. 237 
Nerva (Emperor), i. 341 
Nestor, l. 131, 145, 361 ; 11. 35, 

181, 231 
Nicer (R. Neckar), l. 257 ' 

Nile, R., I. 241, 267, 271 ; II. 171, 

175, 181 
Niobe, I. 155 ; n. 193 
Nisus, II. 101 



Noiomagus (Neumagen), I. 225, 

note 
Nola, II. 203 
Nomion (hero), I. 151 
Nones, The, I. 187 ; Caprotine — , 

197 
Novarus (hamlet in Aqiiitaine), II. 

107 
Novempopulonia, l. 63, 129 
Numa, estabhshes the Parentalia, 

I. 57, 59 ; 133 ; establishes the 

Februa, 183, 185; montli of 
. (February), 189, 191 ; — and 

Egeria, n. 289 
Numantia, reduced by Scipio, ii. 

287 
Numidians, II. 255 
Nymphs, of the Moselle, i. 231, 

237 ; — and Hylas, li. 211 



Oceanus, lather of Alcinous, l. 153 ; 

(the Atlantic), 283 ; U. 141 
Octa%ian (Emperor), r. 9, 315, 335 ; 

consulships of, ii. 235 
Odryssian Mars, ii. 171 
Odyssey, The, l. 143 ; U. 313 
Oebalus, Oebalian, i. 209, 299 ; 

II. 115 
Ogyges, Founder of Thebes, n. 187 
Olenus, II. 47 

Olympia, Stadium at, ll. 209 
Olympian Games, The, I. 195 
Ops (Rhea), Feast of, 1. 197, 297, 359 
Oratory, Three styles of, i. 367 
Orcus, II. 49 
Oreads, I. 237 
Orestes, i. 147 ; U. 103 
Orion (constellation), II. 283 
Orpheus, Tripod of, I. 367 
Osiris, II. 187 
Ostia, I. 197 
Ostomachia (a picture-puzzle), i. 

375, 395 tf. 
Ostrich egg-shell used as a cup, 

II. 23 
Otho (Emperor), l. 333, 335, 339 
Ovid, Metamorphoses of, II. 199 



Pacatus, Drepanius, l. xxiii, 163, 

287, 293. 309, 311 
Padus (R. Po), II. 91, 101 
Paean (Apollo), il. 213 
Paestum, Koses of, Ii. 277 



362 



INDEX 



Palaemon, I. 103 

Palamedes. I. 307 

Pallas, Strife of. with Poseidon for 
Attica. I. 277 ; statue of, by 
Piieidias, II. 175; 103 

Pan, Pans, I. 237, 207 

Panaetius of Rliodes, II. 287 (note) 

Panatkenaicus of Isocrates, The, 
I. 09 

Pangaean Hills, The, I. 237 

Pannonians, The, II. 173 bis 

Panope, I. 237 

Paphian, The (Venus), II. 211, 279 

Paphos, II. 279 

Papia, Lex, ii. 209 

Paradise, I. 41 

Parcae : see Fates 

Parentalia, Tlie, I. xx, xxxiv, 57 ff. 

Parian marble, I. 281, 283 

Paris, II. 21, 93 

•Parmeno, I. 13, 15 

Parnassus, l. 195 ; Parnassian, il. 
299 

Parthenias {sc. Virgil), I. 393 

Parthian darts, II. 91 

Pasiphae, I. 211, 303 ; II. 197, 199 

Pastor (grandson of Aus.), I. 75 

Patera, Attius (rhetorician), I. 
103, 109, 121 

Paul, St., I. 41 

Pauliacos (?Pauliac, a villa of 
Aus ) II 59 

Paulinus of Nola, on literary 
value of Aus., I. vii ; relations 
with Aus., xiii, xxiii ; corre- 
spondence with Aus. and life, 
xxiv ; dedication of Techno- 
■paegnion to, 289 ; author of 
poem on the Emperors, II. 81 ; 
87. 89. 91, 93, 99, 101, 105, 107, 
109, 111, 113, 110, 125, 131, 135 ; 
prayer of. 149 ; 295, 299 

Paulinus of Pella, History of, II. 
295 ff. ; Eiicharisticus of, 299 ff. 

Paulus, Axius (rhetorician), I. 219, 
371, 391 ; II. 13, 17, 21, 23, 25, 
27, 35, 271 

Pegasus, I. 161, 355; li. 91, 135, 
267: (constellation), 281 

Peirithoiis, li. 101 

Peleus, II. 75 

Pella, II. 83, 103, 296, 309 

Pelops, I. 195 and note 

PeloTus, I. 241 

Pelusian ( = Egyptian), i. 297 



Penance, ll. 341 

Penelope, ii. 15 

Perch in the Moselle, i. 233 

Perfect Number, The, I. 365 

*Pergamus, ii. 179 

Periander of Corinth, I. 317, 327 

II. 275 
Persephone, II. 193 
Perseus, II. 91 ; (constellation), 281 
Persians, i. 271, 319 : II. 103, 183 
Pertinax (Emperor), I. 345 
Perusia, Famine and siege of, II. 

99 and note 
Phaeacians, The, I. 303 
Phaedra, l. 211 ; II. 167 
Phaethon, Fate of, n. 101 
Phaenon (i.g. Saturn), i. 175 
Phalaecus, II. 51, 283 
Phanaces (Mysian Bacchus), n. 187 
Phaon (Sappho's lover), I. 211 ; 

II. 167 
Pharos at Alexandria, Pharian, I. 

240. 251 
♦Phegeus, ii. 209, 211 
Pheidias the sculptor, ii. 175 
Philo (Athenian architect), i. 247 ; 

(Bailiff of Aus.), ii. 93 
Philomela. I. 301 
*Philomusus, il. 161 
Philopoemen, Death of, l. 299 and 

note 
Phlegethon, R., II. 215 
Phoebe (the Moon), I. 175 
Phoebicius (grammarian), i. 115 
Phoebus, I. 55, 105, 181, 193, 225, 

271, 299, 325, 361, 363 ; II. 17, 

169, 215, 281 
Phoenix, The, l. 173, 361 ; II. 87 
Phormio of Terence, II. 97 
Phosphorus (a race-horse), I. 159 
Phrixus, Ram of, I. 189 
Phrygian marble, I. 229 : — char- 
acter, 301 
Phyllis, II. 167 ; *— , 203, 205 
Picenum, II. 61 

Pieria, Pierian, I. 257 ; ir. 10, 25 
Pike in the Moselle, I. 233 
Pimpla, II. 29 

Pindar, I. 323 ; Pindaric, II. 31 
Pisa (in Elis). I. 195 
Pitana (in Sparta), II. 183 
Pittacus of Mitylene, I. 315, 327 ; 

II. 273 
Planets, Influence of the, l. 179 
Plato, I. 139, 343, 355, 391 ; II. 296 



363 



INDEX 



Plautiis, Plautine, I. 371 : H. 17, 

Pleiades, The, II. 43 
Pleisthenes, son of: see Menehun 
Pleuronia, i. 147 
Pliny the Younger, i. 391 ; the 

Elder, II. 199 
Poictiers, I. 115, 117 
Poiteau, ll. 141 
Pollux, II. 195 
Polydorus (hero), I. 151 
*Polygiton, II. 215 
Polymnia (Muse), Ii. 281 
Poly.\eaa (dau. of Priam), I. 155 
Pomona, I. 49, 183 ; II. 107 
Pompey the Great, I. 315 
Pomponius Maximus (brother-in- 
law of Aus.), I. 79 
Pontiflces, Code of, I. 133 
Pope, Windsor Forest of, I. 239 note 
Portumnus, I. 195 
Praxiteles (sculptor), ii. 193, 195 
Priam, I. 147 note, 153, 155 ; ii. 

55 
Priene, i. 315, 325 
Priscillianist Martyrs, I. xxi, 107 

note 
Probus, M. Valerius, I. 5, 121, 129 ; 

— , Sex. Petronius, l. xvii, 257 

and note ; II. 33 and note, 37, 41 
Procopius, Revolt of, I. 107 note 
Procris, I. 209 
Proculus : see Gregorius 
Professores, The, i. xx f., xxxiv, 97 

ff. 
Promea (R. Priim), I. 253 
Prometheus, I. 165, 299 
Propontis, li. 17 
Proserpine, I. 213 
Protesilaus, I. 147 ; Ii. 181 
Protrepticus, Tlie, II. 71 
Provence, l. 281 
Ptolemy, I. 249 
Pudentilla, Namia (sister-in-law of 

Aus.), I. 83 
Punic, I. 345 ; — wars, 361 ; - faith, 

II. 21 
Pylades, li. 103 
Pyleus (hero), i. 153 
Pyrene, I. 261 ; Pyrenees, 279 ; ii. 

105, 107, 117, 139 
Pyrois (the planet Mars), i. 175 ; 

II. 55 
Pyrrhus (s. of Achilles), i. 147; 

(King of Epirusl, 299 note 



Pythia, Cave of the, i. 217 
Pythian Games, The, i. 195 
Pythagoras of Samos. " Two Ways " 
of, I. 117, .305 and note ; "Yea 
and Nay " of, l. 171 f., Ii. 117 
Pythagoreans, l. 163 ; massacre 
of, 167, 169 



Quinquatrus (Feast of Pallas), I. 197 

Quintilis (July), I. 183 

Quintilian, M. Fabius, I. 97, 99, 

257 : II. 237 
Quirinus, I. 49, 351 ; II. 105, 143 
(iuirites, i. 133 



Ram, The (constellation), li. 283 
Raraunum (Raum), ii. 141 
Regifugium, Festival of, I. 197 
Regulus, Minucius (brother-in-law 

of Aus.), I. 85 
Remiis, II. 185 

Rhamnus. Nemesis of, II. 103, 107 
Rhea, i. 295, 359 

Rhine, The, I. 221, 257, 259, 271, 
283 ; II. 39 ; frontier of, 223 ; 
269 
Rhodauus : see Rhone 
Rhodes, Oratory of, I. 367 ; Colos- 
sus of, ib. ; II. 287 
Rhodope, I. 133, 237 
Rhone, R.. I. 263, 277, 281 
Rhopalic Verse, l. 39 and note 
Ripa Dextra (a quarter of Aries), 

I. 263 
Roach in the Moselle, l. 231 
Roman education, ii. 313 
Rome, I. 49, 109, 129, 255, 269, 
273, 285, 331, 347, 351, 367, 
377 ; II. 43, 59, 87, 141, 143, 239, 
285, 296, 311, 317 
Romulus, sons of, I. 297, 313 ; ii. 
37, 103, 185, 287 ; (a gram- 
marian), T. ix, 111 
Roscius (actor), II. 5 
Rubrius, Banquet of, in Cicero, i. 

355 
Rudiae, Birthplace of Ennius, I. 309 
•Rufus, II. 161, 163, 193 - 
Rumour, II. 143, 153, 269 
Rutupiae (port of Richborough), 
I. G9, 83, 275 



364 



INDEX 



Sabiiia, Attnsia Lucana (wife of 

Au?.). I. ix, xxvii ; lament for, 

71 f.. 85 ; 11. 181, 189 
Sacred Mount, the, I. 367 
Sages, The Seven, l. 61, 311 ff. ; 

11. 97, 273 S. 
Saguntum, Siege and destruction 

of, I. 165 ; II. 99 
Salamis, I. 209 
^^alian fare, II. 15 
Sallust the historian, ii. 11 ; read 

in scliools, 79 ; 83, 239 ; (fourth 

century colleague of Julian), i. 

103 
Salmacis, ii. 199, 213 
Salmon in the Moselle, i. 233 
Salmona (R. Salm), I. 253 
Salonika (Thessalonica), II. 309 
Samian Ware, II. 157 
Sanctus, Fla^ius (relative of Aus.), 

I. 83 

Santones (people of Salutes), I. 85 ; 

II. 13, 23, 25, 27, 31, 105 
Sapphic Metre, The, l. 15 
Sappho, I. 209 ; II. 53, 167, 187 
Saragossa (Caesarea Augusta^, II. 

107, 141 
Saravus (B. Saar), I. 231, 253 
Sardanapalus, I. 165 
Sarmatians, I. 51, 225 
Sarpedon of Lycia, I. 149 
Sarran (Tyrian) fabrics, I. 29 
Saturn, I. 165, 183; feast of, 199; 

205 : castrates Uranus, 299 ; 

II. 199 
Saturnalia, The, i. 197 
Satyrs, i. 237 
Sauromatae, n. 171 
Scaean Oate at Troy, I. 149 
Scales, The (constellation), I. 191, 

203 ; II. 283 
Scarabaeus, II. 201 
Scatinia, Lex, II. 209 
Scaurus, Q. Ter.. I. 5, 121, 129; 

II. 45 
Scipio, II. 103, 287 
Scorpion, The (constellation), i. 

191 ; II. 283 
Scylla, I. 369 
Scytale (Spartan cipher-device), ii. 

Ill 
Scythia. i. 267 ; Scythian Sea 

( = The Euxine), II. 175 
Sedatus (rhetorician), 1. 127 
Sedulius, n. 300 



Seleucus, Founder oi Antioch. I. 271 

Semele, i. 209 

Seueca, ll. 237 

Seplasia (a quarter of Capua), ii. 

203 
Sequani, The, n. 269 
Serpent (the Devil), I. 19 
Sertorius, ii. 79, 117 
Sesostris, li. 85 
Sestos, I. 209, 247 
Severus Censor Julianus, I. 87 
Severus, Septimius (Emperor), 1. 

345 
SevUle (HispaUs), l. 277 
SextUis (August), I. 189 ; il. 71 
Shad in the Moselle, I. 235 
Sheat, fish in the Moselle. I. 235 
Sibyl, Sibyls, The Three, i. 369 : 

II. 181 and note 
Sicily, I. 133, 361 ; SiciUan Medim- 

nus, 363 : II. 157, 177 
Sicoris (B. Segre), II. 117 
Sidonian, II. 311 
Sigalion (Harpoerates), II. 115 
Sigeum, I. 143, 147 
Sigillaria, Feast of, I. 199 
Significance of names, I. 147, 149 ; 

n. 181 
Silvius (son of Aeneas), Ii. 41 ; 

(a Briton), II. 215 ff. 
Simols, R., I. 255 
Simonides of Ceos, i. 119 
Sipylus, Mt., I. 155 
Sirens, The, I. 121, 361 
Sirius (constellation), I. 49 ; ii. 283 
Sirmium, II. 243 
Siwa, Oasis of, Ii. 211, note 
Smyrna, i. 255 : li. 287 
Snake-holder, The (constellation), 

II. 283 
Socrates, II. 313 
Solon, Laws of, I. 133 ; — and 

Croesus, 315, 317 ; n. 275 
Son of God, The, II. 109 
*8osias, I. 23, 25 ; (in Terence), 

n. 9 
Sotades, ii. 29 
Spain, Spanish, ii. 109, 117, 139, 

141 
Spartan brevity, I. 265, 321 ; 
— cipher, II. Ill ; — brevity, 
117 ; — stoicism, 183 
Spercheus (grammarian), i. Ill 
Sphinx of Thebes, The, i. 301, 363 
Spirit, The Holy, l. 19, 37 



365 



INDEX 



Staphylius (rhetorician), i. 129 

Steplien, I. 41 

Sthenelus, I. 147 

Stilboii (tlie plauet Mercury), l. 1 75 

Stoic, 11. 169 

Stymphalus, Birds of, I. 201 

Styx, Stygian, l. 169, 297 ; II._ 193 

Sucuro (grammarian), I. ix, 115 

Suessa (birthplace of Lucilius), II. 

31 
Suetonius, i. 331, 337 ; It. 81, 83 
SuUa, II. 239 
Sulpicia (poetess), l. 391 ; II. 271, 

283 
Sun, The, i. 183, 205 ; Ii. 81, 101 
Sura (R. Sauer), I. 253 
Swabian, Suebi, I. 219 ; II. 173 
Syagriu.s, l. 7 
Symmachus, Q. Aurelius, I. vii, 

XXXV, 265 ; II. 3, 7, 9, 11 
Syracuse, l. 247, 279 



Tabernae (Berncastel), I. 225 
Tables, The Twelve, I. 365 
Tagus, R., II. 105 
Tanaquil (wife of Tarquin), I. 9o ; 

II. 113, 137 
Tantalus, l. 195 
Tarbellae, Aquae, I. 65, 123, 263; 

II. 109; see also Dax 
Tarentum, Games at, I. 363 
Tarnes (R. Tarn), I. 263 ; II. 97 
Tarpeiau Rock, The, I. 363 
Taniuin, I. 281 
Tarrac!ona (Tarraco), I. 91, 277 ; 

II. 107, 141 
Tartessus, II. 17 ; Tartesian, 81 
Taurinus (a provincial), U. 47 
Technopaegnion, The, I. xxviii ; 

double edition of. xxxv ; xl ; 287, 

289 ff. 
Telles (or Tellos), the Athenian, 

I. 319 
Tench in the Moselle, I. 235 
Terence, I. 323, 327, 329 ; burled 

in Arcadia, ii._ 43 ; read in 

schools, n. 77, 97 
Tereus, i. 105, 301 (note) 
Terpsichore, ll. 29, 281 
Tethys, l. 245 

Tetradius (grammarian), II. 31 
Tetrici, The, I. viii, 65 
Teutosagi, The, I. 281 



Textual History of Ausonius' 

Poems, I. xxxiv f. 
Thais of Afranius, I. 287 
Thalassius (son-in-law of Aus.), 

II. 11, 290 
Thalassus (grammarian), i. 117 
Thales of Miletus, I. 317, 323 
Thalia, n. 29, 281 
Theano (wife of Pythagoras), i. 95 
Theatres in Greece used for de- 
liberation, I. 313 
Thebes, I. 155, 195 ; festival of 

Dionysus at, 363 
Themis, I. 133, 295 
Theodosius (Emperor), overthrows 

Maximus, I. xii ; asks for poem.s 

of Aus., xxxvi, 7, 9 
Theon of M6doc, I. xxxiii ; ii. 45, 

53, 59 
Therasia (wife of Paulinus of Jfola), 

II. 113 note, 119, 137 
Theseus, li. 47, 101, 181 
Thessalonica, II. 309 
Thisbe, I. 211 
Thrace, Thracian. — cruelty, 1. 151, 

291 ; — priest, 379 ; —Amazons, 

II. 171 ; 267 
Thrasybulus (Spartan warrior), Ii. 

183 
Thucydides, Bisiory of, II. 31 
Thymele, l. 219 
Thyone, i. 373 
Tiber, I. 197, 255 
Tiberius, Nero Claudius (Emperor). 

I. 331, 333, 335, 337 
Tilianus, Codex, I. xxxvii 
Timavus (R. Timao), l. 285 
Timon of Athens, I. 167 
Tiresias, Ii. 199 

Titan (the Sun), I. 175 ; n. 55, 81 
Titia, Lex, ii. 209 
Titianus, Julius, the Fables oi, n. 

33, 237 
Titus (Emperor), I. 333, 335, 341 ; 

saying of, li. 261 
Toulouse (Tolosa), I. 63, 123, 125, 

127, 279 ; II. 105 
Trajan (Emperor), I. 343 ; remits 

arrears of taxation, II. 261, 265 
Tranquillus, see Suetonius 
Treves (Augusta Treverorum), I. 

xii, XX, 207 ; Senate of. 257 ; 

described, 271 ; n. 41. 67, 239 
Triangle, Forms of, I. 365 ; (con- 
stellation), n. 281 



366 



INDEX 



Tribunes, derivation of the title, 

I. 367 

Trinity, The, analogous with the 
Three Emperors, I. 37; 369 

Triptolemus, II. 99 

Tritonia (Athene), ii. 169 

Troilus, I. 151 

Trojan War, the. Heroes of, 1. 141 ; 
length of, n. 55 

Tropics, The two, I. 53 

Tros, son of Dardanus, i. 301 

Trout, I. 231 

Troy, I. 149, 151, 153, 155 ; II. 181 

Tully : see Cicero 

Tuscan Sea, The, n. 141, 311 

Twins, The (constellation), i. 201 ; 

II. 283 
Tydeiis, il. 253 

Tyndareus, reputed father of 
Castor, Pollux, and Helen, I. 
143 ; n. 195 

Tynan fabrics, n. 189 

Tyrrhenian : see Tuscan 



Ulysses, I. 121, 131, 143, 147 ; n. 

35, 107 ; bow of, 107, 231, 313 
Urania, n. 281 
Urbica, Pomponia (relative by 

marriage of Aus.), I. 95 
Urbicus (grammarian), I. 131 
Ursinus (a provincial), II. 47 
Ursulus (grammarian), II. 41, 45 



Vacuna, II. 53 

Valens (Emperor), n. 173, 175 ; 

death of, 243 
Valentinian I. (Emperor), I. x, 371 ; 

n. 173, 261 
Valentinian II. (Emperor), i. xi ; 

birth of, xvii ; II. 173 
Valentinus, I. 79 
Vallebana (unknown), II. 199 
Varro (M. Terentius), l. 129, 357 ; 

II. 45 
Vasconia (Basque country), il. 117, 

139 
Veneria, Julia, aunt of Aus., i. 93 
Venetia, n. 269 

Venus (planet), I. 175, 183 ; (god- 
dess), 205, 213, 215, 241, 291, 299. 

381, 393 ; n. 49, 167, 169, 187, 



189; represented as armed at 

Sparta, 193, 195, 279 
Venus' Haven (Port Vendres), n. 15 
Veria Liceria, i. 79 
Verona, l. 63 
Vespasian (Emperor), I. 333, 335, 

339; II. 261 
Vesta, I. 361 ; II. 257 
Vestal Virgins, II. 55 
Vesuvius, I. 241 
Victoria, II. 169 
Victorinus (one of the " Thirty 

Tjrrants "), I. viii, 65 
Victorius (grammarian), I. 133 
Vienne (Vienna), I. 63, 277 ; n. 

105 
Vincum (Bingen), I. 225 
Virbius ( = Hippolytus), I. 373 
Virgil, I. 131, 133, 149, 207, 209, 

267 ; Catalepta of, 307 ; Bucolics 

of, 309, 371, 387, 393 ; n. 7 ; 

birthday of, 71 ; read in schools, 

77, 121, 296, 299, 313 
Virgin, The (constellation), ii. 283 
Visontio (BesanQon), ii. 237 
Vitellius (Emperor), i. 333, 335, 339 
Vivisci (Bituriges, dwelling about 

Bordeaux), I. 259 
Vonones (Parthian King), II. 83 
Vossianus, Codex, I. xxxvii. 
Vulcan, Festival of, 197, 251 ; 355, 

393 

Wain, The (constellation), I. 203 
Water-Snake, The (constellation), 

II. 283 
Whale, The (constellation), n. 283 
Word of God, The, l. 17, 23, 37 
Wordsworth, Wm., Laodameia of, 

I. 211 note 

Xenophon, Cyropaedia of, n. 257 
Xerxes, I. 247, 285 

Zaleucus (the Locrian Lawgiver), 
I. 133 

Zenodotus (Homeric critic), i. 119, 
311 ; " collects " the scattered 
remains of Homer, li. 45 

Zodiac, Signs of the, n. 283 

•Zoilus, II. 209 

Zoilus of Treves, I. 207 



367 



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